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The Beginnings of Political Economy

by Jürgen Georg Backhaus

This volume contains eleven essays on Johann Heinrich Gottlob von Justi's concepts of the modern economy. These essays reflect both Justi's life and professional work, focusing on his ideas on economics and social sciences. Interesting are the aspects of his biography that gave rise to the development of his economic thought. Apart from Justi's personal background, this book contains the beginning of modern economics because Justi's philosophy was linked to government, labour, morality, health and finally the good society. Justi, throughout his life, had a dual career of being on the one hand a prolific writer and educator, on the other hand an administrator in the core state business of mining, then an important revenue source, and he typically combined the two. He gave two inaugural lectures in 1750 in front of Queen and Empress Maria Theresia. The lecture on cameral sciences is truly the beginning of modern economics: Justi was of the opinion that the happiness of the state would be increased if the number of happy and healthy persons would increase. For this reason, health was a major focus of his attention long before the advent of health economics. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is an understanding of how economics developed as a separate science. Furthermore, they will see how Justi laid the foundation for policy sciences, the specialty of many schools of governement today.

The University According to Humboldt

by Jürgen Georg Backhaus

This book discusses the philosophy and educational reforms initiated by Wilhelm von Humboldt as well as their legacy in the modern university system. It begins with a discussion of the history of the university from antiquity and the Middle Ages through the era of Humboldt's reforms and its remnants in and implications for the present day. The authors then delve into policy, outlining the key conflicts that have informed the development of university educational policy, such as the clash between academia and professional education, the coordination of public administration and educational institutions, and the perennial issue of funding. Humboldt's ideas are then discussed within an economic context, using his principals of the state to analyze the relationship between current models of household and family economics and German economic and social policy. The book is rounded off by a philosophical analysis of the institution of the university and concludes with an update of the remains Humboldt's reforms within the current university system. With its multidisciplinary approach to the study of higher education reform in Europe and its key players, this book will appeal to scholars of economic history, educational policy, and public administration as well as administrators and policy makers in higher education.

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