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This is a review of recent advances on the use of DNA microarray for diagnosing foodborne pathogens. Rapid detection and characterization of foodborne pathogens is critical for food safety. Many relevant technologies have been intensively developed to date. DNA microarray technology offers a new way to food safety involving pathogen detection and characterization. DNA microarray can be used for detection and characterization of pathogens by analyzing hybridization patterns between capture probes and nucleic acids isolated from food samples or bacteria. It allows more rapid, accurate, and cost-effective detection of pathogens compared with traditional approaches of cultivation or immuno-assays. The application of DNA microarrays to different foodborne bacteria, such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, or Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, will improve their rapid identification and characterization of their genetic traits (e.g., antimicrobial resistance, virulence). As bacterial foodborne diseases are posing more serious threats to public healthcare, development of rapid and accurate methods for pathogen detection and characterization is critical to their proper control at the earliest time.
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Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivonas Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.