The goal of the book is to examine scientific advances since 2000 that may have increased understanding and options in three general areas related to hypoxia: Characterization the Cause(s) of Hypoxia. The physical, biological and chemical processes that affect the development, persistence and extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Characterization of Nutrient Fate, Transport and Sources. Nutrient loadings, fate, transport and sources in the Mississippi River that impact Gulf Hypoxia. Scientific Basis for Goals and Management Options. The scientific basis for, and recommended revisions to, the goals proposed in the Action Plan; and the scientific basis for the efficacy of recommended management actions to reduce nutrient flux from point and nonpoint sources. In addressing the state of the science, the book focuses on the strengths and limitations of the science in managing the Gulf hypoxia problem, including available data, models and model results and uncertainty. It includes work from the following authors: C. Kling, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; J.L. Meyer, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; J. Sanders, Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA, USA; H. Stallworth, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C., USA; T. Armitage, Environmental Protection Agency,Washington, D.C., USA; D. Wangsness, U.S. Geological Survey, Atlanta, GA, USA; T.S. Bianchi, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; A. Blumberg, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ, USA; W. Boynton, University of Maryland, MD, USA; D.J. Conley, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; W. Crumpton, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; M.B. David, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA; D. Gilbert, Maurice-Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec, Canada; R.W. Howarth, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; R. Lowrance, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Tifton, GA, USA; K. Mankin, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA; J. Opaluch, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA; H. Paerl, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Morehead City, NC, USA; K. Reckhow, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; A.N. Sharpley, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; T.W. Simpson, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; C. Snyder, International Plant Nutrition Institute,USA; Conway, AR; D. Wright, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA, USA.
A central goal of transportation is the delivery of safe and efficient services with minimal environmental impact. In practice, though, human mobility has flourished while nature has suffered. Awareness of the environmental impacts of roads is increasing, yet information remains scarce for those interested in studying, understanding, or minimizing the ecological effects of roads and vehicles. Road Ecology addresses that shortcoming by elevating previously localized and fragmented knowledge into a broad and inclusive framework for understanding and developing solutions. The book brings together fourteen leading ecologists and transportation experts to articulate state-of-the-science road ecology principles, and presents specific examples that demonstrate the application of those principles. Diverse theories, concepts, and models in the new field of road ecology are integrated to establish a coherent framework for transportation policy, planning, and projects. Topics examined include: *foundations of road ecology *roads, vehicles, and transportation planning *vegetation and roadsides *wildlife populations and mitigation *water, sediment, and chemical flows *aquatic ecosystems *wind, noise, and atmospheric effects *road networks and landscape fragmentationRoad Ecology links ecological theories and concepts with transportation planning, engineering, and travel behavior. With more than 100 illustrations and examples from around the world, it is an indispensable and pioneering work for anyone involved with transportation, including practitioners and planners in state and province transportation departments, federal agencies, and nongovernmental organizations. The book also opens up an important new research frontier for ecologists.
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