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Showing 26 through 50 of 3,119 results

Social Variation and the Latin Language

by J. N. Adams

Languages show variations according to the social class of speakers and Latin was no exception, as readers of Petronius are aware. The Romance languages have traditionally been regarded as developing out of a 'language of the common people' (Vulgar Latin), but studies of modern languages demonstrate that linguistic change does not merely come, in the social sense, 'from below'. There is change from above, as prestige usages work their way down the social scale, and change may also occur across the social classes. This book is a history of many of the developments undergone by the Latin language as it changed into Romance, demonstrating the varying social levels at which change was initiated. About thirty topics are dealt with, many of them more systematically than ever before. Discussions often start in the early Republic with Plautus, and the book is as much about the literary language as about informal varieties.

Early and Late Latin

by James Adams Nigel Vincent Valerie Knight

This book addresses the question of whether there are continuities in Latin spanning the period from the early Republic through to the Romance languages. It is often maintained that various usages admitted by early comedy were rejected later by the literary language but continued in speech, to resurface centuries later in the written record (and in Romance). Are certain similarities between early and late Latin all that they seem, or might they be superficial, reflecting different phenomena at different periods? Most of the chapters, on numerous syntactic and other topics and using different methodologies, have a long chronological range. All attempt to identify patterns of change that might undermine any theory of submerged continuity. The patterns found are summarised in a concluding chapter. The volume addresses classicists with an interest in any of the different periods of Latin, and Romance linguists.

An Anthology of Informal Latin, 200 BC – AD 900

by Adams J.  n.

This book contains over fifty passages of Latin from 200 BC to AD 900, each with translation and linguistic commentary. It is not intended as an elementary reader (though suitable for university courses), but as an illustrative history of Latin covering more than a millennium, with almost every century represented. Conventional histories cite constructions out of context, whereas this work gives a sense of the period, genre, stylistic aims and idiosyncrasies of specific passages. 'Informal' texts, particularly if they portray talk, reflect linguistic variety and change better than texts adhering to classicising norms. Some of the texts are recent discoveries or little known. Writing tablets are well represented, as are literary and technical texts down to the early medieval period, when striking changes appear. The commentaries identify innovations, discontinuities and phenomena of long duration. Readers will learn much about the diversity and development of Latin.

Dirty Hungarian: Everyday Slang from "What's Up?" to "F*%# Off!" (Dirty Everyday Slang Ser.)

by Mark Adamsbaum Réka Lengyel

GET D!RTY!Next time you're in Hungary or just chattin' in Hungarian with your friends, drop the textbook formality and bust out with expressions they never teach you in school, including:* cool slang* funny insults* explicit sex terms* raw swear wordsDirty Hungarian teaches the casual expressions heard every day on the streets of Hungary:What's up? Mi a helyzet? Your boyfriend is hot shit. Állat jó pasi a barátod. Dude, I'm so wasted. Öcsém, ugy betintáztam.I gotta take a dump. Mennem kell szarni. Go fuck yourself! Menj a halál faszára! Can I get a blowey? Lecidázol? I'd love to hit that. Szeretném megdöngölni.

Interlanguage Variation in Theoretical and Pedagogical Perspective

by H.D. Adamson

In this book H.D. Adamson reviews scholarship in sociolinguistics and second language acquisition, comparing theories of variation in first and second-language speech, with special attention to the psychological underpinnings of variation theory. Interlanguage is what second language learners speak. It contains syntactic, morphological and phonological patterns that are not those of either the first or the second language, and which can be analyzed using the principles and techniques of variation theory. Interlanguage Variation in Theoretical and Pedagogical Perspective: relates the emerging field of variation in second language learners’ speech (interlanguage) to the established field of variation in native speakers’ speech relates the theory of linguistic variation with psycholinguistic models of language processing relates sociolinguistic variation theory to the theory of Cognitive Grammar suggests teaching applications that follow from the theoretical discussion At the forefront of scholarship in the fields of interlanguage and variation theory scholarship, this book is directed to graduate students and researchers in applied English linguistics and second language acquisition, especially those with a background in sociolinguistics.

French Grammar You Really Need To Know: Teach Yourself

by Robin Adamson

Comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures are reinforced and contextualized through authentic materials. You will not only learn how to construct grammar correctly, but when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. French Grammar You Really Need to Know will help you gain the intuition you need to become a confident communicator in your new language.

Kaçan Adam: A Turkish Learner’s Crime Novel

by Mafalda Ade

Aimed at intermediate Turkish learners, Kaçan Adam: A Turkish Learner’s Crime Novel is a short mystery / detective story in idiomatic Turkish complete with exercises, vocabulary and grammar review. Over the course of 24 lively chapters, it follows the fate of former intelligence officer Erkan Demirel, who has been convicted of selling secret military documents but who manages to escape from prison and embarks on a quest to prove his innocence… For use either as a supplement to classroom instruction (CEFR A2-B1 and ACTFL, Lower Intermediate Level) or individually, this book will guide students through their first complete novel in Turkish while revising and reinforcing key points of modern Turkish grammar and expression.

The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar (Routledge Language Family Ser. #Vol. 7)

by Alexander Adelaar Nikolaus P. Himmelmann

Some 800 Austronesian languages are spoken in the area extending from Madagascar to eastern Indonesia and to the north to Taiwan and the Philippines. They vary greatly in almost every possible respect, including the size and social make-up of the speech communities and their typological profiles. This book is designed to serve as a reference work a

Read and Reflect 1: Academic Reading Strategies and Cultural Awareness

by Jayme Adelson-Goldstein Lori Howard

This book is ideal for young adults planning to pursue a college education; however, it can also be used by students who want to improve their reading skills to attain a personal goal or to advance in the workplace.

The Acquisition of Creole Languages

by Dany Adone

How do children acquire a Creole as their first language? This relatively underexplored question is the starting point for this first book of its kind; it also asks how first language acquisition of a Creole differs from that of a non-Creole language. Dany Adone reveals that in the absence of a conventional language model, Creole children acquire language and go beyond the input they receive. This study discusses the role of input, a hotly debated issue in the field of first language acquisition, and provides support for the nativist approach in the debate between nativism and input-based models. The Acquisition of Creole Languages will be essential reading for those in the fields of first language acquisition and Creole studies. Adone takes an interdisciplinary approach, using insights from non-verbal language acquisition, which makes this of great interest to those in the field of sign linguistics.

Hindi: An Essential Grammar (Routledge Essential Grammars)

by Rama Kant Agnihotri

This text provides a reader-friendly guide to the structural patterns of modern standard Hindi. Ideal for both independent learners and classroom students alike, this book covers the essentials of Hindi grammar in readable, jargon-free sections. Key features include: sections on the speech sounds of Hindi detailed analysis of Hindi sentence structure full examples throughout.

The Routledge Handbook of African Linguistics (Routledge Language Handbooks)

by Augustine Agwuele Adams Bodomo

The Handbook of African Linguistics provides a holistic coverage of the key themes, subfields, approaches and practical application to the vast areas subsumable under African linguistics that will serve researchers working across the wide continuum in the field. Established and emerging scholars of African languages who are active and current in their fields are brought together, each making use of data from a linguistic group in Africa to explicate a chosen theme within their area of expertise, and illustrate the practice of the discipline in the continent.

Teaching EFL Writing in the 21st Century Arab World

by Abdelhamid Ahmed Hassan Abouabdelkader

Teaching EFL Writing in the 21st Century Arab World addresses a range of issues related to researching and teaching EFL writing in different countries in the Arab World including Egypt, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Tunisia, UAE and Yemen. Both theoretically and practically grounded, chapters within discuss the different contexts in which EFL writing is taught, from primary school to university. The book sheds light on how EFL writing is learned and taught at each educational stage, exposing the different challenges encountered in the teaching and learning. The focus on EFL writing in the Arab World makes this a unique and long overdue contribution to the field of research around EFL writing and will be an invaluable resource for researchers, curriculum designers and students.

Sendas literarias 1

by Aída Walqui-Van Lier Ruth A. Barraza Mary Ann Dellinger

This highly praised two-level literature and language series taps the natural potential of heritage learners, building their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills as it celebrates and validates their rich cultural heritage. The varied learning strategies, study skills, and activities are specifically designed to meet the diverse needs and ability levels of native Spanish speakers.

Making Out In Italian: (Italian Phrasebook)

by Nicoletta Nencioli Aiken

Making Out in Italian is a fun, accessible and thorough Italian phrase book and guide to the Italian language as it's really spoken.This friendly and easy-to-use Italian phrasebook makes this possible.<P><P> Making Out in Italian has been carefully designed to act as a guide to modern colloquial Italian for use in everyday informal interactions-giving access to the sort of catchy Italian expressions that aren't covered in traditional language materials. Each expression is given in Italian so that in the case of difficulties the book can be shown to the person the user is trying to communicate with. In addition, phonetic spellings of all words and phrases are included, making speaking Italian a breeze. For example, "Hi!"-ciao is also written as chah-oh.This Italian phrasebook includes:A guide to pronouncing Italian words correctly including double consonants and syllable stressesExplanations of basic Italian grammar, such as, questions, word gender, and formal vs. informalComplete Italian translations for all words and phrases including easy-to-use phonetic spellings.Useful and interesting notes on Italian language and cultureLots of colorful, fun and useful expressions not covered in other phrasebooks

Routledge Intensive Russian Course

by Robin Aizlewood

This intensive foundation course in Russian is designed for students with no previous knowledge of the language. Developed primarily for classroom use, the course offers an original and distinctive approach to language learning, presenting Russian in context offering access to Russian life, culture, history and society. Using authentic language throughout, the course takes students from beginner to intermediate level in one year. Progress is carefully structured, starting with simple grammar and working towards more complex points with the acquisition of a significant body of vocabulary. By the end of the course students will have acquired a sound knowledge of the main structures of the language and will be able to express themselves confidently in a wide range of communicative contexts. The tried-and-tested material featured in the course is structured to improve all four core skills of language learning: speaking, listening, reading and writing. The course is divided in three parts: Part 1 provides a foundation which gets the student going in Russian Part 2 concentrates on intensive development to take the student rapidly forward Part 3 incorporates both revision and further development. Each unit is divided into lessons which all include lively dialogues, sections on grammar and language functions and lots of exercises that help develop the student's practical language skills. Audio materials recorded by native speakers include dialogues, exercises and a variety of texts to help students using the course to improve their listening comprehension and pronunciation skills. They are available to order separately, ISBN: 978-0-415-22301-0 Guidance for tutors, as well as links to related sites, is available at: www.routledge.com/textbooks/0415223008

Japanese Grammar (Barron's Grammar Ser.)

by Nobuo Akiyama Carol Akiyama

A Simon & Schuster eBook. Simon & Schuster has a great book for every reader.

A Frequency Dictionary of Turkish: Core Vocabulary For Learners (Routledge Frequency Dictionaries)

by Yeşim Aksan Mustafa Aksan Ümit Mersinli Umut Demirhan

A Frequency Dictionary of Turkish enables students of all levels to build on their study of Turkish in an efficient and engaging way. <P><P> Based on a 50 million word corpus, A Frequency Dictionary of Turkish provides a list of core vocabulary for learners of Turkish as a second or foreign language. It gives the most updated, reliable frequency guidelines for common vocabulary in spoken and written Turkish. Each of the 5000 entries are supported by detailed information including the English equivalent, an illustrative example with English translation and usage statistics. The Dictionary provides a rich resource for language teaching and curriculum design, while a separate CD version provides the full text in a tab-delimited format ideally suited for use by corpus and computational linguists. With entries arranged by frequency, by suffixation and alphabetically, A Frequency Dictionary of Turkish enables students of all levels to get the most out of their study of vocabulary in an engaging and efficient way.

Tricks with Bikes / Trucos con las moto

by Eduardo Alaman Connor Dayton

Explains the various types of tricks and stunts that can be performed while riding motorcycles.

State-Building and Multilingual Education in Africa

by Ericka A. Albaugh

How do governments in Africa make decisions about language? What does language have to do with state-building, and what impact might it have on democracy? This manuscript provides a longue durée explanation for policies toward language in Africa, taking the reader through colonial, independence, and contemporary periods. It explains the growing trend toward the use of multiple languages in education as result of new opportunities and incentives. The opportunities incorporate ideational relationships with former colonizers as well as the work of language NGOs on the ground. The incentives relate to the current requirements of democratic institutions, and the strategies leaders devise to win elections within these constraints. By contrasting the environment faced by African leaders with that faced by European state-builders, it explains the weakness of education and limited spread of standard languages on the continent. The work combines constructivist understanding about changing preferences with realist insights about the strategies leaders employ to maintain power.

Global Conversations in Literacy Research: Digital and Critical Literacies

by Peggy Albers

In this volume, renowned literacy and language education scholars who have shaped policy and practice aimed toward social justice and equity address current intellectual and practical issues in the teaching of literacy in classrooms and educational environments across diverse and international settings. Drawn from talks that were presented live and hosted by Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR), an online open-access critical literacy project, this book provides access, in edited written form, to these scholars’ critically and historically situated talks. Bringing together talks on diverse topics—including digital and media literacy, video games, critical literacy, and ESOL—Albers preserves the scholars’ critical discourses to engage readers in the conversation. Offering a broad and expansive understanding of what literacy has to offer for scholars, teachers, and students, this book demonstrates the importance of positioning literacy as a social practice and brings critical literacy to a global audience.

Modern Arabic Sociolinguistics: Diglossia, variation, codeswitching, attitudes and identity

by Abdulkafi Albirini

Modern Arabic Sociolinguistics outlines and evaluates the major approaches and methods used in Arabic sociolinguistic research with respect to diglossia, codeswitching, language variation and attitudes and social identity. This book: outlines the main research findings in these core areas and relates them to a wide range of constructs, including social context, speech communities, prestige, power, language planning, gender and religion examines two emerging areas in Arabic sociolinguistic research, internet-mediated communication and heritage speakers, in relation to globalization, language dominance and interference and language loss and maintenance analyses the interplay between the various sociolinguistic aspects and examines the complex nature of the Arabic multidialectal, multinational, and multiethnic sociolinguistic situation. Based on the author’s recent fieldwork in several Arab countries this book is an essential resource for researchers and students of sociolinguistics, Arabic linguistics, and Arabic studies.

Ovid's Metamorphoses: A Reader for Students in Elementary College Latin

by Christine L. Albright

Ovid’s Metamorphoses is a Latin reader designed to partner existing elementary Latin textbooks. The book features thirty compelling stories, graduated in difficulty and adapted from Ovid’s epic Metamorphoses into prose. The original poem contains many different stories united thematically by the transformation which occurs in all of them; the epic features romance, seduction, humour, violence, monsters, and misbehaving gods. Each chapter contains: a Latin passage adapted from the epic an accompanying vocabulary list a short commentary to help with translation a concise review of the specific grammar covered a brief comment on a literary aspect of the poem, or featured myth. A free companion website, offering a wealth of additional resources, including worksheets, flashcards, additional notes for each chapter, and audio, is available at www.routledge.com/cw/albright. Suitable for college students studying Latin at the elementary level, Ovid’s Metamorphoses is designed to be used alongside elementary Latin textbooks. Preserving Ovid’s language and highly vivid descriptions, this reader introduces students to the epic masterpiece, allows them to consolidate their understanding of Latin prose, and offers opportunities for literary discussion.

English Tertiary Education in Vietnam (Routledge Critical Studies in Asian Education)

by James Albright

As part of a long series of Vietnam’s policy objectives, English education has been identified as key to improving the quality of its rapidly expanding tertiary institutions and is crucial to the larger aim of modernising and internationalising its economy. Bringing together a wide range of Vietnamese and foreign English education scholars, and tertiary educational practitioners, this book documents the significant progress and challenges in the realisation of Vietnam’s English language policies as they are enacted in the higher education sector. Changes to Vietnam’s higher education system remain unstable, unsystematic, and insubstantial. This book provides insights into how recent Vietnamese government policy is providing for a substantial and comprehensive renewal of Vietnam’s tertiary education as part of their 2020 plan. Academics and students of English education, language policy, and nation building within the context of increased globalisation and marketisation in developing nations and Vietnam, in particular, should find this book valuable.

Colloquial Spanish: The Complete Course for Beginners (The\colloquial Ser.)

by Untza Otaola Alday

Colloquial Spanish: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to Spanish as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in Spanish in a broad range of situations. No prior knowledge of the language is required. Colloquial Spanish is exceptional; each unit presents a wealth of grammatical points that are reinforced with a wide range of exercises for regular practice. A full answer key, a grammar summary, bilingual glossaries and English translations of dialogues can be found at the back as well as useful vocabulary lists throughout. Key features include: A clear, user-friendly format designed to help learners progressively build up their speaking, listening, reading and writing skills Jargon-free, succinct and clearly structured explanations of grammar An extensive range of focused and dynamic supportive exercises Realistic and entertaining dialogues covering a broad variety of narrative situations Helpful cultural points explaining the customs and features of life in Spain An overview of the sounds of Spanish Balanced, comprehensive and rewarding, Colloquial Spanish is an indispensable resource both for independent learners and students taking courses in Spanish. Audio material to accompany the course is available to download free in MP3 format from www.routledge.com/cw/colloquials. Recorded by native speakers, the audio material features the dialogues and texts from the book and will help develop your listening and pronunciation skills.

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Showing 26 through 50 of 3,119 results