For generations, scholars, law enforcement personnel, politicians, and the media have tried to understand and explain youth gangs and violence. This insightful collection contains the work of leading scholars, integrating previously published articles with new material to provide the most comprehensive information about the status of American youth gangs. The contributors attempt to answer crucial questions for understanding gangs: What is a gang? What are the risk factors associated with joining a gang? What is the nature of gang violence? How involved are girls in gangs and gang violence? The contributors¿ multifaceted approach to these questions and their ensuing discussions describe the varied and individual responses to gang violence. The topics are grouped in four sections: The first section explores the issues and ramifications of current terminology and survey information. In the second section, nontraditional gangs, such as female gangs and hybrid gangs, are discussed. The third section attempts to examine gang activities objectively and place them in a proper perspective. The final section looks at historical and current response techniques to youth gangs, such as suppression, prevention, and legal injunctions.
This unique volumeexplores why and how youth join and leave gangs, as a lens for exploringintervention and prevention through comparative, international research. The book explores three key questions: how doyouth gangs form and how do they change over time? Why do youth join streetgangs, and why do they leave? How can we use this knowledge to foster moreeffective interventions for gang problems?Drawing from research conducted in tendifferent countries (Belgium, Canada, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Venezuela)and a variety of disciplines, sixteenoriginal chapters provide unique insights into: 1) patterns of gangparticipation and how it impacts individual behavior 2) individual transitions and their impact on gang transformations 3) fostering gang transition and transformation. This work will be of interest to researchers in Criminology and CriminalJustice, particularly with an interest in youth gangs, developmental andlife-course criminology, criminal careers, and criminal networks, as well asrelated fields such as sociology, psychology, and comparative law, and publichealth.
As a steady source of juvenile delinquents and an incubator for future adult offenders, the youth gang has long been a focus of attention, from their origins and prevalence to intervention and prevention strategies. But while delinquent youth form gangs worldwide, youth gang research has generally focused on the U.S. Youth Gangs in International Perspective provides a needed corrective by offering significant studies from across Europe, as well as Trinidad-Tobago and Israel. The book spans the diversity of the field in the cultural and scholarly traditions represented and methods used, analyzing not only the social processes under which gangs operate and cohere, but also the evolution of the research base, starting with the Eurogang Program's definition of the term youth gang. Cross-national and gender issues are discussed, as are measurement concerns and the possibility that the American conception of the youth gang is impeding European understanding of these groups. Among the topics covered: Gang dynamics through the lens of social identity theory.Defining gangs in youth correctional settings.Gang gender composition and youth delinquency.From Stockholm: a holistic approach to gang intervention.Gang membership as a turning point in the life course.The impact of globalization, immigration, and social process on neo-Nazi youth gangs. Filling a critical gap in the literature, Youth Gangs in International Perspective will find a wide audience among criminologists, policymakers specializing in youth crime, and researchers and graduate students in criminology, political science, and youth studies.
Violence by and against youth continues to be one of the most challenging subjects facing criminologists. In this comprehensive and integrated analysis of the interrelationships of youth violence, violent victimization, and gang membership, Finn-Aage Esbensen, Dana Peterson, Terrance J. Taylor and Adrienne Freng seek to understand what causes youth violence and what can be done about it. Using the results from an inclusive study they conducted of eighth-graders in eleven American cities, the authors examine how the nature, aetiology, and intersections of youth violence are structured by both sex and race/ethnicity. Youth Violenceis pertinent to juvenile justice policy considerations. The authors frame their discussion within the public health perspective, focusing on risk factors associated with violent behaviour. The findings address prevalence and incidence, as well as the demo-graphic correlates and cumulative effects of the risk factors associated with engagement in violence. Ultimately, the theories and research methodologies here are essential for understanding the dynamics of youth violence.
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