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Candide, ou l'Optimisme (1759) is a French satire by the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire, English translations of which have been titled Candide: Or, All for the Best (1759); Candide: Or, The Optimist (1762); and Candide: Or, Optimism (1947). The novella begins with a young man, Candide, who is living a sheltered life in an Edenic paradise and being indoctrinated with Leibnizian optimism (or simply optimism) by his tutor, Pangloss. The work describes the abrupt cessation of this existence, followed by Candide's slow, painful disillusionment as he witnesses and experiences great hardships in the world. Voltaire concludes with Candide, if not outright rejecting optimism, advocating an enigmatic precept, "we must cultivate our garden", in lieu of the Leibnizian mantra of Pangloss, "all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds". Candide is known for its sarcastic tone and its erratic, fantastical, and fast-moving plot. With a story similar to that of a more serious bildungsroman or picaresque novel, it parodies many adventure and romance clichés, the struggles of which are caricatured in a tone that is mordantly matter-of-fact. Still, the events discussed are often based on historical happenings, such as the Seven Years' War and the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with the problem of evil, so too does Candide in this short novel, albeit more directly and humourously. Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers through allegory; most conspicuously, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism. Excerpted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [This text is listed as an example that meets Common Core Standards in English language arts in grades 9-10 at http://www.corestandards.org.]
Algunos de sus contemporáneos consideraban a Voltaire (Francia, 1694-1778) capaz de defender en un debate a cualquiera de las partes. Otros lo creían generoso y entusiasta. Pero el factor común era reconocer que rechazaba totalmente lo irracional. Hoy se lo considera un fuerte antecedente del existencialismo de Sartre y otros filósofos del siglo XX. Cándido o El Optimismo es una fantasía filosófica en la cual un joven es educado por su mentor, Pangloss, según la ideología optimista de Leibniz, de la cual Voltaire se burlaba. Cándido sufre innumerables desdichas y, al perder la creencia de estar viviendo en "el mejor mundo posible", decide que la felicidad está en "cultivar su propio huerto".
Have you ever wondered how different worldviews have shaped history? How dominant religious or political groups have changed the way past events have been interpreted, written, and recorded? The greatest philosophical mind to come out of the Enlightenment has tackled these very questions in his essay Philosophy of History. Voltaire attempts to reinterpret the moral, esthetic, and religious views, and the customs and practices that prevailed in ancient civilizations. His prime concern was to disprove and demolish the established notions that governed contemporary affairs, which he found to be patently ridiculous, and write with courage and conviction. In Philosophy of History, he has a philosophical look through history from different races of man to legislators who have spoken in the name of the Gods. This enthralling essay is an essential read for scholars and students of the Enlightenment. Francois-Marie dArouet, pen name Voltaire, was an eighteenth-century philosopher, writer, and activist who played a leading role in the Enlightenment. He was known for his wit, philosophical sport, and defense of civil liberties, including both freedom of religion and free trade. Born in 1694 to a well-to-do public official, Voltaire enjoyed an elite upbringing and an excellent education, and from a young age he aspired to be like his idols Moliere, Racine, and Corneille. After a brief foray in a public service career, Voltaire quickly integrated himself into the literary circles of Paris and enjoyed its libertine culture. Upon accusation of defamation, Voltaire sojourned to England, where he spent three years in exile. During this period, he discovered the English philosophers Locke and Newton and began running in the same circles as his English contemporaries Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope. Voltaire was a prolific writer and produced works in almost every literary form, authoring plays, poetry, novels, essays, historical and scientific works, more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken supporter of social reform, despite strict censorship laws and harsh penalties for those who broke them. A satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize Catholic Church dogma and the French institutions of his day. Throughout his career, Voltaire continued to develop his philosophical and political ideas while at the same time writing poetry, plays, and essays. Western philosophy, in part thanks to Voltaire and his conception of the philosophe, was profoundly changed as the Enlightenment progressed, and Voltaire was continually honored in life and will forever be remembered in death as the greatest humanist thinker of his time.
Arabian, French, German, Scandinavian, and Spanish fairy tales first compiled in 1895. These stories teach moral lessons to children while capturing their imagination.
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