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Conventional wisdom maintains that the differences between Islam and Christianity are irreconcilable. Pre-eminent Middle East scholar Richard W. Bulliet disagrees, and in this fresh, provocative book he looks beneath the rhetoric of hatred and misunderstanding to challenge prevailing -- and misleading -- views of Islamic history and a "clash of civilizations." These sibling societies begin at the same time, go through the same developmental stages, and confront the same internal challenges. Yet as Christianity grows rich and powerful and less central to everyday life, Islam finds success around the globe but falls behind in wealth and power. Modernization in the nineteenth century brings in secular forces that marginalize religion in political and public life. In the Christian world, this simply furthers a process that had already begun. In the Middle East this gives rise to the tyrannical governments that continue to dominate. Bulliet argues that beginning in the 1950s American policymakers misread the Muslim world and, instead of focusing on the growing discontent against the unpopular governments, saw only a forum for liberal, democratic reforms within those governments. By fostering slogans like "clash of civilizations" and "what went wrong," Americans to this day continue to misread the Muslim world and to miss the opportunity to focus on common ground for building lasting peace. This book offers a fresh perspective on U.S.-Muslim relations and provides the intellectual groundwork upon which to help build a peaceful and democratic future in the Muslim world. On "clash of civilizations" "Civilizations that are destined to clash cannot seek together a common future. Like Mathews'Islam, Huntington's Islam is beyond redemption. The strain of Protestant American thought that both men are heir to, pronounces against Islam the same self-righteous and unequivocal sentence of 'otherness'that American Protestants once visited upon Catholics and Jews." On "what went wrong" "The idea that people in the Middle East once embraced the goal of becoming like Europe and hoped that by adopting European ideas and institutions they would someday experience all of the liberal values we recognize in the Europe of today is nonsense. It assumes a historical outcome for Europe itself that no one even in Europe could have predicted." On "why do they hate us" "Those who advanced the Japanese occupation as a model for postwar Iraq seem to have baseball, Hello Kitty, and Elvis impersonators in the back of their minds rather than headscarves and turbaned mullahs.... Like latter day missionaries, we want the Muslims to love us, not just for what we can offer in the way of a technological society but for who we are -- for our values. But we refuse to countenance the thought of loving them for their values." On Islam's ideological shortcomings "Jim Jones, David Koresh, and Meir Kahane do not typify Christianity and Judaism in the eyes of the civilized West but those same eyes are prone to see Osama bin Laden and Mullah Muhammad Omar as typifying Islam." On Middle East studies "The founders of Middle East studies ignored recommendations that they focus on contemporary Islam and focused instead on Middle Easterners trying to act like westerners. There weren't a lot of these, just as there hadn't been a lot of converts, but the conviction was strong that those few would be pioneers in bringing western modernity to the region... The people we supported as agents of modernity became tyrants."
A boom in the production and export of cotton made Iran the richest region of the Islamic caliphate in the ninth and tenth centuries. Yet in the eleventh century, Iran's impressive agricultural economy entered a steep decline, bringing the country's primacy to an end. Richard W. Bulliet advances several provocative theses to explain these hitherto unrecognized historical events. According to Bulliet, the boom in cotton production directly paralleled the spread of Islam, and Iran's agricultural decline stemmed from a significant cooling of the climate that lasted for over a century. The latter phenomenon also prompted Turkish nomadic tribes to enter Iran for the first time, establishing a political dominance that would last for centuries. Substantiating his argument with innovative quantitative research and recent scientific discoveries, Bulliet first establishes the relationship between Iran's cotton industry and Islam and then outlines the evidence for what he terms the "Big Chill." Turning to the story of the Turks, he focuses on the lucrative but temperature-sensitive industry of cross-breeding one-humped and two-humped camels. He concludes that this unusual concatenation of events had a profound and long-lasting impact not just on the history of Iran but on the development of world affairs in general.
The book explores the common challenges and experiences that unite the human past.
In this updated and reorganized edition, Bulliet (Middle Eastern history, Columbia U. ) and historians with other US colleges trace the emergence and growth of civilizations in various regions up to the present globalized world. They examine such major themes as technology and the environment, climate and population, and questions of identity. The well-illustrated text newly includes original essays, a primary source feature, and an auxiliary online study guide. Dates are not given for previous editions.
This is a textbook that not only speaks for the past but speaks to today's student and today's teacher. The book explores the common challenges and experiences that unite the human past. The Earth and Its Peoples is a truly global text that employs a fundamental theme, the interaction of human beings and the environment, as a point of comparison for different times, places, and societies.
Although this brief edition is two-thirds the length of its full-length counterpart, it retains coverage of all major themes and provides a truly global perspective on world history, without over-emphasizing Europe or the U. S. The Earth and Its Peoples focuses on the interaction of human beings and the environment, using this central theme to compare different times, places, and societies. Special emphasis is given to technology and how technological development underlies all human activity. Ideal for one-semester survey courses or courses for which instructors want to supplement their textbook with many primary sources, this text has been carefully abbreviated to maintain the essential narrative of world history. Key pedagogical elements have also been retained.
The book explores the common challenges and experiences that unite the human past and contains The Emergence of Human Communities, To 500 B.C.E., The Formation of New Cultural Communities, 1000 B.C.E-400 C.E., Growth and Interaction of Cultural Communities, 300 B.C.E.-1200 C.E., Interregional Patterns of Culture and Contact, 1200-1550, The Globe Encompassed, 1500-1750, Revolutions Reshape The World, Global Dominance and Diversity, The Perils and Promises of A Global Community, 1945-2000.
The AP World History exam consists of two section: Section I has seventy multiple-choice questions that make up half of your overall exam score. Section II has three parts. Section II, Part A, is the document-based question (DBQ); Section II, Part B, is the continuity and change over time question; Section II, Part C, is the comparative question.
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