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1994-95 Mexican Peso Crisis

by Kenneth A. Froot Matthew Mcbrady

Explores the peso crisis of 1994-95 and why it occurred. Students must examine Mexico's policies, the capital market's reactions, and the implications of devaluation for future capital flows and growth.

Collateralized Loan Obligations and the Bistro Trust

by Kenneth A. Froot Ivan Farman

This case examines a large bank trying to protect itself from the risks and capital requirement created by its loan portfolio. Considers a variety of ways available to the firm to offload the risks.

Cross-Border Valuation

by Kenneth A. Froot W. Carl Kester

Provides a review of valuation techniques used to assess cross-border investments. Discusses the discounting of free cash flows with a weighted average cost of capital and the use of adjusted present value. Special concerns such as foreign-exchange risk, country risks, and international diversification are also discussed. Unlike Note on Cross-Border Valuation, this note contains no discussion of valuing real options. A rewritten version of an earlier note.

Framework for Risk Management

by David S. Scharfstein Jeremy C. Stein Kenneth A. Froot

In recent years, managers have become aware of how their companies can be buffeted by risks beyond their control. To insulate themselves from such risks, many companies are turning to the derivatives markets, taking advantage of instruments like forwards, futures, options, and swaps. Although heavily involved in risk management, most companies do not have clear goals underlying their hedging programs. Without such goals, using derivatives can be dangerous. The authors present a framework to guide top-level managers in developing a coherent risk-management strategy. That strategy cannot be delegated to the corporate treasurer--let alone to a hotshot financial engineer. Ultimately, a company's risk-management strategy needs to be integrated with its overall corporate strategy. A risk-management program should have one overarching goal: to ensure that a company has the cash available to make value-enhancing investments.


by Kenneth A. Froot Li Jin May Yu

A well-performing Chinese manufacturer faces major impediments raising funding to grow. Highlights various imperfections that shape the financing decision.

Global Equity Markets: The Case of Royal Dutch and Shell

by Kenneth A. Froot Andre F. Perold

Royal Dutch and Shell common stocks are securities with linked cash flow, so that the ratio of their stock prices should be fixed. In fact, the ratio is highly variable, moving with the markets where the securities are intensively traded. Royal Dutch trades more actively in the Netherlands and U.S. markets, whereas Shell trades more actively in the United States. The result is that the Royal Dutch/Shell relative price moves positively with the Netherlands and U.S. markets and negatively with the U.K. market. The ability to arbitrage these disparities and their causes are major case focal points.

Grupo Sidek (A)

by Kenneth A. Froot Alberto Moel

A large Mexican conglomerate, active in tourism, real estate, and steel, is faced with difficult macroeconomic conditions beginning with the Peso crisis of December 1994. The conglomerate had extensive dollar-indexed liabilities and was caught in a crunch when the Mexian Peso lost half its value against the dollar in late 1994. Even though a large portion of its revenues were also dollar-indexed, thus ostensibly providing a foreign exchange hedge, most of the conglomerate's customers were Mexican nationals. With the ensuing recession in 1995, the revenue base dried up, but the dollar liabilities were still outstanding. The case covers the period from late 1994 to February 1995 and deals with the financial and operational decision that Sidek had to face at that time.

Intel Corp.--1992

by Kenneth A. Froot

Intel Corp., the world's dominant designer and manufacturer of microprocessors (the "brains" of the personal computer), has accumulated a large amount of cash (net of debt). Furthermore, it expects to continue to accumulate cash at an unprecedented rate. Has the company grown up to the extent that it can begin disbursing cash to its shareholders? What kind of disbursement policy should it choose? Intel will continue to face competition from imitators of its processors in the future, yet it is not clear whether its cash holdings can or will be a competitive weapon in this competitive battle. The case focuses on financial policy issues and on how they then interact with a very unusual and dynamic form of product-market competition and innovation. Can be used as a one- or two-day exploration of the following issues: complementarity externalities and costs of finance, appropriability of returns on investments, the role of finance in high-tech and rapidly innovating sectors, the strategic uses of cash, analysis of capital structure and cash disbursement policies, the use of financial policy as a competitive weapon, and timing in the sale and purchase of equity-linked instruments.

The Law of One Price Over 700 Years

by Kenneth Rogoff Kenneth A. Froot Michael Kim

A report from the International Monetary Fund.

Nephila: Innovation in Catastrophe Risk Insurance

by Kenneth A. Froot Michael Heinrich

At the cross-section of capital markets and the catastrophe insurance space stands the hedge fund Nephila. Nephila must decide how best to take advantage of the newly presented market opportunities post hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Rita. Nephila has a plethora of options as it brings capital markets understanding to the insurance space. Nephila can easily trade in and out of insurance products and is not subject to regulatory restrictions. Yet, Nephila only capitalizes 1% of the entire catastrophe reinsurance market. What is the best way to grow?

UAL, 2004: Pulling Out of Bankruptcy

by Kenneth A. Froot Daniel B. Bergstresser Darren R. Smart

UAL is a large air transportation company with roots that go back to the 1920s. As a legacy carrier, going back to before the 1978 deregulation of air transportation markets, United Airlines is burdened with cost structures that make it difficult to compete with newer competitors. In addition, UAL has the burden of $7.6 billion in unfunded pension obligations and $2 billion in unfunded retiree health obligations. In June 2004, UAL is still operating under Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, which began December 2002. It has needed extensions of the exclusivity period from the bankruptcy court. UAL's plan of reorganization is predicated on receiving $1.8 billion in loan guarantees from the Air Transport Stabilization Board (ATSB). But its request for loan guarantees from the ATSB was recently rejected. The company must decide what to do next and how to emerge from bankruptcy.

USAA: Catastrophe Risk Financing

by Kenneth A. Froot Mark Seasholes

Describes the first major risk financing using catastrophe bonds. Provides a basis for discussing the securitization of insurance risks.

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