Covering Walks in Graphs is aimed at researchers and graduate students in the graph theory community and provides a comprehensive treatment on measures of two well studied graphical properties, namely Hamiltonicity and traversability in graphs. This text looks into the famous Kӧnigsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, the Icosian Game and the Traveling Salesman Problem as well as well-known mathematicians who were involved in these problems. The concepts of different spanning walks with examples and present classical results on Hamiltonian numbers and upper Hamiltonian numbers of graphs are described; in some cases, the authors provide proofs of these results to illustrate the beauty and complexity of this area of research. Two new concepts of traceable numbers of graphs and traceable numbers of vertices of a graph which were inspired by and closely related to Hamiltonian numbers are introduced. Results are illustrated on these two concepts and the relationship between traceable concepts and Hamiltonian concepts are examined. Describes several variations of traceable numbers, which provide new frame works for several well-known Hamiltonian concepts and produce interesting new results.
The fascinating world of graph theory goes back several centuries and revolves around the study of graphs--mathematical structures showing relations between objects. With applications in biology, computer science, transportation science, and other areas, graph theory encompasses some of the most beautiful formulas in mathematics--and some of its most famous problems. For example, what is the shortest route for a traveling salesman seeking to visit a number of cities in one trip? What is the least number of colors needed to fill in any map so that neighboring regions are always colored differently? Requiring readers to have a math background only up to high school algebra, this book explores the questions and puzzles that have been studied, and often solved, through graph theory. In doing so, the book looks at graph theory's development and the vibrant individuals responsible for the field's growth.Introducing graph theory's fundamental concepts, the authors explore a diverse plethora of classic problems such as the Lights Out Puzzle, the Minimum Spanning Tree Problem, the Königsberg Bridge Problem, the Chinese Postman Problem, a Knight's Tour, and the Road Coloring Problem. They present every type of graph imaginable, such as bipartite graphs, Eulerian graphs, the Petersen graph, and trees. Each chapter contains math exercises and problems for readers to savor.An eye-opening journey into the world of graphs, this book offers exciting problem-solving possibilities for mathematics and beyond.
Written by two of the most prominent figures in the field of graph theory, this comprehensive text provides a remarkably student-friendly approach. Geared toward undergraduates taking a first course in graph theory, its sound yet accessible treatment emphasizes the history of graph theory and offers unique examples and lucid proofs. 2004 edition.
Driven by the increasing demand for capacity and Quality of Service in wireless cellular networks and motivated by the distributed antenna system, the authors proposed a cooperative communication architecture--Group Cell architecture, which was initially brought forward in 2001. Years later, Coordinated Multiple-Point Transmission and Reception (CoMP) for LTE-Advanced was put forward in April 2008, as a tool to improve the coverage of cells having high data rates, the cell-edge throughput and/or to increase system throughput. This book mainly focuses on the Group Cell architecture with multi-cell generalized coordination, Contrast Analysis between Group Cell architecture and CoMP, Capacity Analysis, Slide Handover Strategy, Power Allocation schemes of Group Cell architecture to mitigate the inter-cell interference and maximize system capacity and the trial network implementation and performance evaluations of Group Cell architecture.
On National or Supranational Objectives: Improving the Effectiveness of Targeted Expenditure Programsby Eivind Tandberg Ehtisham Ahmad Ping Zhang
A report from the International Monetary Fund.
This monograph offers a detailed analysis of the creation, pilot implementation, and possible wide adoption of the real property tax at the local level in China. Starting in 2003, as China's economy gradually recovered from the Asian financial crisis that started in 1998, the real property market entered a period of rapid expansion, followed immediately by rampant speculation, rising housing costs, and official corruption. Over the last ten years, the price of real property in most cities has more than tripled, especially in metropolitan areas. In an effort to curb this, the government has instituted a number of property-market controls, including property tax pilot programs in Shanghai and Chongqing. While this is the latest of a number of fiscal reforms, it is a very important one that carries with it the ability to change the landscape of public finance, intergovernmental relations, and local governance in China. It represents a fundamental change in the provision of public services, the relationship between local governments and tax payers, and the status of localities in the government structure. Taking a public choice perspective, the authors argue that the local property tax should be used not solely as a means of controlling housing prices but should be fully employed as a fiscal and budgetary institution that will contribute to mitigating multifarious socio-economic problems resulting from economic growth, rapid urbanization, and widening income disparity. As this program is the first of its kind, so this book is the first detailed study of property tax in China; as such, it will appeal to researchers of public finance and public policy. It will also be of great interest to policymakers in China and in other countries that are considering adopting or reforming their versions of the local property tax. It fills the gap in a growing body of literature about the inner workings of Chinese economics and policy.
This SpringerBrief presents research results on QoE management schemes for mobile services, including user services, and resource allocation. Along with a review of the research literature, it offers a data-driven architecture for personalized QoE management in wireless networks. The primary focus is on introducing efficient personalized character extraction mechanisms, e. g. , context-aware Bayesian graph model, and cooperative QoE management mechanisms. Moreover, in order to demonstrate in the effectiveness of the QoE model, a QoE measurement platform is described and its collected data examined. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions. The example mechanisms and the data-driven architecture provide useful insights into the designs of QoE management, and motivate a new line of thinking for users' satisfaction in future wireless networks.
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