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To celebrate the 450th title in the Men-at-Arms series, this book examines in depth the units and the uniforms of a still-controversial army: the many thousands of American colonists who chose to fight for King George during the Revolution. In addition to the better-known corps from the Atlantic seaboard, the author also covers the units raised for service against the Spanish in the Floridas, the Caribbean islands and Central America. The text is illustrated with portraits, photographs of rare surviving artifacts, and features color reconstructions by Gerry Embleton, the respected expert on 18th century American forces whose work was recently exhibited in the Smithsonian Institute.
Armies of Castile and Aragon depicts the fighting men whose skill and tactical flexibility made Spain into a world power at the close of the Middle Ages, carving out empires from the Mediterranean to the Caribbean. Much has been written of the men who fought in the Hundred Years' War between England and France, and the Wars of the Roses. But meanwhile, on the Iberian peninsula, the foundations of Spain's military 'Golden Age' were being laid as the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon under the Trastamara dynasty grew in power, ambition and success. This book features spectacular full-color artwork, and rare manuscript illustrations.
Contrary to popular belief, the capture of India was not accomplished by the British Army, but by the private armies of the East India Company, whose primary objective was the protection of their trading empire. Under the leadership of the legendary Robert Clive (founder of the East India Company) and Stringer Lawrence, this small force of mercenaries and adventurers grew in size and strength to eventually become an army larger than that of any European sovereign state. Highly disciplined and professional, it fought almost continuously for a century until the Great Mutiny of 1857 led to its disbandment and its troops passed into Crown service. One of the many British Army officers who fought with this force was Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington. This is the fascinating history of the East India Company army, examining the many conflicts in which they fought, and their equipment and training, with its regiments of horse, foot and guns, which rivalled those of most European powers. The exotic uniforms combining traditional Indian and British dress are illustrated in detail and make for a wonderfully colorful account of a private band of adventurers that successfully captured the jewel of the British Empire.
A stunning exploration of a legendary moment in Irish history. In 1798 with the British Army preoccupied in fighting France in the Caribbean and Mediterranean as well as guarding Southeast England from threatened invasion, a co-ordinated uprising broke out across the water in Ireland. Uniquely this was neither a Catholic nor a Protestant rebellion, but rather a joint effort by leaders and insurgents from both sides of the community. The Irish Rebellion (1798) was directed against the corrupt government based at Dublin Castle and was inspired in part by the people's revolutions in America and France. This title illuminates the lives of the Irish peasants, armed mostly with pikes, who confronted the small number of British troops based in their country.From the Trade Paperback edition.
Facing off against Byzantines, Arabs, Vikings, Turks, Mongols, and Russians, this steppe culture dominated Black Sea and Caucasus trade during Medieval times.The Bulgars were a Turkic people who established a state north of the Black Sea, and who showed similarities with the Alans and Sarmatians. In the late 500s and early 600s AD their state fragmented under pressure from the Khazars; one group moved south into what became Bulgaria, but the rest moved north during the 7th and 8th centuries to the basin of the Volga river. There they remained under Khazar domination until the Khazar Khanate was defeated by Kievan (Scandinavian) Russia in 965. Thereafter the Volga Bulgars - controlling an extensive area surrounding an important hub of international trade - became richer and more influential; they embraced Islam, becoming the most northerly of medieval peoples to do so. Given their central position on trade routes, their armies were noted for the splendour of their armour and weapons, which drew upon both Western and Eastern sources and influences (as, eventually, did their fighting tactics).In the 1220s they managed to maul Genghis Khan's Mongols, who returned to devastate their towns in revenge. By the 1350s they had recovered much of their wealth, but they were caught in the middle between the Tatar Golden Horde and the Christian Russian principalities. They were ravaged by these two armies in turn on several occasions between 1360 and 1431. A new city then rose from the ashes - Kazan, originally called New Bulgar - and the successor Islamic Khanate of Kazan resisted the Russians until falling to Ivan the Terrible in 1552. The costumes, armament, armour and fighting methods of the Volga Bulgars during this momentous period are explored in this fully illustrated study.
In August 1644, at the height of the First English Civil War (1642-1646), John Graham, the Marquis of Montrose, raised the standard of Royalist rebellion in Scotland. In a single year he won a string of remarkable victories with his army of Irish mercenaries and Highland clansmen. His victory at Auldearn, the centrepiece of his campaign, was won only after a day-long struggle and heavy casualties on both sides. This book details the remarkable sequence of victories at Tippermuir, Aberdeen, Inverlochy, Auldearn and Kilsyth that left Montrose briefly in the ascendant in Scotland. However, his decisive defeat and surrender at Philiphaugh finally crushed the Royalist cause in Scotland.
In 1914 with a regular army of only 3,110 men Canada was ill-prepared to enter World War I (1914-1918). Yet, in a display of incredible unanimity thousands of young Canadians volunteered to fight for the Allied cause. Ultimately the Canadian contribution was the most important non-British contingent within the vast Allied armies with a total of nearly 700,000 Canadians in uniform. For a nation of only 8 million people this was a remarkable war effort and nearly one of every ten who fought in the war did not return. The Canadians served in all the major conflicts on the Western Front; they were the first troops to suffer a gas attack in 1915 and served at Ypres and the Somme. The Canadian Corps is most famously remembered for their victory at Vimy Ridge one of the major successes of the war. This victory was also a national coming of age, having started the war as a single division under British command, here for the first time the four divisions of the Canadian Corps had attacked and triumphed together. This national identity was reinforced by the use of their own uniforms, insignia, weapons and equipment which are superbly illustrated within this book. This book also includes a complete listing of units, battalion by battalion, summarizing their proud service record throughout the course of the war including their service on the Western Front, at sea and in the air. The poignant photographs, specially commissioned colour artwork and detailed service records will give a unique insight into the war experiences of the Canadian soldier which ultimately contributed to a real sense of Canadian national identity.
In August 1745 Charles Edward Stuart, the 'Young Pretender', landed in Scotland and sparked the Second Jacobite Rising. The Jacobite forces seized Perth, then Edinburgh, where they proclaimed the Young Pretender's father King James VIII; they trounced their Hanoverian opponents at Prestonpans and crossed into England, getting as far south as Derby before withdrawing into Scotland. Far from universally popular north of the border, the Jacobite army bested another Hanoverian army at Falkirk and besieged Stirling, only to be routed by the Duke of Cumberland's army at Culloden in April 1746, a crushing defeat that ended any prospect of a Stuart restoration.Youngest son of Britain's Hanoverian king George II, the victorious general was lauded by his supporters while being reviled by his opponents as 'Butcher' Cumberland. His polyglot army, the subject of this book, included English regular Line infantry, cavalry, artillery, marines, and Scottish infantry (more Scots served on King George's side than followed 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'); English and Scottish 'provincial' infantry and cavalry regiments; and Hanoverian, Hessian, Dutch and Swiss infantry, cavalry and artillery.Featuring full-colour artwork depicting the distinctive uniforms of Cumberland's men, this exhaustively researched study offers a wealth of detail of regimental strengths and casualties and includes an extended chronology that places individual units in specific places throughout the campaign that culminated at Culloden.
The famous but largely unchronicled Hanseatic League (or simple "the Hanse/Hansa") was a Tuetonic German commercial and defensive federation of merchant guilds based in harbor towns along the North Sea and Baltic coasts of what are now Germany and her neighbors, which eventually dominated maritime trade in Northern Europe and spread its influence much further afield. The League was formed to protect the economic and political interests of member cities throughout a vast and complex trading network. While most members remained basically subject to the local rulers who profited from their prosperity, in a sense the League might be seen as foreshadowing today's ambiguous relationship between global corporations and political nation states.The League continued to operate well into the 17th century, but its golden age was between c. 1200 and c. 1500; thereafter it failed to take full advantage of the wave of maritime exploration to the west, south and east of Europe. During its 300 years of dominance the League's large ships - called "cogs" - were at the forefront of maritime technology, were early users of cannon, and were manned by strong fighting crews to defend them from pirates in both open-sea and river warfare. The home cities raised their own armies for mutual defence, and their riches both allowed them, and required them, to invest in fortifications and gunpowder weapons, since as very attractive targets they were subjected to sieges at various times.
The Seven Years' War in Germany was characterised by an increasing use of 'light' troops in conjunction with regular infantry and cavalry as part of an ongoing evolution in military tactics. This book draws attention to these tactical developments and also provides an analysis of the allied army that fought alongside Frederick the Great in Germany. Composed of troops from the electorate of Hanover and contingents from Hessen-Kassel, Brunswick and Prussia, this force was funded by Britain and led by a Prussian officer, Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. Later, British troops joined this army as it operated throughout western Germany, and together the allied army won a great victory at the famous battle of Minden in 1759.
In August 1914 the mobilization of Imperial Germany's 800,000-strong army ushered in the first great war of the modern age - a war which still stands as the greatest slaughter of soldiers in history. That German Army is also the best example of a particular period of military thought, when virtually the whole manpower of the European nations was integrated into mass conscript armies, supported by several age categories of reservists and by dedicated industrial and transport systems. In this first of three volumes the author offers an extraordinary mass of information, in text and tables, illustrated by photographs and colour plates.
Almost continual warfare raged in Europe during the period 1300-1500. These wars were the furnaces in which many of the modern European nations were forged. Parallel with this emergence of the nations came the development of national armies to protect the newly-won borders and independence, yet throughout this period the old feudal method of raising an army persisted. This fascinating study by Terence Wise explores the organization, weapons and equipment of the armies who fought across Medieval Europe, from the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) to the fight against the Moors in Spain, and the French invasion of Italy in 1494.
Osprey's new Weapon series provides a highly-detailed yet affordable overview of the development, use, and impact of small arms throughout history--from the sword to the machine gun. Journey back to the time when handguns had no moving parts! Variously called handgonnes, hackbuts, coulevrines, pistolas, schiopettos, tyufyaks, and even bombardelles, the first black powder infantry weapons were extremely crude by today's standards. In his new book, Sean McLachlan, author of American Civil War Guerilla Tactics, dispels the myth that these weapons were ineffective on the battlefield (beyond their terrifying noise!). Rather, he demonstrates through careful examination of the historical records that the handgonne was a viable weapon from its inception, even as it saw action side-by-side with the cross-bow.Readers will be treated to a lush collection of rare photographs and artwork from such far-flung locales as Danish National Museum and the Bayerisches Armeemuseum. Original artwork from Gerry and Sam Embleton illustrate how these weapons were used on the battlefield and reenactor photos demonstrate step-by-step how they were loaded and fired.
The history of Poland is a fascinating study of a people struggling to achieve nationhood in the face of internal and external enemies. Poland became a unified Christian state in AD 966 and by the 12th century a knightly class had emerged - a force that was integral to the defense of Poland against increasingly frequent foreign invasions. Intent on crushing rival Christian states, the Templars, Hospitallers and Teutonic Knights all mounted attacks but were beaten back by the Poles, as were invading Mongols and Turks. This book reveals the organization, equipment and battle histories of the medieval Polish armies as they developed and modernized to emerge as one of the dominant powers of Eastern Europe.
Ever since the 15th century Switzerland had been exporting professional soldiers to serve as mercenaries for foreign monarchies. Napoleon, therefore, was not the first to make full use of the martial qualities of the Swiss and obtained Swiss agreement to expand the recruitment of regiments for service in the French Army. Napoleon would use Swiss troops on the battlefields of Italy and Spain, and in 1812 re-organize the four original regiments into a single division for the invasion of Russia, with each regiment having three full-strength battalions. In all theatres where they were engaged, Swiss contingents would often be relied upon to act as rearguards so other forces caught in a tight situation could escape. Time and again they would be asked to save the day for the French soldiers with whom they fought, in Italy and Spain and most famously for Napoleon himself, in Russia. In November of 1812, meeting up with Napoleon's main force retreating from Moscow at the Berezina River, the Swiss on the west bank guarded the approaches to the pontoon bridges from the Russian attack to the south. 1,200 Swiss, out of approximately 8,000 that entered Russia, were left to face, along with 8,000 men from other units, the 30,000-strong Russian army. The Swiss held their ground and when their ammunition ran out they charged the Russians with bayonets. This book reveals the proud combat history of the Swiss troops of Napoleon's army as well as the colourful uniforms they wore.
For those interested in the actual appearance of the Prussian soldiers who fought at Ligny, Wavre and Waterloo in 1815, this colorful study combines the latest findings and expert analysis to cast new light on the fateful Waterloo campaign.The Prussian Army of the Lower Rhine, led by Generalfeldmarschall Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher in 1815, played a - possibly the - vital part in the Allied victory at Waterloo, forcing Napoleon to divide his forces when Blücher's leading elements arrived to offer Wellington crucial support at a time when his Anglo-Netherlands army was doing no more than holding its own on the defensive. During this campaign Blücher's army presented an enormously diverse appearance, since its units had been issued clothing and equipment from many sources, and many of them were still wearing the distinctly hard-worn kit they had been issued over two years before at the start of the 1813 Wars of Liberation.Written by a leading authority, this book delves deeply into original sources - including eyewitness accounts, and regimental histories known only to German scholars - to recreate the actual appearance of specific units, rather than simply copying generic uniform regulations. The text details who the men that served in these units were, how they were organised and drilled, and their previous service; what specific elements of the army looked like in 1815; their march to the battlefield; and what they did when they got there.
Osprey's study of the decisive battle of the French and Indian War (1754-1763). 'What a scene!' wrote Horace Walpole. 'An army in the night dragging itself up a precipice by stumps of trees to assault a town and attack an enemy strongly entrenched and double in numbers!' In one short sharp exchange of fire Major-General James Wolfe's men tumbled the Marquis de Montcalm's French army into bloody ruin. Sir John Fortescue famously described it as the 'most perfect volley ever fired on a battlefield'. In this book Stuart Reid details how one of the British Army's consummate professionals literally beat the King's enemies before breakfast and in so doing decided the fate of a continent.
This book not only offers a tribute to the proud Highlander regiments who have served with distinction for over two centuries, but also offers an in-depth study of the period in which they made their name. As the British Empire dominated every corner of the globe, Queen Victoria's Highlanders served in a variety of campaigns from the Indian subcontinent to Africa. This title will study their organization, histories, and the evolution of their uniforms. Each of the famous regiments - including the Black Watch, the Gordons, the Argylls, and the Camerons - will be covered and the full glory of their romantic, tartan uniforms revealed.From the Trade Paperback edition.
A mixed infantry formation made up of about 3,000 men armed with pikes, swords and handguns, the innovative and influential tercio or 'Spanish square' was the basic combat unit of the armies of Spain throughout much of the 16th and 17th centuries. Arguably the first permanent tactical formation seen in Europe since the Roman cohort, the tercio was the forerunner of modern formations such as the battalion and regiment. The variety of different weapons fielded in the tercio meant the Spanish infantry could resist opposing cavalry forces while overcoming every kind of enemy infantry deployed against them. Featuring full-colour artwork and photographs of rare items held at the Spanish Army Museum, this study covers the whole period during which the tercios were active, opening with the third Italian war between the forces of France and the Holy Roman Emperor and concluding with the final transformation of the Spanish tercios into regiments in 1704.
To coincide with the 2015 bicentennial of the Battle of Waterloo, Osprey publishes Waterloo 1815, a definitive three volume history of the historic battle. Based on new research drawn from unpublished first-hand accounts and illustrations, Waterloo 1815 provides a detailed resource for all aspects of the famous battle.This first volume of the trilogy, Quatre Bras, focuses on the lead-up to Waterloo itself. Two days before the main battle, an initial 8,000 Allied troops faced the 48,000 men of the French Armée du Nord under Marshal Ney at the strategically vital crossroads of Quatre Bras. Having been tricked by Napolean who was trying to drive a wedge between the Prussians and the Anglo-allied army, Wellington concentrated his troops at Quatre Bras, hoping to link up with the Prussians. There Wellington just managed to hold off Ney's attacks. The battle ended in a tactical stalemate but, because he was unable to join with Blücher's Prussians, Wellington retreated back along the road to Brussels to new positions at a small Belgian village called Waterloo, and thus set the stage for one of the greatest battles of all time.With detailed maps, illustrations and battlefield dispositions, Quatre Bras will lay the groundwork for any student of the Battle of Waterloo.
The wartime Police were headed by Himmler as chief of the SS; and throughout the occupied nations the regional SS commanders were specifically termed 'Higher SS and Police Leaders'. Hitler's police was not a single service, but a vast machinery which included many special categories ranging from conventional criminal detectives, and municipal and rural police to combat battalions sent to Russia, and from border and customs police to special railway and waterway departments, fire brigades and emergency engineer squads, and even a colonial service for North Africa. The author explains the origins, the complex organization and the particular duties of the many different police branches that formed such a critical part of the Nazi apparatus and ensured that control was maintained inside Hitler's Fortress Europe. His painstaking research has unearthed fascinating new information about the German police services and their many different uniforms and insignia, which are recreated in the meticulously detailed color artwork.From the Trade Paperback edition.
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