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The 2010 World Bank Entrepreneurship Snapshots (WBGES) provide a unique indicator of business creation around the world and facilitate the investigation of the factors that foster dynamic private sector growth. Now in its fourth year, the WBGES measure entrepreneurial activity in 115 developing and industrial countries over the six year period 2004-2009. Importantly, the data offer a distinctive and timely snapshot of the impact of the 2008-2009 financial crisis on entrepreneurial activity. There is wide variation in new business creation across countries: On average, about four new firms register every year for every 1,000 working age individuals in industrialized countries, while there is less than one new firm registered in low and low middle income countries. The data show that dynamic business creation occurs in countries that provide entrepreneurs with good governance, a strong legal and regulatory environment, and reduced red tape. The data also show that nearly all countries experienced a sharp drop in business entry during the crisis. However, industrialized countries experienced the crisis more quickly and more severely than other income groups. In addition, the degree to which the crisis impacted new firm creation is correlated with measures of crisis severity. Finally, we find that countries in which financial markets play a larger role in the domestic economy experienced sharper declines in new business registrations as a result of the crisis that paralyzed financial markets. These results can guide effective policymaking and deliver new capabilities for identifying the impact of reforms.
Each year, millions of children in developing countries fall sick and die from diseases caused by polluted air, contaminated water and soil, and poor hygiene behavior. Repeated infectious also contribute to malnutrition in children, and subsequently impacts future learning and productivity. This book analyzes the linkages between malnutrition and environmental health, and assesses the burden of disease on young children, and its economic costs.
This evaluation assesses the Bank Group's support for environmental sustainability in both the public and private sectors over the past 15 years. It identifies several crucial constraints that need to be addressed, perhaps most importantly insufficient government commitment to environmental goals and weak institutional capacity to deal with them. But constraints within the Bank Group, including insufficient attention to longer-term sustainable development, must be reduced as well. The Bank Group needs improved systems in place--across the World Bank, IFC, and MIGA--to monitor environmental outcomes and to assess impacts. Better coordination among the three parts of the Bank Group is also among the key challenges.
Access to financial services varies sharply around the world. In many developing countries less than half the population has an account with a financial institution, and in most of Africa less than one in five households do. Lack of access to finance is often the critical mechanism for generating persistent income inequality, as well as slower growth. 'Finance for All?: Policies and Pitfalls in Expanding Access' documents the extent of financial exclusion around the world; addresses the importance of access to financial services for growth, equity and poverty reduction; and discusses policy interventions and institutional reforms that can improve access for underserved groups. The report is a broad ranging review of the work already completed or in progress, drawing on research utilizing data at the country, firm and household level. Given that financial systems in many developing countries serve only a small part of the population, expanding access remains an important challenge across the world, leaving much for governments to do. However, not all government actions are equally effective and some policies can be counterproductive. The report sets out principles for effective government policy on broadening access, drawing on the available evidence and illustrating with examples.
The training and development of human capital in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) will help countries in the region diversify their economies, carry out economic transformation, and support sustainable growth. Higher education plays a key role in training qualified individuals who will be able to implement new technologies and use innovative methods to establish cost-efficient and effective enterprises and institutions. However, in order for SSA to reap the benefits of this investment in human capital, higher education institutions must secure financing to provide quality training and sound professional prospects to their students. Currently, tertiary education development is unsustainable-resources per student are declining and the quality of education is affected. These issues are particularly pressing in times of financial global crisis, when available resources for tertiary education tend to diminish. The impact of the crisis that started in 2008 provides a clear illustration of the need to explore innovative ways to diversify and secure financing for higher education in SSA. 'Financing Higher Education in Africa' provides a comprehensive overview of higher education financing in SSA. The book begins with an explanation of the fundamental problems faced by higher education institutions and students in SSA, namely the combined pressure of a rapid growth in demand and a growing scarcity of public resources, and it presents the dramatic consequences of these trends on quality. The book then turns to analyzing and comparing the current funding policies in SSA countries and it provides recommendations for improvement. Finally, the book examines the alternatives to the status quo and the policy tools needed to both diversify resources and allocate them based on performance. It will be of great interest to governments, universities, research institutions, and international organizations throughout the region.
The 'Forests Sourcebook' provides practical operations-oriented guidance for forest sector engagement toward the goals of poverty reduction, conservation and economic development. Intended to guide World Bank lending activities and projects, the 'Forests Sourcebook' offers information useful to a broad audience of practitioners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. The 'Sourcebook was developed in partnership with members of the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, including the Food and Agriculture Organization. The 'Sourcebook' provides background on key issues, lessons learned, and recommendations for practitioners on a number of topics including private sector engagement, forest governance, sustainable plantation and commercial harvesting, and forest information management systems. Giving insight into the complex interplay between different realms of development work that effect or are affected by forests, the 'Forests Sourcebook' is a valuable tool for any stakeholder involved in development or business projects that could have impact on forests.
'From Privilege to Competition: Unlocking Private-Led Growth in the Middle East and North Africa' sheds new light on the difficult quest for stronger and more diversified growth in a region of unquestionable potential. It underlines the need to strengthen reforms in many areas-specifically, by reducing policy uncertainty and improving credit and real estate markets. It also highlights other important issues that restrain the credibility and impact of reforms in many parts of the region: conflicts of interest between politicians and businesses, an investment climate that favors a few privileged firms, and a dominant private sector that often opposes reforms. The book recommends that countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engage in more credible reform agendas by improving the implementation of policies in a manner that will reduce discretion and privileges. This renewed commitment to stronger growth would entail several developments. First, governments will need to reduce opportunities for rent-seeking and foster competition. Second, they will need to work to reform institutions: private sector development policies will need to be systematically anchored in elements of institutional and public sector reforms in order to reduce discretion and opacity and improve the quality of services to firms. Third, they will need to mobilize all stakeholders, including larger representations from the private sector, around dedicated long-term growth strategies. Short of such a fundamental shift in the way private sector policies are formulated and implemented, investor expectations that governments are committed to reform will be limited. It will take political will-and time-to support sustained reforms that credibly convince investors and the public that changes are real, deep, and set to last. MENA countries are endowed with strong human capital, good infrastructure, immense resources, and a great deal of untapped creativity and entrepreneurship. The economic and social payoff of embarking on a more ambitious private-led growth agenda could thus be immense-for all.
This thematic study consists of case studies of Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda, as well as, a review of studies undertaken over the past ten years on education in Africa with particular attention to girls' and secondary education. Gender equity at the primary level has been the focus of considerable attention within the Education for All Framework of Action, but much less so at the secondary level. Evidence of gender inequity and inequality in terms of access, retention and performance in secondary education in SSA raises many questions. While transition rates from primary to secondary are higher for girls than boys, and the repetition rates are lower, girls still significantly trail behind boys in graduation and enrollment rates. The purpose of this study is to document and analyze the extent and nature of gender disadvantage in junior and senior secondary education, to analyze the causes of this disadvantage, and to identify strategies that may be effective in reducing or eliminating it. This study was prepared as part of the Secondary Education and Training in Africa (SEIA) initiative which aims to assist countries to develop sustainable strategies for expansion and quality improvements in secondary education and training. All SEIA products are available on its website: www.worldbank.org/afr/seia.
The 'Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook' provides an up-to-date understanding of gender issues and a rich compilation of compelling evidence of good practices and lessons learned to guide practitioners in integrating gender dimensions into agricultural projects and programs. It is serves as a tool for: guidance; showcasing key principles in integrating gender into projects; stimulating the imagination of practitioners to apply lessons learned, experiences, and innovations to the design of future support and investment in the agriculture sector. The Sourcebook draws on a wide range of experience from World Bank, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and other donor agencies, governments, institutions, and groups active in agricultural development. The Sourcebook looks at: access to and control of assets; access to markets, information and organization; and capacity to manage risk and vulnerability through a gender lens. There are 16 modules covering themes of cross-cutting importance for agriculture with strong gender dimensions (Policy, Public Administration and Governance; Agricultural Innovation and Education; Food Security; Markets; Rural Finance; Rural Infrastructure; Water; Land; Labor; Natural Resource Management; and Disaster and Post-Conflict Management) and specific subsectors in agriculture (Crops, Livestock, Forestry, and Fisheries). A separate module on Monitoring and Evaluation is included, responding to the need to track implementation and development impact. Each module contains three different sub-units: (1) A Module Overview gives a broad introduction to the topic and provides a summary of major development issues in the sector and rationale of looking at gender dimension; (2) Thematic Notes provide a brief and technically sound guide in gender integration in selected themes with lessons learned, guidelines, checklists, organizing principles, key questions, and key performance indicators; and (3) Innovative Activity Profiles describe the design and innovative features of recent and exciting projects and activities that have been implemented or are ongoing.
'Global Development Finance' - the World Bank's annual report on the external financing of developing countries - provides monitoring and analysis of development finance, identifying key emerging trends and policy challenges in international financial flows that are likely to affect the growth prospects of developing countries. As major financial institutions currently recognize losses from the U.S. subprime mortgage market crisis and rebuild their balance sheets through a more conservative approach to lending and risk management, the central theme of this year's report will be the market for international bank credit to developing countries.It is an indispensable resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. 'Vol I: Analysis and Outlook' reviews recent trends in financial flows to developing countries. 'Vol II. Summary and Country Tables'* includes comprehensive data for 138 countries, as well as summary data for regions and income groups. Also available on CD-ROM, with more than 200 historical time series from 1970 to 2006, and country group estimates for 2007. * 'Vol II. Summary and Country Tables' not sold separately.
"The crisis has deeply impacted virtually every economy in the world, and although growth has returned, much progress in the fight against poverty has been lost. More difficult international conditions in the years to come will mean that developing countries will have to place even more emphasis on improving domestic economic conditions to achieve the kind of growth that can durably eradicate poverty." -Justin Yifu Lin, Chief Economist and Senior Vice President The World Bank 'Global Economic Prospects 2010: Crisis, Finance, and Growth' explores both the short- and medium-term impacts of the financial crisis on developing countries. Although global growth has resumed, the recovery is fragile, and unless business and consumer demand strengthen, the world economy could slow down again. Even if, as appears likely, a double-dip recession is avoided, the recovery is expected to be slow. High unemployment and widespread restructuring will continue to characterize the global economy for the next several years. Already, the crisis has provoked large-scale human suffering. Some 64 million more people around the world are expected to be living on less than a $1.25 per day by the end of 2010, and between 30,000 and 50,000 more infants may have died of malnutrition in 2009 in Sub-Saharan Africa, than would have been the case if the crisis had not occurred. Over the medium term, economic growth is expected to recover. But increased risk aversion, a necessary and desirable tightening of financial regulations in high-income countries, and measures to reduce the exposure of developing economies to external shocks are likely to make finance scarcer and more costly than it was during the boom period. As a result, just as the ample liquidity of the early 2000s prompted an investment boom and an acceleration in developing-country potential output, higher costs will likely yield a slowing in developing-country potential growth rates of between 0.2 and 0.7 percentage points, and as much as an 8 percent decline in potential output over the medium term. In the longer term, however, developing countries can more than offset the implications of more expensive international finance by reducing the cost of capital channeled through their domestic financial markets. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org/gep2010. To access Prospects for the Global Economy, an online companion publication, please visit www.worldbank.org/globaloutlook.
'Global Monitoring Report 2008', the fifth in an annual series, is essential reading for those who wish to follow the global development agenda and debate in 2008. The year marks the midpoint toward the 2015 deadline for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is also an important year to work toward a consensus on how the world is going to respond to the challenge of climate change, building on the foundation laid at the Bali climate change conference in December 2007. The report spans this agenda. It provides a comprehensive assessment of progress toward the MDGs and related policies and actions. It addresses the challenge of climate change and environmental sustainability and assesses its implications for development. The report's assessment of MDGs at midpoint presents a mixed picture, one of both significant progress and formidable challenges. The first MDG, reducing extreme poverty by half, is likely to be met at the global level, thanks to a remarkable surge in global economic growth over the past decade. But, on current trends, the human development MDGs are unlikely to be met. Prospects are gravest for the goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, but shortfalls are also likely in the primary school completion. nutrition, and sanitation MDGs. The potential effects of climate change compound the challenge of achieving the development goals and sustaining progress. The report's messages are clear: urgent action is needed to help the world get back on track to achieve the MDGs; and urgent action is also needed to combat climate change that threatens the well-being of all countries, but particularly of poor countries and poor people. The goals of development and environmental sustainability are closely related, and the paths to those goals have important synergies.
What has been the impact of yet another food price spike on developing countries' ability to make progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)? How many poor people have been prevented from lifting themselves out of poverty? How many people, and how many children, have seen their personal growth and development permanently harmed because their families could not afford to buy food? Finally, what can countries do to respond to higher and more volatile food prices? Global Monitoring Report 2012: Food Prices, Nutrition, and the Millennium Development Goals examines these questions. It summarizes the effects of food prices on several MDGs, stressing that recent food price spikes have prevented millions of households from escaping extreme poverty. The report advocates using agricultural policy to orchestrate a supply response; deploying social safety nets to improve resilience; strengthening nutritional policy to manage the implications of early childhood development; and implementing trade policy to improve access to food markets, reduce volatility, and induce productivity gains. The report acknowledges that one size does not fit all and that the sequencing and prioritization of various policy initiatives depend critically on the initial situation a country or region finds itself in. It also discusses support by the international community. The world has met two global MDG targets well before the 2015 deadline. Estimates based on preliminary surveys indicate that the share of people living in extreme poverty in 2010 was half what it was in 1990. The world has also halved the share of people with no safe drinking water. The goal of gender parity in primary and secondary education is on track to be met in 2015, and the goal of ensuring that children everywhere--boys and girls alike--are able to complete primary school is nearly on track. But the MDGs closely linked to food and nutrition, particularly those that aim to reduce child and maternal mortality, are lagging. Global Monitoring Report 2012 was prepared jointly by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, with consultations and collaborations with regional development banks and other multilateral partners.
Increasingly the role of management and governance is recognized as important for providing and delivering effective services at all levels of education. In view of the growing demand for more and better services at secondary education levels, these are crucial issues that must be addressed urgently. Sub-Saharan Africa's secondary education and training systems must become more efficient and more effective. The current (unit) costs of junior and senior secondary education in most African countries prevent massive expansion of post-primary education. This demands a holistic approach to governance and management issues. In parallel, there is a demand from civil society and governments for greater accountability. This study aims to present best practices and identify sustainable development plans for expansion and improved quality and efficiency in the delivery of secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa through better governance, management, and accountability.
The World Bank Group is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Its focus is on helping the poorest people in the poorest countries by using its financial resources, staff, and extensive experience to aid countries in reducing poverty, increasing economic growth, and improving quality of life. In partnership with more than 100 developing countries, the Bank Group is striving to improve health and education, fight corruption, boost agricultural support, build roadsand ports, and protect the environment. Other projects are aimed at rebuilding war-torn countries or regions, providing basic services such as access to clean water, and encouraging investments that create jobs. In addition to this critical groundwork around the world, various parts of the World Bank Group are involved in activities ranging from conducting economic research and analysis to providing financial and advisory services to governments and private enterprises. This completely revised and updated second edition provides an accessible and straightforward overview of the World Bank Group's history, organization, mission, and purpose. Additionally, for those wishing to delve further into subjects of particular interest, the book guides readers to sources containing more detailed information, including annual reports, Web sites, publications, and e-mail addresses for various departments. It also provides information on how to work for or do business with the World Bank. A good introduction for anyone interested in understanding what the World Bank Group does and how it does it, this book shows readers who want to learn more where to begin.
This paper, based on quantitative surveys at the level of primary health care facilities, health care personnel, and households in their vicinity, aims at understanding the performance of primary health care providers in four states in Nigeria. As possible ways to improve performance, the paper concludes that clearly defining lines of responsibility, implementing performance-based financing of local governments and providers, and collecting, analyzing, and sharing information are some options that can help realign incentives and improve accountability in the service delivery chain and service provision. This working paper was produced as part of the World Bank's Africa Region Health Systems for Outcomes (HSO) Program. The Program, funded by the World Bank, the Government of Norway, the Government of the United Kingdom, and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), focuses on strengthening health systems in Africa to reach the poor and achieve tangible results related to Health, Nutrition, and Population. The main pillars and focus of the program center on knowledge and capacity building related to Human Resources for Health, Health Financing, Pharma-ceuticals, Governance and Service Delivery, and Infrastructure and ICT.
Social inclusion is on the agenda of governments, policymakers, and nonstate actors around the world. Underpinning this concern is the realization that despite progress on poverty reduction, some people continue to feel left out. This report aims to unpack the concept of social inclusion and understand better how policies can be designed to further inclusion. First, the report offers a definition of social inclusion as the "process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in society." It unpacks different domains of society that excluded groups and individuals are at particular risk of being left out of -- markets, services, and spaces. Second, the report discusses the most important global mega-trends such as migration, climate chnage, and aging of societies, which will impact challenges and opportunities for inclusion. Finally, it argues that despite these challenges, change towards inclusion is possible and offers examples of inclusionary policies.
The World Bank, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Research Institute, and the Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development (FASID), in collaboration with researchers affiliated with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), recently conducted a study on Africa's domestic enterprises to improve the understanding of the constraints micro and small enterprises in Africa face in improving productivity and expanding their markets. In Africa, there are stark performance gaps between domestically owned enterprises and foreign-owned enterprises in terms of sales performance, productivity, and ability to reach distant markets. Among others, size appears to be a dominant factor in explaining the gap. Against this background, the study analyzes how naturally formed industrial clusters-concentrations of enterprises engaged in same or closely related industrial activities in specific locations-could potentially mitigate constraints Africa's micro and small enterprises face and enhance their business performance. The study is one of the first comprehensive quantitative inquiries on industrial clusters in Africa. The analysis specifically focuses on the role of spontaneously grown clusters of light manufacturing industries based on a set of original case studies of industrial clusters conducted for this research project. One of the key findings from the case studies was that cluster-based micro and small enterprises are performing better than similar micro and small enterprises outside of the clusters in terms of sales performance and ability to reach distant markets. Market access is a leading reason for cluster-based enterprises to choose their current locations. However, cluster-based enterprises face another set of unique growth constraints. By the very nature of spontaneous agglomeration, new enterprises continue to flow to the clusters seeking the profit opportunities and better access to markets at such locations. The result can be intense competition in addition to increased congestion. Space constraints often impede growth within clusters. The lack of alternative locations available for industrial activities in the same cities, generic infrastructure bottlenecks, and unclear zoning policies and their unpredictable changes limit firms' location choices and constrain their mobility. While competition should improve efficiency, lack of capacity among those competing cluster-based enterprises to invest and innovate does not generate growth out of the competition. The vast majority of naturally formed clusters of light manufacturing industries in Africa are still at a "survival" level, where agglomeration externalities are only limited to expand quantity but not quality as we observe in more advanced innovation-oriented clusters in elsewhere in the world. Existing studies on such natural industrial clusters in Africa have found that the lack of managerial skills among entrepreneurs running micro and small enterprises is a major constraint for innovation and growth in the clusters. As a part of this study, pilot managerial skills training programs were conducted in two industrial clusters on an experimental basis, where a group of randomly selected entrepreneurs within the clusters were given three-week long crush course of based management such as bookkeeping, marketing, business planning, and production management. The impact evaluation of the experiments showed significant positive impacts of the training programs on value added and gross profits of enterprises. Raising the current survival-type industrial clusters, which have been formed as a coping mechanism to weak investment climate, into more dynamic innovating clusters will be an important avenue for fostering growth of micro and small enterprises in Africa. While national efforts to improve investment climate and investments in human capital are undoubtedly important, there could be more targeted policies to be formulated, in complementing general policies, to support growth of micro and small domestic enterprises using exi...
Innovation in all its forms, particularly technological innovation, has become a crucial driver of growth, enhancing competitiveness and increasing social well-being in all economies of the world. In a broad and diversified sense, innovation comprises not only the creation of new technology, but even more important, it includes the diffusion and use of products, processes, and practices that are new in a given country context. Inspired by the experiences of both industrial and developing countries, this book focuses on the needs and issues of the latter. Aiming at creating a climate in which innovative initiatives can multiply and flourish, innovation policy, by its very nature, touches such diverse policy areas as education and training, skills development, science and research, the business environment, information and communication technology, and other infrastructure. Adopting this interdepartmental perspective, this guidebook presents, in detail, the actions required in such a varied set of policy areas that typically work in silos. It offers also insights on the implementation of innovation policies in the difficult contexts of low and medium income countries characterized by the resistance of innovation systems to significant improvements. 'Innovation Policy: A Guide for Developing Countries' is geared toward the policy-making community. This large group includes not only those who deal directly with technology, industry, science, and education but also those in charge of finance and economics. Indeed, it includes the top government leadership, which plays a crucial role in successful innovation policies.
The past two decades have witnessed a convergence between human rights and development, particularly at the level of international political statements and policy commitments. This phenomenon is captured in milestones such as the 2007 OECD DAC Action Oriented Policy Paper on Human Rights and Development (â œAOPPâ ?), the 2010 UN World Summit Outcome Document, the commitments of the 2005 and 2011 High-Level For an Aid Effectiveness in Accra and Busan. The connections between rights violations, poverty, exclusion, environmental degradation, vulnerability and conflict continue to be explored and better understood. More positively, there is growing recognition of the intrinsic importance of human rights in a range of contexts, as well as their potential instrumental relevance for improving development processes and outcomes. This second edition of Integrating Human Rights into Development: Donor Approaches, Experiences and Challenges consolidates the research and findings complied in 2006 with relevant developments that have occurred in the intervening six years. It brings together the key political and policy statements of recent years with a discussion of the approaches and experiences of bilateral and multilateral agencies engaged in integrating human rights in their development cooperation activities in a variety of ways. Despite rapid changes in the donor landscape and acute budget pressures resulting from the financial crisis, the experience of the past six years also attests to the sustained commitment of OECD member countries and multilateral donors to engage with human rights strategically, as a means for improving the ways they deliver and manage aid and the quality of development co-operation.
In order to minimize the need for taxpayers to respond to multiple revenue agencies, some countries have integrated their revenue administrations, either by merging tax and customs administration, or unifying collection of tax and social contributions. This book examines the experience of 11 countries in doing so. Their experiences indicate that integrating collection entails modernizing the revenue administration and reducing contact between the tax office and taxpayers, thanks to the extensive use of ICT.
International Debt Statistics (IDS) 2013 is a continuation of the World Bank's publications Global Development Finance, Volume II (1997 through 2009) and the earlier World Debt Tables (1973 through 1996). IDS 2013 provides statistical tables showing the external debt of 128 developing countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt to the World Bank's Debtor Reporting System (DRS). It also includes tables of key debt ratios for individual reporting countries and the composition of external debt stocks and flows for individual reporting countries and regional and income groups along with some graphical presentations. IDS 2013 draws on a database maintained by the World Bank External Debt (WBXD) system. Longer time series and more detailed data are available from the World Bank open databases, which contain more than 200 time series indicators, covering the years 1970 to 2011 for most reporting countries, and pipeline data for scheduled debt service payments on existing commitments to 2019. International Debt Statistics 2013 is unique in its coverage of the important trends and issues fundamental to the financing of the developing world. This report is an indispensible resource for governments, economists, investors, financial consultants, academics, bankers, and the entire development community. In addition, International Debt Statistics will showcase the broader spectrum of debt data collected and compiled by the World Bank. These include the high frequency, quarterly external debt database (QEDS) and the quarterly public sector database (QPSD) developed in partnership with the International Monetary Fund and launched by the World Bank.
Climate change remains a global challenge requiring international collaborative action. Another area where countries have successfully committed to a long-term multilateral resolution is the liberalization of international trade. Integration into the world economy has proven a powerful means for countries to promote economic growth, development, and poverty reduction. The broad objectives of the betterment of current and future human welfare are shared by both global trade and climate regimes. Yet both climate and trade agendas have evolved largely independently through the years, despite their mutually supporting objectives. Since global emission goals and global trade objectives are shared policy objectives of most countries, and nearly all of the World Bank's clients, it makes sense to consider the two sets of objectives together. This book is one of the first comprehensive attempts to look at the synergies between climate change and trade objectives from economic, legal, and institutional perspectives. It addresses an important policy question - how changes in trade policies and international cooperation on trade policies can help address global environmental spillovers, especially GHG emissions, and what the (potential) effects of (national) environmental policies that are aimed at global environmental problems might be for trade and investment. It explores opportunities for aligning development and energy policies in such a way that they could stimulate production, trade, and investment in cleaner technology options.
Emerging Europe and Central Asia, the region made up of the countries of Central and South East Europe (CSE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), is a major energy supplier to both Eastern and Western Europe. However, the outlook for both primary and derivative energy supplies is questionable, with a real prospect that there will be a significant decline during the next two decades. Western Europe is heavily dependent on energy imports from this region and therefore will be affected by declines in primary energy supplies. But Western Europe has the financial capacity to secure the energy supplies it needs (albeit at the expense of others). In contrast, the region's energy-importing countries are caught between Western Europe, which has increasing import needs, and it's own exporters, whose exports will likely decline. These countries face the prospect of being squeezed not only financially but also in terms of energy access. This difficult prospect is compounded by the deterioration of the energy infrastructure, including power generation and district heating. Although the public sector will have to finance a portion of these infrastructure investments, it will not have the capacity to meet the full needs. It is essential, therefore, that the countries in the region move quickly to put in place an enabling environment to support investment in the sector. Further complicating these issues are environmental concerns, in particular concern about climate change. EU member states and those with EU ambitions will need to meet the challenging EU greenhouse gas emissions targets. At the same time, a number of countries in the region will face the temptation to use environmentally unfriendly technology to meet their immediate energy needs. 'Lights Out?' analyzes key measures that can help countries address all of these challenges.
This pocket-sized reference on key development data for over 200 countries provides profiles of each country with 54 development indicators about people, environment, economy, technology and infrastructure, trade, and finance.
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