Alzire first appeared on the stage in 1736 to great acclaim and success. Alzire is set Lima, Peru, at the time of the Spanish conquest. Don Gusman, a Spanish grandee, has just succeeded his father, Don Alvarez, in the Governorship of Peru. The rule of Don Alvarez had been beneficent and just; he had spent his life in endeavoring to soften the cruelty of his countrymen; and his only remaining wish was to see his son carry on the work which he had begun. Unfortunately, however, Don Gusman's temperament was the very opposite of his father's; he was tyrannical, harsh, headstrong, and bigoted. It is in vain that Don Alvarez reminds his son that the true Christian returns good for evil and as a result tragedy insues. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
This tragedy is founded on historical truth. A duke of Brittany, in the year 1387, commanded the lord of Bavalan to assassinate the constable of Clisson: Bavalan, the day after, told the duke it was done: the duke becoming sensible of the horror of his crime, and apprehensive of the fatal consequences of it, abandoned himself to the most violent despair: Bavalan, after giving him time to repent, at length told him that he had loved him well enough to disobey his orders.
This tragedy was produced in 1730. It marks Voltaire's spirit of daring in treating a subject from which Shakespeare shrank as, perhaps, too painful for representation. When revived during the Revolution it was enthusiastically applauded. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Witty and caustic, Candide has ranked as one of the world's great satires since its first publication in 1759. In the story of the trials and travails of the youthful Candide, his mentor Dr. Pangloss, and a host of other characters, Voltaire mercilessly satirizes and exposes romance, science, philosophy, religion, and government. A selection of the Common Core State Standards Initiative.
Candide, ou l'Optimisme (1759) is a French satire by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire, English translations of which have been titled Candide: Or, All for the Best (1759); Candide: Or, The Optimist (1762); and Candide: Or, Optimism (1947). The novella begins with a young man, Candide, who is living a sheltered life in an Edenic paradise and being indoctrinated with Leibnizian optimism (or simply optimism) by his tutor, Pangloss. The work describes the abrupt cessation of this existence, followed by Candide's slow, painful disillusionment as he witnesses and experiences great hardships in the world. Voltaire concludes with Candide, if not outright rejecting optimism, advocating an enigmatic precept, "we must cultivate our garden", in lieu of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss, "all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds". Candide is known for its sarcastic tone and its erratic, fantastical, and fast-moving plot. With a story similar to that of a more serious bildungsroman or picaresque novel, it parodies many adventure and romance clichés, the struggles of which are caricatured in a tone that is mordantly matter-of-fact. Still, the events discussed are often based on historical happenings, such as the Seven Years' War and the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with the problem of evil, so too does Candide in this short novel, albeit more directly and humourously. Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers through allegory; most conspicuously, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism. Excerpted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [This text is listed as an example that meets Common Core Standards in English language arts in grades 9-10 at http://www.corestandards.org.]
Voltaire and Pangloss travel the world looking for the good in life, but can they find it? Candide and his tutor Pangloss travel the globe trying to follow the philosophy 'All is for the best in this, the best of all possible worlds'. However, they are stung and let down at every turn, being robbed, tortured and ridiculed, amongst other trials. On hearing about their often disastrous travels, a listener feels unfortunately less than empathetic, and can't help themselves laughing out loud at this very funny account of the trail our optimistic travelers take, and at their eternal and endearing joy at the world and its potential discoveries. Read beautifully by Andrew Sachs.
Voltaire's brilliant satire, in the original French, with a new and exacting English translation on the opposing page. Through the adventures of Candide, we experience life's most crushing misfortunes, see the redeeming wisdom those misfortunes can bring -- all the while enjoying Voltaire's witty burlesque of human excess.
David Wootton's scalpel-sharp translation of Candide features a brilliant Introduction, a map of Candide's travels, and a selection of those writings of Voltaire, Leibniz, Pope and Rousseau crucial for fully appreciating this eighteenth-century satiric masterpiece that even today retains its celebrated bite.
Evergreen in its appeal, Candide makes us laugh at human folly and marvel at our reluctance to face reality and the truth. Voltaire's brilliant satire, first published in Paris in 1759, is relentless and unsparing. Virtue and vice, religion and romance, philosophy and science -- all are fair game. Through the adventures of young Candide, his love Cunégonde, and his mentor Dr. Pangloss, we experience life's most crushing misfortunes. And we see the redeeming wisdom those misfortunes can bring -- all the while enjoying Voltaire's witty burlesque of human excess. In this unique volume, readers who wish to follow every nuance of Voltaire's classic tale in the original French can do so with the aid of a new and exacting English translation on facing pages. Shane Weller's critical introduction illuminates the satire of Candide and the reasons for its enduring appeal.
This essential collection from the genius Voltaire includes his masterpiece and best-known work Candide, as well as his novel Zadig and fourteen short stories: "Micromegas," "The World as It Is," "Memnon," "Bababec and the Fakirs," "History of Scarmentado's Travels," "Plato's Dream," "Account of the Sickness, Confession, Death, and Apparition of the Jesuit Berthier," "Story of a Good Brahman," "Jeannot and Colin," "An Indian Adventure," "Ingenuous," "The One-Eyed Porter," "Memory's Adventure," "Count Chesterfield's Ears," and "Chaplain Goudman." Translated by Donald M. Frame, with notes and introduction by John Iverson.
Algunos de sus contemporáneos consideraban a Voltaire (Francia, 1694-1778) capaz de defender en un debate a cualquiera de las partes. Otros lo creían generoso y entusiasta. Pero el factor común era reconocer que rechazaba totalmente lo irracional. Hoy se lo considera un fuerte antecedente del existencialismo de Sartre y otros filósofos del siglo XX. Cándido o El Optimismo es una fantasía filosófica en la cual un joven es educado por su mentor, Pangloss, según la ideología optimista de Leibniz, de la cual Voltaire se burlaba. Cándido sufre innumerables desdichas y, al perder la creencia de estar viviendo en "el mejor mundo posible", decide que la felicidad está en "cultivar su propio huerto".
In his preface to this play Voltaire says: "The learned will not here meet with a faithful narrative of Catiline's conspiracy: a tragedy, they very well know, is not a history, but they will see a true picture of the manners of those times: all that Cicero, Catiline, Cato and Cæsar do in this piece is not true, but their genius and character are faithfully represented: if we do not there discover the eloquence of Cicero, we shall at least find displayed all that courage and virtue which he showed in the hour of danger. In Catiline is described that contrast of fierceness and dissimulation which formed his real character; Cæsar is represented as growing into power, factious, and brave; that Cæsar who was born at once to be the glory and the scourge of Rome." Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Francois-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, essayist, deist and philosopher known for his wit, philosophical sport, and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Christian Church dogma and the French institutions of his day. Many of his works and ideas would influence important thinkers of both the American and French Revolutions, an honour that he would share with other political theorists such as John Locke and Thomas Hobbes. In general criticism and miscellaneous writing, Voltaires writing was comparable to his other works. Almost all of his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his caustic yet conversational tone. He wrote Letters on England (1733), Zadig; or, The Book of Fate (1747), Candide (1759) and Philosophical Dictionary (1764). Also known as the Lettres anglaises ou philosophiques, Voltaire's response to his exile in England offered the French public of 1734 a panoramic view of British culture. Perceiving them as a veiled attack against the ancien regime, however, the French government ordered the letters burned and Voltaire persecuted.
This powerful work was read by Voltaire to Frederick of Prussia in 1740, to the king's great delight. The play was withdrawn after the fourth representation, under pressure of Church authorities who professed to see in it a bloody satire against the Christian religion. Almost three hundred years later critics are still unclear if this play is a rebuke of Islam or of Christianity or, perhaps, both. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
It is enough: the power of Salome, By all acknowledged, and by all obeyed, On its firm basis stands immovable: I fled to Azor, with the lightning's speed, Even from Samaria's plain to Jordan's spring, And quick returned: my presence there indeed Was needful, to cut off the aspiring hopes Of Israel's moody race: thy brother Herod, So long detained at Rome, was almost grown A stranger in his kingdom; and the people, Ever capricious, turbulent, and bold, Still to their kings unjust, aloud proclaimed, That Herod was condemned to slavery By haughty Rome; and Mariamne, raised To the high rank of her proud ancestors, Would from the blood of our high-priests select A king, to rule o'er conquered Palestine. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Unlike some other reproductions of classic texts (1) We have not used OCR(Optical Character Recognition), as this leads to bad quality books with introduced typos. (2) In books where there are images such as portraits, maps, sketches etc We have endeavoured to keep the quality of these images, so they represent accurately the original artefact. Although occasionally there may be certain imperfections with these old texts, we feel they deserve to be made available for future generations to enjoy.
"This Comedy is called in the French Nanine, ou le Préjugé Vaincu (Nanine, or Prejudice Overcome). It is written, as we are told in the title-page, in verses of ten syllables. The absurdity of comedies in rhyme I have already remarked. The original begins thus: Il faut parler, il faut, Monsieur le Comte, Vous expliquer nettement sur mon Compte. The reader cannot but observe, what villainous rhymes Comte and Compte are, and perhaps will more readily forgive my reducing this comedy into plain prose. It was produced in 1749."-Voltaire Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Œdipus was written when Voltaire was but nineteen years of age. It was played for the first time in 1718, and ran for forty-five nights. Du Frêsne, a celebrated actor, and of the same age as the author, played the part of Œdipus; and Madame Desmarêts, a famous actress, did Jocaste, and soon after quitted the stage. In this edition, the part of Philoctetes is restored, and stands exactly as it was in the first representation. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Yet it is too soon. When I possess the crown, your faithful eyes Shall be the witnesses of all my deeds. Stay in this porch, the priestesses to-day Present Olympia to the powers divine: This day in secret she must expiate, Sins which are even to herself unknown. This day a better life I shall begin. O! dear Olympia, may you never know The heinous crime that's hardly yet effaced, To whom your birth you owe, what blood I've shed. Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Orestes was produced in 1750, an experiment which intensely interested the literary world and the public. In his Dedicatory Letters to the Duchess of Maine, Voltaire has the following passage on the Greek drama: "We should not, I acknowledge, endeavor to imitate what is weak and defective in the ancients: it is most probable that their faults were well known to their contemporaries. I am satisfied, Madam, that the wits of Athens condemned, as well as you, some of those repetitions, and some declamations with which Sophocles has loaded his Electra: they must have observed that he had not dived deep enough into the human heart. I will moreover fairly confess, that there are beauties peculiar not only to the Greek language, but to the climate, to manners and times, which it would be ridiculous to transplant hither. Therefore I have not copied exactly the Electra of Sophocles-much more I knew would be necessary; but I have taken, as well as I could, all the spirit and substance of it."
The Chinese tragedy, which they call "The Orphan," was taken out of an immense collection of the theatrical performances of that nation, which has cultivated this art for about three thousand years before it was invented by the Greeks, the art of making living portraits of the actions of men, establishing schools of morality, and teaching virtue in dialogue and representation. For a long time dramatic poetry was held in esteem only in that vast country of China, separated from and unknown to the rest of the world, and in the city of Athens. Rome was unacquainted with it till above four hundred years afterwards. If you look for it among the Persians, or Indians, who pass for an inventive people, you will not find it there; it has never yet reached them. Asia was contented with the fables of Palpay and Lokman, which contain all their morality, and have instructed by their allegories every age and nation.-Voltaire Wilder Publications is a green publisher. All of our books are printed to order. This reduces waste and helps us keep prices low while greatly reducing our impact on the environment.
Fate would make us wretched here, But hope shall dry up every tear; In sorrow he shall give us rest, And make us even in anguish blest: Love shall preserve us from the paths of vice, And strew his flowers around the precipice.
Have you ever wondered how different worldviews have shaped history? How dominant religious or political groups have changed the way past events have been interpreted, written, and recorded? The greatest philosophical mind to come out of the Enlightenment has tackled these very questions in his essay Philosophy of History. Voltaire attempts to reinterpret the moral, esthetic, and religious views, and the customs and practices that prevailed in ancient civilizations. His prime concern was to disprove and demolish the established notions that governed contemporary affairs, which he found to be patently ridiculous, and write with courage and conviction. In Philosophy of History, he has a philosophical look through history from different races of man to legislators who have spoken in the name of the Gods. This enthralling essay is an essential read for scholars and students of the Enlightenment. Francois-Marie dArouet, pen name Voltaire, was an eighteenth-century philosopher, writer, and activist who played a leading role in the Enlightenment. He was known for his wit, philosophical sport, and defense of civil liberties, including both freedom of religion and free trade. Born in 1694 to a well-to-do public official, Voltaire enjoyed an elite upbringing and an excellent education, and from a young age he aspired to be like his idols Moliere, Racine, and Corneille. After a brief foray in a public service career, Voltaire quickly integrated himself into the literary circles of Paris and enjoyed its libertine culture. Upon accusation of defamation, Voltaire sojourned to England, where he spent three years in exile. During this period, he discovered the English philosophers Locke and Newton and began running in the same circles as his English contemporaries Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope. Voltaire was a prolific writer and produced works in almost every literary form, authoring plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works, more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Catholic Church dogma and the French institutions of his day. Throughout his career, Voltaire continued to develop his philosophical and political ideas while at the same time writing poetry, plays, and essays. Western philosophy, in part thanks to Voltaire and his conception of the philosophe, was profoundly changed as the Enlightenment progressed, and Voltaire was continually honored in life and will forever be remembered in death as the greatest humanist thinker of his time.
Have you ever wondered how different worldviews have shaped history? How dominant religious or political groups have changed the way past events have been interpreted, written, and recorded? Voltaire, the greatest philosophical mind to come out of the Enlightenment, has tackled these very questions in his essay The Philosophy of History. Voltaire attempts to reinterpret the moral, aesthetic, and religious views and the customs and practices that prevailed in ancient civilizations. In The Philosophy of History, he takes a philosophical look through history from different races of man to legislators who have spoken in the name of the Gods. This enthralling essay is an essential read for scholars and students of the Enlightenment. The Philosophy of History was first published in London in 1776 and is a typical representation of Voltaire's attitude toward life and reality. His prime concern was to disprove and demolish the established notions that governed contemporary affairs; they were, in his penetrating view, patently ridiculous. He spread his iconoclastic aim throughout his work. The model for all subsequent dissenters, Voltaire wrote with courage and conviction most importantly, with controlled genius that lent to his words and ideas a strength and aggregate that has resisted the erosive influence of time. This ebook is derived from the original edition published in 1776, with a preface by Thomas Kiernan