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With petroleum-related spills, explosions, and health issues in the headlines almost every day, the issue of remediation of petroleum and petroleum products is taking on increasing importance, for the survival of our environment, our planet, and our future. This book is the first of its kind to explore this difficult issue from an engineering and scientific point of view and offer solutions and reasonable courses of action.
The most complete and up-to-date handbook on power generation from coal, this book covers all of today's new, cleaner methods for creating electricity from coal, the environmental challenges and concerns involved in its production, and developing technologies. It describes new technologies that could virtually eliminate the sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury pollutants released when coal is burned for electricity generation. In addition, the text details technologies for greenhouse gases capture from coal-fired power plants, as well as for preventing such emissions from contributing to global warming.
Biomass is a renewable resource, whose utilization has received great attention due to environmental considerations and the increasing demands of energy worldwide. Since the energy crises of the 1970s, many countries have become interested in biomass as a fuel source to expand the development of domestic and renewable energy sources, reduce the environmental impacts of energy production provide rural prosperity for its poor farmers and bolster a flat agricultural sector. Biomass energy (bioenergy) can be an important alternative in the future and a more sustainable energy. In fact, for large portions of the rural populations of developing countries, and for the poorest sections of urban populations, biomass is often the only available and affordable source of energy for satisfying basic needs as cooking and heating. The focus of this book is to present a historical overview, country perspectives, the use of biomass to produce biofuels, the current and upcoming sources of biofuels, technologies and processes for biofuel production, the various types of biofuels and, specifically, the ways and means to make biofuel production sustainable, economically feasible, minimize environmental damage and to deliver on its many promises.The Energy and Environment book series from Scrivener Publishing and series editor, James G. Speight, aims to cover the environmental impacts and social concerns of energy production in its various forms. This first volume in the Energy and the Environment series offers a comprehensive coverage of one of the fastest-growing and most important sources of energy, biofuels. Future volumes will cover oil and gas, wind and solar energy, and their environmental aspects.
Provides users with everything they need to know about testing and analysis of coal Includes new coverage on environmental issues and regulations as related to coal Provides the reader with the necessary information about testing and analyzing coal and relays the advantages and limitations in understanding the quality and performance of coal Explains the meaning of test results and how these results can predict coal behavior and its corresponding environmental impact during use Includes a comprehensive Glossary which defines items in straightforward language that enable readers to better understand the terminology related to coal Treats issues related to sampling, and accuracy and precision of analysis
Presents an up-to-date description of current and new hydraulic fracturing processes Details Emerging Technologies such as Fracture Treatment Design, Open Hole Fracturing, Screenless Completions, Sand Control, Fracturing Completions and Productivity Covers Environmental Impact issues including Geological Disturbance; Chemicals used in Fracturing; General Chemicals; Toxic Chemicals; and Air, Water, Land, and Health impacts Provides many process diagrams as well as tables of feedstocks and their respective products
This book deals with the various aspects of petroleum product analysis and provides a detailed explanation of the necessary standard tests and procedures that are applicable to products in order to help define predictability of behavior. In addition, the application of new methods for determining instability and incompatibility are described. More importantly, the book provides details of the meaning of the various test results and how they might be applied to predict product behavior. It provides a comprehensive single source that describes the application and interpretation of the data of the various test methods for petroleum productsMany of the chapters from the 1st Edition have been rewritten to include the latest developments in the product specifications and testing protocols. Updates on the evolving test methods and new test methods are presented.The book contains information related to four sections: petroleum properties, petroleum refining processes, production of petroleum products, and testing procedures for petroleum and petroleum products. This information is further sub-divided into chapters relating to the properties and specifications petroleum feedstocks and production and properties including: Petroleum, Analytical Methods, Sampling and Measurement of Liquid Petroleum Products, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (including refinery gas), Naphtha and Solvents, Gasoline, Aviation and Marine Fuels, Kerosene, Diesel Fuel, Distillate Heating Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, White Oil, Lubricating Oils (including used lubricating oil), Grease, Wax, Residua and Asphalt, Coke, Carbon Black and Graphite, and Use of the Data
The perfect primer for both the layperson and the engineer, for the new hire and the old hand, describing, in easy-to-understand language, one of the biggest and most lucrative industries in the world. There is only one substance known to mankind that can cause wars, influence global economies, and make entire countries rich: petroleum. One teaspoon of the stuff carries enough energy to power a ton truck up a hill. It's in the news every single day, it influences our lives in ways that we cannot fathom, and it is the most important commodity in the world. But how much does the average person, even the average engineer, know about it? This book describes the petroleum industry, in easy-to-understand language, for both the layperson and engineer alike. From the economics of searching for oil and gas to the pitfalls of drilling and production, getting it out of the ground, into pipelines, into refineries, and, finally, into your gas tank, this book covers the petroleum industry like no other treatment before. There is coverage of pricing and the economics of this very important resource, as well, which is useful not only to engineers, but to economists and, really, anyone who uses it. From jet fuel to gasoline to natural gas and plastics, petroleum is one of the integral products of our lives. We are practically bathed it in from birth, our food is protected by it, and it even has healing properties. Learn all about this incredible substance and its fascinating history and highly debated future. An Introduction to Petroleum Technology, Economics, and Politics: Gives a thorough summary of the petroleum and natural gas industry, from prospect to production to pipeline New technologies, such as directional and underbalanced drilling, are covered, in easy-to-understand language Useful not only for newcomers and laypersons, but for engineers and students, particularly those for whom English is a second language Examines the basics of pricing and valuation
Does the Earth contain enough oil to provide energy for the human race indefinitely? If not, how long will the oil last? What about renewable energy technologies like wind and solar? Will they be able to supply an indefinite supply of energy for the human race? If not, how long will it last? And what role does overpopulation play in our world's energy supply? Even with multiple forms of energy available, how long will it last as long as more and more humans, and therefore more industries and energy consumption, are added? Taking a long-held theory called "Peak Oil Theory" the authors of this groundbreaking new text examine the theory of "Peak Energy" to examine all of these questions. Crude oil and natural gas are the major sources of fuel used to supply energy for various needs. Users of crude oil and natural gas must take into account that these energy sources are, without doubt, non-renewable depleting resources, and the cost of extraction depends not only on the current rate of production but also on the amount of cumulative production. In fact, many pundits believe projections that the world is rapidly apprpaching a precipice, after which crude oil and natural gas will no longer be in ready supply. This phenomenon has given rise to the peak oil theory - peak oil is the point in time when the maximum rate of petroleum recovery from the reservoir is reached, after which the rate of petroleum production enters terminal decline. From this concept has emerged the wider concept of the peak energy theory which, as it is related to the availability of all fossil fuels, is also subject to decline with fossil fuel use. This text, written by two of the world's most well-known, respected, and prolific writers in the energy industry, is a fascinating study of our world's energy needs and the future of the multi-source energy supply on this planet. Whether oil and gas, wind, solar, geothermal, or even nuclear, all sources of energy have their limits, and we, as scientists, engineers, and consumers of energy need to be knowledgeable on these topics. This book is a must-have for any engineer, student, scientist, or even layperson interested in energy and the idea of energy sustainability on planet Earth.
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