Mental disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), constitute an important health care need of veterans, especially those recently separated from service. Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Assessment of the Evidence takes a systematic look the efficacy of pharmacologic and psychological treatment modalities for PTSD on behalf of the Department of Veterans Affairs. By reviewing existing studies in order to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence on several types of treatment, the Committee on the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder found that many of these studies were faulty in design and performance, and that relatively few of these studies have been conducted in populations of veterans, despite suggestions that civilian and veteran populations respond differently to various types of treatment. The committee also notes that the evidence is scarce on the acceptability, efficacy, or generalizability of treatment in ethnic and cultural minorities, as few studies stratified results by ethnic background. Despite challenges in the consistency, quality, and depth of research, the committee found the evidence sufficient to conclude the efficacy of exposure therapies in treating PTSD. The committee found the evidence inadequate to determine efficacy of different types of pharmacotherapies, of three different psychotherapy modalities, and of psychotherapy delivered in group formats. The committee also made eight critical recommendations, some in response to the VA's questions related to recovery and the length and timing of PTSD treatment, and others addressing research methodology, gaps in evidence and funding issues.
Select your format based upon: 1) how you want to read your book, and 2) compatibility with your reading tool. To learn more about using Bookshare with your device, visit the Help Center.
Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivonas Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.