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Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders

by Thomas W. Gardner Robert D. Stratton William W. Hauswirth

Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders examines the role that oxidative and nitrosative stress plays in the complex physiology and pathophysiology of the retina and choroid. Both the basic science researcher and the clinical practitioner can use this book as a guide to the current understanding of retinal and choroidal cellular mechanisms involved in aging and disease. Beginning with a review of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathoetiology of AMD and a review of the complement system in the retina, the book then takes a detailed look at oxidative stress in lipid metabolism and oxidized lipoproteins in the retina. It examines the anti-apoptotic activity of α-crystallins in the presence of glutathione, oxidative stress in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, the role of iron in retinal disease, the mechanisms of pathological VEGF expression, NAPDH oxidase mechanisms, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor in oxidative stress in the retina. A detailed look at the Ccl2-/-/Cx3cr1-/- mouse model of AMD follows. Then a detailed examination of the systemic changes in AMD is followed by a discussion of cerium oxide nanoparticle reduction of oxidative stress. Two chapters discuss progenitor cells in the cause and treatment of retinal diseases including AMD and diabetic retinopathy. Natural compounds in the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases are exhaustively presented, followed by a chapter on serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonists in oxidative stress of the retina. The current anti-VEGF treatment strategies of neovascular AMD are then given. The volume continues with a detailed look at nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase in retinal vascular disease, an explanation of an in vivo technique of studying the effect of lipid hydroperoxides on circulating leucocytes in the retina, an excellent review of oxidative stress in retinopathy of prematurity, and a look at VEGF induced oxidative stress in the retinal ganglion cell. The book ends with a detail examination of the role of carotenoids in retinal health and disease. These 31 chapters summarize what is known about oxidative stress in retinal and choroidal disorders. All those involved with degenerative diseases of the eye will find Studies on Retinal and Choroidal Disorders to be illuminating and comprehensive.

Visual Dysfunction in Diabetes

by Colin J. Barnstable Joyce Tombran-Tink Thomas W. Gardner

An exciting contribution to the field, Visual Dysfunction in Diabetes: The Science of Patient Impairment and Improvement is designed with two overriding objectives: to help readers understand the impact of vision impairment in people living daily with diabetes rather than considering diabetic retinopathy solely as a medical problem, and to explore what we know and don't know about the ways diabetes affect the eye. With the plethora of new information being generated, there are still a series of fundamental questions that must be addressed if effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy are to be found and applied. Developed by a renowned group of authorities, Visual Dysfunction in Diabetes: The Science of Patient Impairment and Improvement offers responses and context for a range of questions, such as: do metabolic factors beyond glucose contribute to vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy? If so, how do these lead to vision impairment? Is diabetic retinopathy a response to systemic metabolic abnormalities or are there unique ocular problems related to insulin resistance? What is the relationship between the neural, vascular, and inflammatory abnormalities in diabetic retinopathy? Do they represent a pathological cascade induced sequentially or simultaneous responses to one or more metabolic perturbations? The authors note that if we do not address these types of questions, it is possible that the long process of developing new therapeutics will target only one arm of the pathology and leave the retina open to damaging consequences of the others. State-of-the-art, comprehensive, and an invaluable addition the research and clinical literature, Visual Dysfunction in Diabetes: The Science of Patient Impairment and Improvement offers guidance and a significant step toward new scientific approaches that can lessen the devastating vision impairment associated with diabetes.

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