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This ready reference discusses different methods for statistically analyzing and validating data created with high-throughput methods. As opposed to other titles, this book focusses on systems approaches, meaning that no single gene or protein forms the basis of the analysis but rather a more or less complex biological network. From a methodological point of view, the well balanced contributions describe a variety of modern supervised and unsupervised statistical methods applied to various large-scale datasets from genomics and genetics experiments. Furthermore, since the availability of sufficient computer power in recent years has shifted attention from parametric to nonparametric methods, the methods presented here make use of such computer-intensive approaches as Bootstrap, Markov Chain Monte Carlo or general resampling methods. Finally, due to the large amount of information available in public databases, a chapter on Bayesian methods is included, which also provides a systematic means to integrate this information. A welcome guide for mathematicians and the medical and basic research communities.
Reflecting the rapid progress in the field, the book presents the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation thereby focusing on RNA processing mechanisms in eucaryotic cells. With chapters on mechanisms as RNA splicing, RNA interference, MicroRNAs, RNA editing and others, the book also discusses the critical role of RNA processing for the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. The interdisciplinary importance of the topic makes the title a useful resource for a wide reader group in science, clinics as well as pharmaceutical industry.
Deliberately breaking with the classical biology-centered description of marine organisms and their products, this reference emphasizes microbial technology over basic biology, setting it apart from its predecessors. As such, it systematically covers the technology behind high-value compounds for use as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals or cosmetics, from prospecting to production issues.Following a definition of the field, the book goes on to address all industrially important aspects of marine microbial biotechnology. The first main part contains a description of the major production organisms, from archaebacteria to cyanobacteria to algae and symbionts, including their genetic engineering. The remaining four parts look at commercially important compounds produced by these microorganisms together with their applications. Throughout, the emphasis is on technological considerations, and the future potential of these organisms or compound classes is discussed. A valuable and forward-looking resource for innovative biotechnologists in industry as well as in academia.
This first systematic treatment of the concept and practice of scaffold hopping shows the tricks of the trade and provides invaluable guidance for the reader's own projects. The first section serves as an introduction to the topic by describing the concept of scaffolds, their discovery, diversity and representation, and their importance for finding new chemical entities. The following part describes the most common tools and methods for scaffold hopping, whether topological, shape-based or structure-based. Methods such as CATS, Feature Trees, Feature Point Pharmacophores (FEPOPS), and SkelGen are discussed among many others. The final part contains three fully documented real-world examples of successful drug development projects by scaffold hopping that illustrate the benefits of the approach for medicinal chemistry. While most of the case studies are taken from medicinal chemistry, chemical and structural biologists will also benefit greatly from the insights presented here.
With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry.This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy.Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts:Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells.Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage.Part III Energy Sustainability shows how nanotechnology helps to use energy more efficiently, and the mitigation of impacts to the environment, with special emphasis on energy savings through green nanofabrication, advanced catalysis, nanostructured light-emitting and eletrochromic devices and CO2 capture by nanoporous materials .An essential addition to any bookshelf, it will be invaluable to a variety of research fields including materials science, chemical engineering, solid state, surface, industrial, and physical chemistry, as this is a subject that is very interdisciplinary.
An overview of the recent developments and prospects in this highly topical area, covering the synthesis, characterization, properties and applications of hierarchical nanostructured materials. The book concentrates on those materials relevant for research and development in the fields of energy, biomedicine and environmental protection, with a strong focus on 3D materials based on nanocarbons, mesoporous silicates, hydroxides, core-shell particles and helical nanostructures. Thanks to its clear concept and application-oriented approach, this is an essential reference for experienced researchers and newcomers to the field alike.
Written and edited by top fuel cell catalyst scientists and engineers from both industry and academia, this is the first book to provide a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal electrocatalysts, as well as their integration into fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization.With its well-structured approach, this is a must-have for researchers working on the topic, and an equally valuable companion for newcomers to the field.
Written in a clear language, for use by scholars, managers and decisionmakers, this practical guide to the hot topic is unique in treating thesecurity aspects of hazmat transportation from both uni-modal and multi-modal perspectives. To begin with, each transport mode and itsrelation to security vulnerability, analyses, figures, and approaches is discussed separately. Secondly, the optimization process of a hazmatsupply chain is examined from a holistic, integrated viewpoint. Finally, the book discusses and compares the various hazmat transport securitypolicies and strategies adopted in various regions around the world. The result is a must-have source of high-quality information includingmany case studies.
This is the perfect complement to "Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community.The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemical models and faster computers.
A unique overview of the different kinds of chemical bonds that can be found in the periodic table, from the main-group elements to transition elements, lanthanides and actinides. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemical models and faster computers. This is the perfect complement to "Chemical Bonding - Fundamentals and Models" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community.
Copper-Catalyzed Asymmetric Synthesis reflects the increasing interest among the chemical synthetic community in the area of asymmetric copper-catalyzed reactions, and introduces readers to the latest, most significant developments in the field.The contents are organized according to reaction type and cover mechanistic and spectroscopic aspects as well as applications in the synthesis of natural products. A whole chapter is devoted to understanding how primary organometallics interact with copper to provide selective catalysts for allylic substitution and conjugate addition, both of which are treated in separate chapters. Another is devoted to the variety of substrates and experimental protocols, while an entire chapter covers the use on non-carbon nucleophiles. Other chapters deal with less-known reactions, such as carbometallation or the additions to imines and related systems, while the more established reactions cyclopropanation and aziridination as well as the use of copper (II) Lewis acids are warranted their own special chapters. Two further chapters concern the processes involved, as determined by mechanistic studies. Finally, a whole chapter is devoted to the synthetic applications.This book is essential reading for researchers at academic institutions and professionals at pharmaceutical or agrochemical companies.
The only book to not only discuss the technicalities of the European REACH chemicals registration process, but also to directly address the resulting business risks and business solutions.In this text for practitioners, the author pulls together the key knowledge needed to successfully run a business under REACH, distilling thousands of pages of official documentation, and incorporating experiences from different-sized enterprises in a global context.Starting with the basics of the REACH framework, she explains the entire process on how to register with the European ECHA office with a particular emphasis on small and medium-sized businesses. Along the way, she describes key milestones and presents sample documents from real case studies. The final part of the book addresses strategies to ensure a reach-compliant operation, including recommendations for in-house processes as well as communicating with suppliers and downstream users.As a result, managers in the pharmaceuticals and chemicals industries will learn how to operate their companies in full compliance with REACH standards.
Die lange erwartete, vierte Auflage des Lehrbuchklassikers zur IR-Spektroskopie!Will man Substanzen eindeutig charakterisieren und auf ihre Reinheit überprüfen, führt kein Weg an der IR-Spektroskopie als Analysemethode vorbei. Präzise und leicht verständlich, aktuell und sehr praxisbezogen lernen die künftigen Anwender alles, was sie über die IR-Spektroskopie wissen müssen:- Aufbau und Handhabung von Spektrometern, - Vorbereitung der Proben und deren Messung, - qualitative Interpretation der Spektren,- quantitative Bestimmungen, - spezielle Anwendungsgebiete und - spezielle und verwandte Methoden.Zahlreiche Hinweise auf weiterführende Literatur vermitteln eine gute Orientierung bei speziellen Fragestellungen, und helfen dabei, sich zum Experten weiterzuentwickeln.
Das Basis-Know-how für richtige ICP-OES-Analytik!Erstmalig ist eine deutschsprachige, leicht verständliche und anwenderorientierte Einführung in die ICP-Emissionspektrometrie verfügbar. Sie umfaßt die praxisrelevanten Grundlagen, gerätetechnische Informationen, eine Anleitung zur Methodenentwicklung und viele praktische Anwendungsbeispiele. Das Buch ist kompakt und sehr übersichtlich gestaltet, mit Infoboxen zu typischen Fragen und Problemen, Checklisten und detaillierten Hinweisen zur Handhabung. Es ist nicht nur ein Begleiter für die eigenständige Aus- und Weiterbildung, sondern ebenso ein verlässlicher Leitfaden für die praktische Laborarbeit, denn auch die Aspekte Pflege und Wartung sowie Trouble-Shooting kommen nicht zu kurz.Alle Anwender der ICP-OES können vom bewährten Erfahrungsschatz des Autors profitieren, den er in zwei Jahrzehnten bei der Ausbildung und Beratung von Anwendern sowie bei der Geräteentwicklung gesammelt hat. Er war Mitarbeiter eines führenden Geräteherstellers und ist jetzt freiberuflicher Berater.
Die Welt der Moleküle Atome und Elektronen strapaziert unsere Vorstellungskraft von Zeit. In Millionsteln einer milliardstel Sekunde finden chemische Reaktionen statt. Noch tausend Mal schneller, in Attosekunden, wechseln quantenmechanisch Elektronen ihren Aufenthaltsort in Atomen. Wer diese Elementarteilchen >fotografierenEr erzählt die Geschichte der Ultrakurzzeitphotographie, der Quantenmechanik und schließlich der auf modernster Lasertechnologie basierenden Attosekundenphysik. Schnell wird klar: Die Jagd nach immer kürzeren ?Belichtungszeiten?, noch winzigeren Sekundenbruchteilen und spektakulären Bildern aus dem Mikrokosmos ist in vollem Gang.
For the second edition of 'Microreactors in Organic Chemistry and Catalysis' all chapters have been revised and updated to reflect the latest developments in this rapidly developing field. This new edition has 60% more content, and it remains a comprehensive publication covering most aspects of the topic. The use of microreactors in homogeneous, heterogeneous as well as biphasic reactions is covered in the main part of the book, together with catalytic, bioorganic and automation approaches. The initial chapters also provide a solid physical chemistry background on fluidics in microdevices. Finally, a chapter on industrial applications and developments covers recent progress in process chemistry. An excellent reference for beginners and experts alike.
Most of the antibiotics now in use have been discovered more or less by chance, and their mechanisms of action have only been elucidated after their discovery. To meet the medical need for next-generation antibiotics, a more rational approach to antibiotic development is clearly needed.Opening with a general introduction about antimicrobial drugs, their targets and the problem of antibiotic resistance, this reference systematically covers currently known antibiotic classes, their molecular mechanisms and the targets on which they act. Novel targets such as cell signaling networks, riboswitches and bacterial chaperones are covered here, alongside the latest information on the molecular mechanisms of current blockbuster antibiotics. With its broad overview of current and future antibacterial drug development, this unique reference is essential reading for anyone involved in the development and therapeutic application of novel antibiotics.
The book discusses proven and promising methods to achieve a compatibilization between the organic and inorganic phases in thermoset polymers such as polyurethanes, phenolic resins, polyesters and epoxies. Of particular importance to the polymer engineer are the chapters dealing with compatibilization agents such as maleic anhydride elastomers, hydroxyl or carboxylic acid functionalized copolymers or metallocenes that catalyze the reactive processing. This title is essential reading for materials scientists, polymer chemists, chemical industry, and chemical engineers.
Building on the first principles of environmental chemistry, engineering, and ecology, this volume fills the need for an advanced textbook introducing the modern, integrated environmental management approach, with a view towards long-term sustainability and within the framework of international regulations. As such, it presents the classic technologies alongside innovative ones that are just now coming into widespread use, such as photochemical technologies and carbon dioxide sequestration. Numerous case studies from the fields of air, water and soil engineering describe real-life solutions to problems in pollution prevention and remediation, as an aid to practicing professional skills. With its tabulated data, comprehensive list of further reading, and a glossary of terms, this book doubles as a reference for environmental engineers and consultants.
The third edition of this popular problem-solving guide for this widely-used method includes eleven completely new examples andseveral updated ones, adding up to 100 contributions about pitfalls and errors in HPLC. Each example is presented on a double page with thetext on the left-hand and a fi gure on the right-hand side, true to the motto 'a picture says more than a thousand words'. In addition, theauthor presents essential fundamentals as well as helpful strategies, such as equipment tests or quality assurance processes. New in this edition* Variability of the standard deviation* Infl uence of the acid type and concentration in the eluent* Water as an unintentional additive in the mobile phase* Inadequate purity of mobile phase water* Incomplete degassing* Inadequate stabilization of the extraction solvent* Tailing of phosphate compounds in the presence of steel* Different detection properties of diastereomers* Detector overload in ELSD* System suitability test* From repeatability to reproducibilityA must-have resource for all users - showing how to use HPLC efficiently and obtain reliable results.
Reactive, but not a reactant. Heterogeneous catalysts play an unseen role in many of today's processes and products. With the increasing emphasis on sustainability in both products and processes, this handbook is the first to combine the hot topics of heterogeneous catalysis and clean technology.It focuses on the development of heterogeneous catalysts for use in clean chemical synthesis, dealing with how modern spectroscopic techniques can aid the design of catalysts for use in liquid phase reactions, their application in industrially important chemistries - including selective oxidation, hydrogenation, solid acid- and base-catalyzed processes - as well as the role of process intensification and use of renewable resources in improving the sustainability of chemical processes. With its emphasis on applications, this book is of high interest to those working in the industry.
The fields of glycochemistry and glycoscience are rich and varied and where much can be learned from Nature. As Nature is not always able to produce carbohydrates in quantities useful for not only in research but also as therapeutic agents, new ways need to be found to optimize the yield. This book presents an overview of the latest developments in the field of carbohydrates, ranging from de-novo approaches via cyclodextrin chemistry to the synthesis of such highly complex glycoconjugates as glycosphingolipids and GPI anchors. The main emphasis remains on the synthetic aspects making the book an excellent source of information for those already involved in carbohydrate chemistry, as well as for those organic chemists who are beginners in this field. Equally of interest to synthetic chemists, as well as medicinal chemists and biochemists.
This one-stop reference source is the first on this new and exciting technology to focus on case studies of large-scale industrial applications, presenting the information and facts that are otherwise hard to find in the current literature.Authors from Pfizer, Merck, DSM, Novartis, Amgen, and Astra Zeneca, among others, use case studies to showcase project evolution from inception to early and late development, including commercial routes where applicable. Each case study details at least one transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling step, with special emphasis on lessons learned from their implementation. The important issue of metal removal from the reaction mixtures to meet specifications and the different technologies available to accomplish this goal are also addressed. Finally, a small section covers novel technologies for cross-coupling with high future potential for applications on a large scale, such as metal removal on large scale, microwave and flow chemistry, as well as green chemistry.Of great interest to chemists working in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical and fine chemical industries, but also for every synthetic chemist working in academia.
A much-needed overview reflecting the developments over the past five years, this is the most comprehensive handbook on organocatalysis. As such, all relevant catalyst systems are discussed in detail, as well as key strategies, reaction types, and important applications in total synthesis. The first two volumes cover catalyst structures and fundamental activation types. These chapters allow readers to familiarize themselves with the relatively complex interactions that make organocatalytic reactions selective; to gain an insight into the most efficient catalyst types; and to understand the importance of physical parameters that influence reactivity and selectivity. Volume three is structured around reaction types, i.e. nucleophile additions to C=X and C=C bonds; Friedel-Crafts reactions, organocatalytic sigmatropic reactions, regioselective reactions and desymmetrization strategies, ring-forming reactions, multicomponent (domino) reactions, multicatalyst systems and the application of organocatalytic reactions in multistep synthesis are discussed. An appendix recollecting catalyst structures with the adequate cross-references to the corresponding chapters rounds off the book.With its contributions written by pioneers of the organocatalysis field, this book provides non-specialists with an introduction to the topic as well as serving as a valuable source for researchers in academia and industry searching for an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of this promising area of synthetic organic chemistry.
Covering the gap between basic textbooks and over-specialized scientific publications, this is the first reference available to describe this interdisciplinary topic for PhD students and scientists starting in the field. The result is an introductory description providing suitable practical examples of the basic methods used to study tautomeric processes, as well as the theories describing the tautomerism and proton transfer phenomena. It also includes different spectroscopic methods for examining tautomerism, such as UV-VIs, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and NMR spectroscopy, plus the theoretical and practical background information. With its excellent overview of the methods, theories and examples, this is the perfect guide for any scientist dealing with tautomeric compounds in a wider context.
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