This brief examines the influence and prestige of scholars and works in the field of Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as changes in influence and prestige over a period of 25 years, based on citation analysis. Methods of measuring scholarly influence can be highly controversial, but the authors of this work clearly outline their methodology, developed over years of experience working with this area of study. Through their expertise in Criminology and Criminal Justice, they are able to solve problems that affect or confound many traditional forms of citation analysis, such as irregularly cited references or self-citations. It includes 25 years of data (1986 through 2010) on the most-cited scholars and works in major American and international Criminology and Criminal Justice journals, and provides an objective measure of influence and prestige. Through an analysis of the data, the authors also document the intellectual development of criminology and criminal justice as a field of study since 1986. They highlight the development of research trends and indicate areas for future research. This book is designed for use by scholars and academics in the fields of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and the methodology will be of interest to researchers in related disciplines, including Sociology and Social Psychology. -- Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui provide an invaluable service in unpacking the criminological enterprise. Using systematic citational analysis, they illuminate the core patterns of scholarly influence that have shaped the field's development. This volume is an essential resource for all those wishing to understand which scholars and writings have done most--within and across time periods--to affect thinking about crime and justice. Francis T. CullenDistinguished Research ProfessorUniversity of Cincinnati - Citation analyses have become one of the most significant measures of scholarly influence. They are especially useful for revealing major trends over time regarding authors and the topics of interest to the wider field. Cohn, Farrington, and Iratzoqui's Most Cited Scholars in Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1986-2010 provides the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of scholarly influence in criminology/criminal justice. This resource is a most interesting read, one that supplies not a mere counting of citations but clear ideas about where the field has been centered and where it is trending into the future. Alex R. PiqueroAshbel Smith Professor of Criminology University of Texas at Dallas
Offending from Childhood to Late Middle Age is a timely volume by leading researchers in Life Course Criminology, which reports new findings from The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8 in 1961. The main aim of the study is to advance knowledge about criminal careers up to age 56. At the time of these most recent findings, forty-two percent of the males were convicted, with an average ten-year conviction career. Only seven percent of the males accounted for half of all convictions. Almost all of the males (93 percent) reported committing an offense in four age ranges, compared with 29 percent who were convicted at these ages. There were on average of 39 self-reported offenses per conviction. Group-based trajectory analyses indicated that, while there were distinct groups of offenders who followed different age-crime trajectories between ages 10 and 56, five groups best characterized the criminal careers of the men, with two groups, high adolescence peak and high rate chronic, exhibiting the most offending. Also, the offending trajectories were predicted by individual and environmental childhood risk factors, with the most chronic offenders (to age 56) having the most extreme scores on childhood risk. Based on these results, risk assessment instruments could be developed and risk-focused prevention could be implemented in early childhood, including parent training, pre-school intellectual enrichment programs and home visiting programs, in order to prevent chronic styles of offending from being initiated. This work will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, especially those with an interest in life course criminology and crime prevention, while also being of use as a research framework for other studies. It will also be of interest to researchers in sociology, psychology, and other social sciences, as well as policy makers and practitioners. "This is a 'must read' for anyone seeking to understand the development and course of crime from childhood through adulthood. Comparative analyses of officially recorded and self-reported offending and analyses of the predictive power of childhood risks to distinguish offending trajectories are important contributions of this new milestone in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development." J. David Hawkins, Ph.D., Endowed Professor of Prevention, Social Development Research Group, School of Social Work, University of Washington "For more than four decades the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development has been a guiding light for research on what has come to be called developmental criminology. This latest installment is still another demonstration of the importance of this seminal study." Daniel S. Nagin, Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University
This Brief examines criminal careers by providing the most extensive and comprehensive investigation to date on the official offending, self-reported offending, and trajectories of offending of the Pittsburgh Youth Study (PYS) participants. The PYS is a longitudinal study, which was initiated in 1987, and involves repeated follow-ups on several community cohorts (starting in grades 1, 4, and 7) of inner-city boys in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This Brief covers the Youngest and Oldest PYS cohorts (which had the most follow-up and most data available) from ages 10-30. It provides the most complete descriptive analyses of the criminal careers of these males to date. The three cohorts are commonly referred to as the Youngest, Middle, and Oldest cohorts, respectively. Consistent with several prior publications with the PYS data (Loeber et al. , 2008), this book focuses only on data from the Youngest and Oldest cohorts as these cohorts were followed up the most frequently and have the longest time window of data available. It will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, as well as related fields like Sociology, Developmental Psychology, Social Policy, and Education.
Systematicreviews aim to minimize any possible bias in drawing conclusions by statingexplicit criteria for inclusion and exclusion of studies, by conductingextensive and wide-ranging searches for possibly eligible studies, and bymaking all stages of the review explicit and transparent so that the methodscan be checked and replicated. Over a decade ago, a concerted effort was madeby members of the criminology community, including the Editors and contributorsof this volume, to bring the practice of systematic reviews to the study ofCriminology, providing replicable, evidence-based data to answer key questionsabout the study of crime causation, detection, and prevention. Now, thepioneers in this effort present a comprehensive stock-taking of what has beenlearned in the past decade of systematic reviews in criminology. Much has beendiscovered about the effectiveness of (for example) boot camps, "hot spots"policing, closed-circuit television surveillance, neighborhood watch,anti-bullying programs in schools, early parenting programs, drug treatmentprograms, and other key topics. This ambitious volume aims to bring togetherand assess all major systematic reviews of the effectiveness of criminologicalinterventions, to draw broad conclusions about what works in policing,corrections, developmental prevention, situational prevention, drug abusetreatments, sentencing and deterrence, and communities. It will be of interestto researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as in relatedfields such as public health and forensic science, with important implicationsfor policy-makers and practitioners. Decisively showing that the "nothing works" era is over, this volume takes stock of what we know, and still need to know, to prevent crime. Focusing on different areas of prevention, individual chapters provide a state-of-the art analysis of the extent evaluation evidence. Together, they comprise an essential guide to improving both public safety and the lives of those most at risk of criminal involvement. I plan to keep this book close at hand and to use if often! Francis T. Cullen, Distinguished Research Professor Emeritus, University of Cincinnati This impressive volume, edited by Weisburd, Farrington and Gill, provides a comprehensive picture of what we've learned from systematic reviews about "what works" in addressing crime - and goes on to identify the "next step" issues that demand attention if the field is to move forward. At a time when there is a broad commitment to bringing science to the front lines of practice, this book should be on the reading list of both policymakers and scholars. Laurie O. Robinson, Clarence J. Robinson Professor of Criminology, Law Society, George Mason University and former Assistant Attorney General of the U. S. Department of Justice
The first decade of the new century proved to be a deadly one for many children and young people in the United States. Despite increased policing on the streets, higher rates of incarceration, harsher sentencing, stricter control of illegal drugs, and attempts to reduce access to firearms, FBI reports show that more than 7,300 young people between the ages of 15 and 29 were murdered in 2008 alone. It's clear that traditional crime reduction strategies have not stemmed the rising tide of homicides perpetrated by and upon one of society's most vulnerable populations. Innovative, practicable solutions are needed to staunch this lethal trend. Based on the findings of a unique longitudinal study, Young Homicide Offenders and Victims: Risk Factors, Prediction, and Prevention from Childhood now provides experts with unprecedented analysis of prospectively collected data on 1,517 boys and young men who grew up in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Following these males from childhood into early adulthood, examining their lives and the conditions under which they grew up in a representative mid-sized American city, the study forms the basis of this unique volume designed to stimulate debate on key questions of prevention and intervention as well as dispel popular myths about the childhood and adolescent features of homicide offenders and homicide victims. Key areas of coverage include: Early childhood risk factors of young homicide offenders and victims. Insights into homicide offenders' lives as told in their own words.The effectiveness of screening for at-risk youth. Risk factor-based prevention and intervention strategies.The impact of interventions on homicide rates.Policy implications at the local, state, and national levels.Young Homicide Offenders and Victims: Risk Factors, Prediction, and Prevention from Childhood is essential reading for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers across the fields of juvenile justice and criminology, developmental psychology, sociology, psychiatry, public health, and policy making. ------- "This book changes the game in violence research ... The analysis is masterful, the prose is readable, and the achievement is nothing short of stunning." Richard Rosenfeld, Ph.D. / Curators Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri-St. Louis "This book will stand the test of time as a landmark homicide study." James C. Howell, Ph.D. / Senior Research Associate, National Gang Center "This is a fascinating, pioneering book ... The authors' sophisticated analyses demonstrate convincingly the considerable value of prospective longitudinal data for enhancing our understanding of the etiology and control of lethal violence." Steven F. Messner, Ph.D. / Distinguished Teacher Professor, Department of Sociology, University at Albany, SUNY / President, American Society of Criminology
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