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This substantially revised new edition features a brilliant new Introduction by David Wootton, a revision by Donald A. Cress of his own 1987 translation of Rousseau's most important political writings, and the addition of Cress' new translation of Rousseau's State of ?War. New footnotes, headnotes, and a chronology by David Wootton provide expert guidance to first-time readers of the texts.
Rousseau's ideas have influenced almost every major political development of the last two hundred years, and are crucial to an understanding of phenomena as diverse as the French Revolution, modern educational theory, and the contemporary environmental movement. This is reason enough to draw attention to his startlingly alive autobiography. But the Confessions is also among the greatest self-portraits in world literature -which suggests, even more than the impact of Rousseau's thought, the extent to which the very high opinion he had of himself was ultimately justified.(Book Jacket Status: Not Jacketed)
Widely regarded as the first modern autobiography, The Confessionsis an astonishing work of acute psychological insight. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) argued passionately against the inequality he believed to be intrinsic to civilized society. In his Confessions he relives the first fifty-three years of his radical life with vivid immediacy - from his earliest years, where we can see the source of his belief in the innocence of childhood, through the development of his philosophical and political ideas, his struggle against the French authorities and exile from France following the publication of Emile. Depicting a life of adventure, persecution, paranoia, and brilliant achievement, The Confessionsis a landmark work by one of the greatest thinkers of the Enlightenment, which was a direct influence upon the work of Proust, Goethe and Tolstoy among others.
Rousseau contends that primitive man is equal to his fellows because he can be independent of them, but as societies become more sophisticated, the strongest and most intelligent members of the community gain an unnatural advantage over their weaker brethren, and the constitutions set up to rectify these imbalances through peace and justice in fact do nothing but perpetuate them.
A strikingly original inquiry into politics and human nature, the Discourse presents a theoretical view of people in a pre-social condition and the ensuing effects of civilization. In his sweeping account of social and political development, the author develops a theory of evolution that prefigures Darwinism and encompasses aspects of ethics, sociology, and epistemology. One of the most influential works of the Enlightenment, the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality offers both a thought-provoking account of society's origins and a keen criticism of unequal political institutions.
A foundational text of Western education, this 1762 treatise served as a model for a new approach to teaching during the French Revolution. Emile recounts a boy's education, and Rousseau considered it the most important of his writings. With its theories on the retention of innate human goodness and the avoidance of corruption from bourgeois society, the book offers prime examples of the author's philosophy. Rousseau's five-part approach devotes the first three sections to Emile's early education, including the child's interactions with the larger world and the selection of a trade. The fourth part explores the cultivation of sentiment, with particular focus on natural religion. The book concludes with a profile of Emile's prospective bride, Sophie, that emphasizes the role of mothers in educating their children but encourages women to be submissive to their husbands--a view that excited controversy even among Rousseau's contemporaries and helped inspire Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
Newly translated by Peter Constantine Edited and with an Introduction by Leo Damrosch The Essential Writings of Rousseau collects the best and most indispensable work of one of the world's most influential writers. A towering figure of Enlightenment thought, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was also one of that movement's most passionate and persuasive critics. His extraordinarily original observations on politics, education, and human nature were provocative in their day and remain resonant more than two hundred years after his death. Rousseau's 1762 treatise The Social Contract laid intellectual groundwork for both the American and French Revolutions, influencing such figures as Thomas Jefferson. An eloquent writer with profound insight into human psychology, Rousseau also penned one of the most compelling autobiographies ever written--the magisterial Confessions. The entirety of the first three books of that masterpiece along with the complete Social Contract are included in this indispensable volume. Paperback edition.
Esan dezagun, bada, basoan hara eta hona, langintzarik gabe, mintzorik gabe, etxerik gabe, gerrarik gabe, harremanik gabe, hurkoen batere beharrik gabe, eta aldi berean haiei kalte egiteko inolako desiorik gabe, beharbada inor banaka ezagutu gabe, basa gizakiak, grina gutxiren mende eta bere buruaz aski zuelarik, ez zeuzkala halako egoerari dagozkion sentipen eta argiak baino, hots, bere benetako grinak baino ez zituela sentitzen, ez ziola begiratzen ikustea interesatzen zitzaionari baino, eta haren adimena ez zela haren harrokeria baino gehiago aurreratzen. Halako batean zerbait aurkituz gero, ez zuen aukera handirik besteei jakinarazteko, bere umeak ere ez zituen-eta ezagutzen. Artea asmatzailearekin batera hiltzen zen; han ez zegoen ez hezkuntzarik ez aurrerapenik, belaunaldiak alferrik ugaritzen ziren, eta, beti puntu beretik abiaturik, mendeetan zehar hasierako garaitan bezain baldar jarraitzen zuten; espeziea zaharra izanik, gizakiak haur izaten jarraitzen zuen.<P><P> Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) europar kultura modernoaren funtsezko autorea da. Beraren obra, orijinala eta zabala, zaila da sailkatzen. Hain zuzen ere, idazlearen aurreneko lanak Dijongo Akademiak jaso zituen, eta 1750ean Lehen Saria eman zion oso eztabaidatua izan zen Mintzaldia obrari. Lau urte geroago, bigarren Mintzaldia aurkeztu zuen Rousseauk. Lehenengoan erantzun gabe utzi zuen gaiari -gizaki zibilizatua ustelduta baldin badago, zein da benetako gizakia?.- heldu zion bigarren honetan, bere «gizaki naturalaren ideia» proposatuz, eta gizarteak atzera bueltarik ez duela onartuta, giza izatean oinarritzen den antolakuntza politikoa aldarrikatuz.<P>
Individualist and communitarian. Anarchist and totalitarian. Classicist and romanticist. Progressive and reactionary. Since the eighteenth century, Jean-Jacques Rousseau has been said to be all of these things. Few philosophers have been the subject of as much or as intense debate, yet almost everyone agrees that Rousseau is among the most important and influential thinkers in the history of political philosophy. This new edition of his major political writings, published in the year of the three-hundredth anniversary of his birth, renews attention to the perennial importance of Rousseau s work. The book brings together superb new translations by renowned Rousseau scholar John T. Scott of three of Rousseau s works: the "Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, " the "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality Among Men, "and "On the Social Contract. "The two "Discourses" show Rousseau developing his well-known conception of the natural goodness of man and the problems posed by life in society. With the "Social Contract, "Rousseau became the first major thinker to argue that democracy is the only legitimate form of political organization. Scott s extensive introduction enhances our understanding of these foundational writings, providing background information, social and historical context, and guidance for interpreting the works. Throughout, translation and editorial notes clarify ideas and terms that might not be immediately familiar to most readers. The three works collected in "The Major Political Writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau" represent an important contribution to eighteenth-century political theory that has exerted an extensive influence on generations of thinkers, beginning with the leaders of the French Revolution and continuing to the present day. The new translations on offer here will be welcomed by a wide readership of both Rousseau scholars and readers with a general interest in political thought. "
This volume combines Rousseau's essay on the origin of diverse languages with Herder's essay on the genesis of the faculty of speech. Rousseau's essay is important to semiotics and critical theory, as it plays a central role in Jacques Derrida's book Of Grammatology, and both essays are valuable historical and philosophical documents.
"Man was born free, but everywhere he is in chains." Thus begins Rousseau's influential 1762 work, in which he argues that all government is fundamentally flawed and that modern society is based on a system of inequality. The philosopher posits that a good government can justify its need for individual compromises and that promoting social settings in which people transcend their immediate appetites and desires leads to the development of self-governing, self-disciplined beings. A milestone of political science, these essays are essential reading for students of history, philosophy, and other social sciences. G. D. H. Cole translation.
Rousseau seeks to explain why, when freedom is the natural state of human beings, they are not in fact free, and to establish the basis for legitimacy in a political community.
With the publication of The Social Contract in 1761, Jean-Jacques Rousseau took his place among the leading political philosophers of the Enlightenment. Like his contractarian predecessors (Thomas Hobbes and John Locke), Rousseau sought to ground his political theory in an understanding of human nature, which he believed to be basically good but corrupted by the conflicting interests within society. Here self-interest degenerated into a state of war from which humanity could only be extricated by the imposition of a contract. As a party to the compact, each individual would find his true interest served within the political expression of the community of man, or the "general will."
The work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau is presented in two volumes, together forming the most comprehensive anthology of Rousseau's political writings in English. Volume II contains the later writings such as The Social Contract and a selection of Rousseau's letters on important aspects of his thought. The Social Contract has become Rousseau's most famous single work, but on publication was condemned by both the civil and the ecclesiastical authorities in France and Geneva. Rousseau fled and it is during this period that he wrote some of his autobiographical works as well as political essays such as On the Government of Poland. This 1997 volume, like its predecessor, contains a comprehensive introduction, chronology and guide to further reading, and will enable students to obtain a full understanding of the writings of one of the world's greatest thinkers.
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