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Antes del Big Bang

by Martin Bojowald

En su conocida obra Historia del tiempo, Stephen Hawking afirmaba que preguntar qué había antes del origen del universo es tan absurdo como preguntar qué hay al norte del polo Norte. Desde Einstein, el big bang era la última frontera que ningún físico se atrevía a cruzar. Incluso para la teoría general de la relatividad ese punto es considerado una singularidad que no se puede calcular y cuyas reglas físicas no están definidas. Es el punto en que comienza para nosotros el universo.Pese a todo ello, seguimos haciéndonos la misma pregunta: ¿Qué había antes del big bang? ¿Cómo nació el universo?El joven físico Martin Bojowald da respuesta gráficamente y sin fórmulas. Sus descubrimientos asombrosos sobre un mundo desconocido y emocionante, con tiempo negativo, inversión de la orientación espacial y un cosmos que se contrae para expandirse después del big bang actualizan viejos modelos cosmológicos sobre los ciclos de expansión y colapso del universo.«Bojowald consigue lo que Einstein y sus sucesores no consiguieron: llegar al punto temporal cero.»Wissenschaft im Brennpunkt

Once Before Time: A Whole Story of the Universe

by Martin Bojowald

Bojowald recounts his discovery of loop quantum cosmology (LQC) and explains how it can illuminate the very birth of the universe.

Quantum Cosmology

by Martin Bojowald

Consequences of quantum gravity on grander scales are expected to be enormous: only such a theory can show how black holes really behave and where our universe came from. Applications of loop quantum gravity to cosmology have especially by now shed much light on cosmic evolution of a universe in a fundamental, microscopic description. Modern techniques are explained in this book which demonstrate how the universe could have come from a non-singular phase before the big bang, how equations for the evolution of structure can be derived, but also what fundamental limitations remain to our knowledge of the universe before the big bang. The following topics will be covered in this book: Hamiltonian cosmology: a general basic treatment of isotropy, perturbations and their role for observations; useful in general cosmology. Effective equations: an efficient way to evaluate equations of quantum gravity, which is also useful in other areas of physics where quantum theory is involved. Loop quantization: a new formalism for the atomic picture of space-time; usually presented at a sophisticated mathematical level, but evaluated here from an intuitive physical side. The book will start with physical motivations, rather than mathematical developments which is more common in other expositions of this field. All the required mathematical methods will be presented, but will not distract the reader from seeing the underlying physics. Simple but representative models will be presented first to show the basic features, which are then used to work upwards to a general description of quantum gravity and its applications in cosmology. This will make the book accessible to a more general physics readership.

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