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Counterinsurgency in Pakistan

by Seth G. Jones C. Christine Fair

Pakistan has undertaken a number of operations against militant groups since 2001. There have been some successes, but such groups as al Qa'ida continue to present a significant threat to Pakistan, the United States, and other countries. Pakistan needs to establish a population-centric counterinsurgency that better protects the local population and addresses grievances. It also needs to abandon militancy as a tool of foreign and domestic policy.

The Lessons of Mumbai

by Peter Chalk Angel Rabasa Kim Cragin C. Christine Fair Robert D. Blackwill

This study of the Mumbai, India, terrorist attack of November 2008 identifies the operational and tactical capabilities displayed by the terrorists and evaluates the response of the Indian security forces, with the goal of helping counterterrorism authorities in India and elsewhere to prepare for or counter future terrorist attacks on urban centers.

Limited Conflicts Under the Nuclear Umbrella: Indian and Pakistani Lessons from the Kargil Crisis

by C. Christine Fair Jamison Jo Medby Ashley J. Tellis

This report examines the views of India and Pakistan on the significance of Pakistan's foray into the Kargil-Dras sector in a limited war that has come to be known as the Kargil conflict. The goal of the analysis is to assess both combatants' perceptions of the crisis, with a view to evaluating the possibilities of future Kargil-like events and the implications of the lessons each country learned for stability in South Asia. The analysis is based almost exclusively on Indian and Pakistani source materials. The Kargil crisis demonstrated that even the presence of nuclear weapons might not appreciably dampen security competition between the region's largest states. However, the question remains of whether or not the Kargil war represents a foretaste of future episodes of attempted nuclear coercion if India and Pakistan believe that their nuclear capabilities provide them the immunity required to prosecute a range of military operations short of all-out war.

Married to the Military: The Employment and Earnings of Military Wives Compared with Those of Civilian Wives

by Craig Martin C. Christine Fair James Hosek Beth J. Asch Michael Mattock

Focusing on military wives' contribution to family income, the authors find that, in contrast to civilian wives, military wives are willing to accept lower wages rather than search longer for jobs. They work less than civilian wives if they have young children but more if their children are older; are less probable to work as they get older; and respond to changes in the unemployment rate as workers with a permanent attachment to the work force, not as "added workers."

Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

by Keith Crane Christopher S. Chivvis Michael Spirtas Samir Puri C. Christine Fair

The authors exposit likely developments in Pakistan's internal and external security environment over the coming decade; assess Pakistan's national will and capacity to solve its problems, especially those relating to security; describe U.S. interests in Pakistan; and suggest policies for the U.S. government to pursue in order to secure those interests.

Pakistan's Enduring Challenges

by C. Christine Fair Sarah J. Watson

From the U. S. declaration of war against Afghanistan in 2001 to the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2014, Pakistan's military cooperation was critical to the United States. Yet, Pakistani politics remain a source of anxiety for American policymakers. Despite some progress toward democratic consolidation over the last ten years, Pakistan's military still asserts power over the country's elected government. Pakistan's western regions remain largely ungoverned and home to the last remnants of al-Qaeda's original leadership, as well as multiple militant groups that have declared war on the Pakistani state. The country's economy is in shambles, and continuing tensions with India endanger efforts to bring a durable peace to a region haunted by the distant threat of nuclear war. Pakistan's Enduring Challenges surveys the political and economic landscape of Pakistan in the wake of U. S. military withdrawal. Experts in the domestic and international affairs of the region consider the country's prospects from a variety of angles, including security issues and nuclear posture, relations with Afghanistan, India, and the United States, Pakistan's Islamist movements, and the CIA's use of drone warfare in Pakistan's tribal areas. This timely volume offers a concise, accessible, and expert guide to the currents that will shape the country's future. Contributors: Christopher Clary, C. Christine Fair, Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Karl Kaltenthaler, Feisal Khan, William J. Miller, Aparna Pande, Paul Staniland, Stephen Tankel, Tara Vassefi, Joshua T. White, Huma Yusef.

Securing Tyrants or Fostering Reform? U.S. Internal Security Assistance to Repressive and Transitioning Regimes

by Olga Oliker Peter Chalk Seth G. Jones Rollie Lal C. Christine Fair

This study examines the results of U.S. assistance to the internal security forces of four repressive states: El Salvador, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Efforts to improve the security, human rights, and accountability of security forces appear more likely to succeed in states transitioning from repressive to democratic systems. In addition, several factors are critical for success: the duration of assistance, viability of the justice system, and support and buy-in from the local government (including key ministries).

Urban Battle Fields of South Asia: Lessons Learned from Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan

by C. Christine Fair

Military operations in urban areas are among the most complex challenges confronting the U.S. Army. Compared to a number of other nations, the Army has relatively less experience operating in this environment. To that end, this monograph analyzes sustained campaigns of urban terrorism in Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan, identifying key innovations of the militant organizations. It also details the three states' responses to the threats, noting successful as well as unsuccessful efforts.

War and Escalation in South Asia

by Nina Hachigian C. Christine Fair Derek Eaton John E. Peters James Dickens

This monograph highlights key factors in South Asia imperiling U.S. interests, and suggests how and where the U.S. military might play an expanded, influential role. It suggests seven steps the military might take to better advance and defend U.S. interests in South Asia, the Middle East, and Asia at large. Washington should intensify involvement in South Asia and become more influential with the governments there. Given the area's potential for violence, it should also shape part of the U.S. military to meet potential crises.

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