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This is the first comprehensive comparative treatment of condominium (apartment ownership, commonhold, horizontal property) law in 21 European jurisdictions. This book explores the genesis of condominium law in Europe and in each of the jurisdictions represented and the use made of the condominium format to structure residential, commercial, industrial and tourist condominiums. It examines the establishment of condominiums, basic condominium concepts and the role by-laws play in establishing harmony in a condominium. Included are ten case studies, which illustrate a variety of factual scenarios and focus on providing legal solutions to practical cases. The scenarios include, amongst others, the legal consequences of a sale of apartments from building plans; restrictions on the sale and letting of apartments; the keeping of pets and the conduct of a profession (such as a medical practice) in an apartment; the sanctions against defaulters of contributions; and the requirements for undertaking maintenance and improvements.
A comprehensive comparative treatment of six instances of time-limited interests in land as encountered in fourteen European jurisdictions. The survey explores the commercial or social origins of each legal institution concerned and highlights their enforceability against third parties, their content and their role in land development. The commercial purpose of residential and agricultural leases is contrasted with the social aim of personal servitudes (and its common-law equivalent liferent) to provide sustenance for life to mostly family members making the latter an important estate planning device. Whereas the ingrained principles of leases and personal servitudes restrain the full exploitation of land, it is indicated that public authorities and private capital could combine to turn the old-fashioned time-limited institutions of hereditary building lease (superficies) and hereditary land lease (emphyteusis) into pivotal devices in alleviating the acute shortage of social housing and in promoting the fullest exploitation of pristine agricultural land.
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