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Karel J. Robot updates Karel the Robot and even Karel++ to provide a means of introducing novice programmers to object-oriented programming (OOP). This book maintains the simplicity of the original and yet provides instruction that is thoroughly object-oriented from the beginning. Where the original used a syntax and methodology derived from Pascal, the present text is 100% Java. In object-oriented programming, a computation is carried out by a set of interacting objects. Here, the objects are robots that exist in a simple world. There can be one or several robots assigned to a task. The programming task is divided into two parts. The first part is defining the capabilities of the robots that are needed. The second is providing a description of the task for the robots to perform. The programmer uses his or her problem solving skills on both parts of this task. This version goes beyond the earlier Karel++ to put more emphasis on polymorphism, the primary distinction between procedural programming and object-oriented programming. There is also an introduction to simple but important design patterns, such as those that have recently revolutionized software practice.
Rich in detail and broad in scope, this majestic book is the first to reveal the interaction of politics and religion in France during the crucial years of the long seventeenth century. Joseph Bergin begins with the Wars of Religion, which proved to be longer and more violent in France than elsewhere in Europe and left a legacy of unresolved tensions between church and state with serious repercussions for each. He then draws together a series of unresolved problems#151;both practical and ideological#151;that challenged French leaders thereafter, arriving at an original and comprehensive view of the close interrelations between the political and spiritual spheres of the time. The author considers the powerful religious dimension of French royal power even in the seventeenth century, the shift from reluctant toleration of a Protestant minority to increasing aversion, conflicts over the independence of the Catholic church and the power of the pope over secular rulers, and a wealth of other interconnected topics.