- Table View
- List View
The study attempted to understand the phenomenon of a gay subculture of men who call themselves bears. A review of literature described a bear as a man with a hairy body, facial hair, and a husky, burly body type. Bears are defined by particular values, norms, and sanctions, establishing them as a distinct subculture. The bear subculture reportedly started in the mid-1980s, due to exclusionary practices by other gay males. Ideals for body image, disposition, and behavior disqualified many average men from being considered attractive, resulting in exclusion from many social arenas. This study attempted to provide a foundation for understanding one group within the gay community in order to provide the groundwork and justification for research, free of presuppositions and bias towards outdated research, for other subcultures in the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community. Phenomenological methodology was determined to be the best way to study the bears, focusing solely on the actual experience of being bear. Following traditions in phenomenological research, several methods were maintained in order to reduce and remove suppositional contamination, including writing an epoche', utilizing a process to clear suppositional thought, engaging in a reduction phase creating meaning units, allowing thematic groups to naturally emerge within a reconstruction phase, and developing a final essential statement of the bear experience. The results of this study confirm much of the historical and contextual data found in the review of literature. However, the results found that although a bear experienced himself as inclusive of others, the bear community establishes norms, values, and sanctions that exclude many men from being identified as bears. The results indicate that bears who experience rejection from the gay male majority recreate the rejecting attitudes within their own subculture. The gay male community recreates the exclusionary practice experienced in the American mainstream. As it expands, the phenomenon of becoming the rejecter rather than remaining the rejected appears to be a universal human phenomenon. A discussion about this phenomenon, other findings, and a call for further research can be found in Chapter 5.
Select your download format based upon: 1) how you want to read your book, and 2) compatibility with your reading tool. For more details, visit the Formats page under the Getting Started tab.See and hear words read aloud
- DAISY Text - See words on the screen and hear words being read aloud with the text-to-speech voice installed on your reading tool. Navigate by page, chapter, section, and more. Can also be used in audio-only mode. Compatible with many reading tools, including Bookshare’s free reading tools.
- DAISY Text with Images - Similar to DAISY Text with the addition of images within the Text. Your reading tool must support images.
- Read Now with Bookshare Web Reader - Read and see images directly from your Internet browser without downloading! Text-to-speech voicing and word highlighting are available on Google Chrome (extension installation required). Other browsers can be used with limited features. Learn more
- DAISY Audio - Listen to books in audio-only mode with the high-quality Kendra voice by Ivona pre-installed. Navigate by page, chapter, section, and more. Must be used with a DAISY Audio compatible reading tool.
- MP3 - Listen to books in audio-only mode with the high-quality Kendra voice by Ivona pre-installed. Navigate using tracks. Can be used with any MP3 player.
- BRF (Braille Ready Format) - Read with any BRF compatible refreshable braille display; navigate using the search or find feature.
- DAISY Text - Read with any DAISY 3.0 compatible refreshable braille display, navigate by page, chapter, section, and more.
- Embossed Braille - Use Bookshare’s DAISY Text or BRF formats to generate embossed braille.