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Nicolas de Condorcet (1743-1794), the innovating founder of mathematical thinking in politics, was the last great philosophe of the French Enlightenment and a central figure in the early years of the French Revolution. His political writings give a compelling vision of human progress across world history and express the hopes of that time in the future perfectibility of man. This volume contains a revised translation of 'The Sketch', written while in hiding from the Jacobin Terror, together with lesser-known writings on the emancipation of women, the abolition of slavery, the meanings of freedom and despotism and reflections on revolutionary violence. The introduction by Steven Lukes and Nadia Urbinati sets these works in context and shows why Condorcet is of real interest today as we reinterpret the meaning of Enlightenment, the very idea of progress and the founding ideas of social democracy.
Considered a landmark work when it was first published in 1895, The Rules of Sociological Method represents Emile Durkheim's manifesto for sociology. He argues forcefully for the objective, scientific, and methodological underpinnings of sociology as a discipline and establishes guiding principles for future research. With a substantial new introduction by the leading Durkheim scholar Steven Lukes, the book explains and sets into context Durkheim's argument. The still-controversial debates about The Rules of Sociological Method's six chapters are examined and their relevance to present-day sociology is discussed. The edition also includes Durkheim's subsequent thoughts on method in the form of articles, debates with scholars from other disciplines, and letters. This is an essential resource for students and scholars hoping to deepen their understanding of one of the pioneering voices in modern sociology and twentieth-century social thought. Durkheim's methodology is still relevant today. With substantial notes on context, this revised edition will greatly ease the task of students and scholars studying Durkheim and will engage a new generation of readers with his rich contribution to the field.