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Value-added tax was first introduced less than 50 years ago. Today, it is a key component of tax systems around the world, and major source of government revenue in over 120 countries. The IMF has attached considerable importance to the proper design and implementation of the tax, and this book draws upon the work of the Fiscal Affairs Department (FAD) of the IMF. Over half of all countries that have introduced a VAT during the last twenty years have made use of FAD advice. The book considers a variety of issues regarding the development of the VAT, including: its nature, importance and spread; basic design issues; whether it is an effective and efficient method; revenue performance; collection costs; small countries and the VAT; the impact of international economic integration; and likely future developments.
A report from the International Monetary Fund.
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Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivona's Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.