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Showing 41,451 through 41,475 of 70,742 results

Hospital-Based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

Today our emergency care system faces an epidemic of crowded emergency departments, patients boarding in hallways waiting to be admitted, and daily ambulance diversions. Hospital-Based Emergency Care addresses the difficulty of balancing the roles of hospital-based emergency and trauma care, not simply urgent and lifesaving care, but also safety net care for uninsured patients, public health surveillance, disaster preparation, and adjunct care in the face of increasing patient volume and limited resources. This new book considers the multiple aspects to the emergency care system in the United States by exploring its strengths, limitations, and future challenges. The wide range of issues covered includes: *The role and impact of the emergency department within the larger hospital and health care system. *Patient flow and information technology. *Workforce issues across multiple disciplines. *Patient safety and the quality and efficiency of emergency care services. *Basic, clinical, and health services research relevant to emergency care. *Special challenges of emergency care in rural settings. Hospital-Based Emergency Care is one of three books in the Future of Emergency Care series. This book will be of particular interest to emergency care providers, professional organizations, and policy makers looking to address the deficiencies in emergency care systems.

Emergency Care For Children: Growing Pains

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

Children represent a special challenge for emergency care providers, because they have unique medical needs in comparison to adults. For decades, policy makers and providers have recognized the special needs of children, but the system has been slow to develop an adequate response to their needs. This is in part due to inadequacies within the broader emergency care system. Emergency Care for Children examines the challenges associated with the provision of emergency services to children and families and evaluates progress since the publication of the Institute of Medicine report Emergency Medical Services for Children (1993), the first comprehensive look at pediatric emergency care in the United States. This new book offers an analysis of: &#8226 The role of pediatric emergency services as an integrated component of the overall health system. &#8226 System-wide pediatric emergency care planning, preparedness, coordination, and funding. &#8226 Pediatric training in professional education. &#8226 Research in pediatric emergency care. Emergency Care for Children is one of three books in the Future of Emergency Care series. This book will be of particular interest to emergency health care providers, professional organizations, and policy makers looking to address the pediatric deficiencies within their emergency care systems.

Tank Waste Retrieval, Processing, And On-site Disposal At Three Department Of Energy Sites: Final Report

by National Research Council of the National Academies

DOE Tank Waste: How clean is clean enough? The U.S. Congress asked the National Academies to evaluate the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) plans for cleaning up defense-related radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at three sites: the Hanford Site in Washington State, the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, and the Idaho National Laboratory. DOE plans to remove the waste from the tanks, separate out high-level radioactive waste to be shipped to an off-site geological repository, and dispose of the remaining lower-activity waste onsite. The report concludes that DOE’s overall plan is workable, but some important challenges must be overcome—including the removal of residual waste from some tanks, especially at Hanford and Savannah River. The report recommends that DOE pursue a more risk-informed, consistent, participatory, and transparent for making decisions about how much waste to retrieve from tanks and how much to dispose of onsite. The report offers several other detailed recommendations to improve the technical soundness of DOE's tank cleanup plans.

Battling Malaria: Strengthening The U.s. Military Malaria Vaccine Program

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

A Study Of Interactions: Emerging Issues In The Science Of Adolescence

by National Research Council Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Exploring The Role Of Antiviral Drugs In The Eradication Of Polio: Workshop Report

by National Research Council of the National Academies

Exploring the Role of Antiviral Drugs in the Eradication of Polio: Workshop Report, is a report of a workshop in which experts evaluated whether an antiviral drug against poliovirus would be helpful in the final stages of the global polio eradication campaign. The World Health Organization currently plans to stop using oral polio vaccine three years after the detection of the last case of transmission of wild polio virus. This is because the vaccine contains live, weakened polio viruses that can spread and revert to virulence in populations that have not been immunized. Under this plan, an antiviral drug could be useful to control any polio outbreaks caused by a vaccine-derived virus that might occur after vaccination ends and the number of unimmunized people in the world steadily increases. The report recommends that planning and development of such drugs should be initiated now. It identifies several promising targets for drug development and outlines the steps needed for planning for clinical trials and regulatory approval.

DECADAL SURVEY OF CIVIL AERONAUTICS: Foundation for the Future

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The U.S. air transportation system is very important for our economic well-being and national security. The nation is also the global leader in civil and military aeronautics, a position that needs to be maintained to help assure a strong future for the domestic and international air transportation system. Strong action is needed, however, to ensure that leadership role continues. To that end, the Congress and NASA requested the NRC to undertake a decadal survey of civil aeronautics research and technology (R&T) priorities that would help NASA fulfill its responsibility to preserve U.S. leadership in aeronautics technology. This report presents a set of strategic objectives for the next decade of R&T. It provides a set of high-priority R&T challenges—-characterized by five common themes—-for both NASA and non-NASA researchers, and an analysis of key barriers that must be overcome to reach the strategic objectives. The report also notes the importance of synergies between civil aeronautics R&T objectives and those of national security.

Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop

by National Research Council of the National Academies

A recommendation of the NRC’s decadal survey in solar and space physics, published in 2002, was the Small Instrument Distributed Ground-Based Network, which would provide global-scale ionospheric and upper atmospheric measurements crucial to understanding the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. To explore the scientific rationale for this distributed array of small instruments (known as DASI), the infrastructure needed to support and make use of such arrays, and proposals for a deployment implementation plan, the NRC held a workshop of interested parties at the request of the National Science Foundation. This report presents a summary of that workshop focusing on the science and instruments, and on infrastructure issues. It describes the themes emerging from the workshop: the need to address the magnetosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere ensemble as a system; the need for real-time observations; and the insufficiency of current observations.

Preventing Medication Errors

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

In 1996 the Institute of Medicine launched the Quality Chasm Series, a series of reports focused on assessing and improving the nation's quality of health care. Preventing Medication Errors is the newest volume in the series. Responding to the key messages in earlier volumes of the series--To Err Is Human (2000), Crossing the Quality Chasm (2001), and Patient Safety (2004)--this book sets forth an agenda for improving the safety of medication use. It begins by providing an overview of the system for drug development, regulation, distribution, and use. Preventing Medication Errors also examines the peer-reviewed literature on the incidence and the cost of medication errors and the effectiveness of error prevention strategies. Presenting data that will foster the reduction of medication errors, the book provides action agendas detailing the measures needed to improve the safety of medication use in both the short- and long-term. Patients, primary health care providers, health care organizations, purchasers of group health care, legislators, and those affiliated with providing medications and medication- related products and services will benefit from this guide to reducing medication errors.

The Fundamental Role Of Science And Technology In International Development: An Imperative For The U.s. Agency For International Development

by National Academy of Sciences of the National Academies

In October 2003 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the National Research Council (NRC) entered into a cooperative agreement. The agreement called for the NRC to examine selected aspects of U.S. foreign assistance activities&#8212primarily the programs of the USAID&#8212that have benefited or could benefit from access to strong science, technology, and medical capabilities in the United States or elsewhere. After considering the many aspects of the role of science and technology (S&T) in foreign assistance, the study led to the publication of The Fundamental Role of Science and Technology in International Development. In the book special attention is devoted to partnerships that involve the USAID together with international, regional, U.S. governmental, and private sector organizations in fields such as heath care, agriculture and nutrition, education and job creation, and energy and the environment. This book explores specific programmatic, organizational, and personnel reforms that would increase the effective use of S&T to meet the USAID&#39s goals while supporting larger U.S. foreign policy objectives.

Toward A New Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (ahps)

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Weather Service (NWS) is responsible for providing flood forecasts and warnings in the United States. The agency established the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Services (AHPS) program in 1997 to advance technology for hydrologic services, specifically to provide accurate forecasts that support timely warnings for all users of hydrologic predictions. AHPS strives to provide information at the right time to facilitate adequate responses to mitigate damages to life, livelihoods, and property. AHPS is slated to be fully implemented nationwide in 2013. With seven years still remaining in its development and implementation timeline, a review of the program now is critical to providing NWS with information it needs to maximize the effectiveness of the AHPS program. This report assesses AHPS in respect to hydrologic science and technology research, river routing and mechanics, "systems" engineering aspects, and implementation. Overall, this report finds AHPS to be an ambitious program that promises to provide services and products that are timely and necessary. The report calls for AHPS to develop a detailed and comprehensive, multi-year implementation plan and for the program’s goals and budget to be brought into closer alignment.

Improving The Regulation And Management Of Low-activity Radioactive Wastes

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The largest volumes of radioactive wastes in the United States contain only small amounts of radioactive material. These low-activity radioactive wastes (LAW) should be regulated and managed according to the degree of risk they pose for treatment, storage, and disposal. Current regulations are based primarily on the type of industry that produced the waste-the waste's origin-rather than its risk. In this report a risk-informed approach for regulating and managing all types of LAW in the United States is proposed. Implemented in a gradual or stepwise fashion, this approach combines scientific risk assessment with public values and perceptions. It focuses on the hazardous properties of the waste in question and how they compare with other waste materials. The approach is based on established principles for risk-informed decision making, current risk-informed initiatives by waste regulators in the United States and abroad, solutions available under current regulatory authorities, and remedies through new legislation when necessary.

Testing of Defense Systems in an Evolutionary Acquisition Environment

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

DEVELOPING BIOMARKER-BASED TOOLS FOR Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment: The State of the Science, Evaluation, Implementation, and Economics

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

FOOD INSECURITY and Hunger in the United States: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE MEASURE

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Analyzing the U.S. Content of Imports and the Foreign Content of Exports

by National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Mineral Requirements for Military Personnel: Levels Needed for Cognitive and Physical Performance During Garrison Training

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Is That Real?: Identification and Assessment of the Counterfeiting Threat for U.S. Banknotes

by National Research Council of the National Academies

A key mission of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the Department of the Treasury is the design and printing of U.S. banknotes. The BEP is responsible for producing easily recognizable currency that is difficult to counterfeit. In recent years, the bureau has recognized the modern information technology could lead to entirely new types of counterfeiting threats, and it has requested a number of studies by the NRC to assess these evolving threats. In this new request, the BEP asked the NRC to identify and evaluate significant emerging counterfeiting threats and to assess technologically feasible counterfeit-deterrent features for potential use in new designs. This first report provides an assessment of emerging threats including a wide range of digital imaging and printing techniques. It also presents an analysis of a systems approach to the counterfeiting threat. The second report will offer an evaluation of new banknote features to address these threats.

From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor LOST IN TRANSITION: AN AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY AND INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE SYMPOSIUM

by Institute of Medicine National Research Council of the National Academies

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Examining the HEALTH DISPARITIES RESEARCH PLAN of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH: Unfinished Business

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

In the United States, health among racial and ethnic minorities, as well as poor people, is significantly worse than the overall U.S. population. Health disparities are reflected by indices such as excess mortality and morbidity and shorter life expectancy. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health is an assessment of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Strategic Research Plan and Budget to Reduce and Ultimately Eliminate Health Disparities. It focuses on practical solutions to remedy the state of the current health disparity crisis. The NIH has played the leading role in conducting extensive research on minority health and health disparities for more than two decades. Although additional research is critical to facilitating a better understanding of the overarching social, economic, educational, and environmental factors that predispose groups to specific diseases and conditions, there is also a great need to translate the existing and new information into best care practices. This means increasing communication with affected populations and their communities. Examining the Health Disparities Research Plan of the National Institutes of Health presents solutions to improving the health disparities nationwide and evaluates the NIH strategy plan designed to actively correct and combat the ongoing health disparities dilemma.

Ethical Considerations FOR Research Involving Prisoners

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

In the past 30 years, the population of prisoners in the United States has expanded almost 5-fold, correctional facilities are increasingly overcrowded, and more of the country's disadvantaged populations&#8212racial minorities, women, people with mental illness, and people with communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis&#8212are under correctional supervision. Because prisoners face restrictions on liberty and autonomy, have limited privacy, and often receive inadequate health care, they require specific protections when involved in research, particularly in today's correctional settings. Given these issues, the Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Human Research Protections commissioned the Institute of Medicine to review the ethical considerations regarding research involving prisoners. The resulting analysis contained in this book, Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners, emphasizes five broad actions to provide prisoners involved in research with critically important protections: &#8226 expand the definition of "prisoner"; &#8226 ensure universally and consistently applied standards of protection; &#8226 shift from a category-based to a risk-benefit approach to research review; &#8226 update the ethical framework to include collaborative responsibility; and &#8226 enhance systematic oversight of research involving prisoners.

Science, Medicine, and Animals: A Circle of Discovery

by National Research Council of the National Academies

http://www.nap.edu/catalog/10733.html Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher’s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher’s Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher’s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies’ Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher’s Association http://www2.nsta.org/recommends/product.asp?id=15858NSTA Recommends.

Instrumentation For A Better Tomorrow: Proceedings Of A Symposium In Honor Of Arnold Beckman

by National Research Council of the National Academies

On November 15, 2004, the National Academies sponsored a symposium at the Beckman Center in honor of Arnold O. Beckman. The symposium concentrated on the wide-ranging practical applications of scientific instrumentation as was the focus of much of Arnold Beckman’s career. The report begins with two presentations: a remembrance by Arnold Beckman’s daughter, Pat, and an overview of his life and accomplishments by Arnold Thackray, President of the Chemical Heritage Foundation. The next section contains presentations on the application of instrumentation in seven, diverse areas: organic chemistry, molecular and systems biology, synchrotron x-ray sources, nanoscale chemistry, forensics, and clinical medicine. Finally, there is a summary of a panel discussion on the evolving relationship between instrumentation and research.

Sleep Disorders And Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem

by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

Clinical practice related to sleep problems and sleep disorders has been expanding rapidly in the last few years, but scientific research is not keeping pace. Sleep apnea, insomnia, and restless legs syndrome are three examples of very common disorders for which we have little biological information. This new book cuts across a variety of medical disciplines such as neurology, pulmonology, pediatrics, internal medicine, psychiatry, psychology, otolaryngology, and nursing, as well as other medical practices with an interest in the management of sleep pathology. This area of research is not limited to very young and old patients—sleep disorders reach across all ages and ethnicities. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation presents a structured analysis that explores the following: Improving awareness among the general public and health care professionals. Increasing investment in interdisciplinary somnology and sleep medicine research training and mentoring activities. Validating and developing new and existing technologies for diagnosis and treatment. This book will be of interest to those looking to learn more about the enormous public health burden of sleep disorders and sleep deprivation and the strikingly limited capacity of the health care enterprise to identify and treat the majority of individuals suffering from sleep problems.

Guidelines For The Humane Transportation Of Research Animals

by National Research Council of the National Academies

Arranging the transportation of animals at research facilities is often an ordeal. There is a confusing patchwork of local, national, and international regulations; a perceived lack of high-quality shipping services; a dearth of science-based good practices; and a lack of biosafety standards. It’s a challenge —and an impediment to biomedical research. Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals identifies the current problems encountered in the transportation of research animals and offers recommendations aimed at local and federal officials to rectify these problems. This book also includes a set of good practices based on the extensive body of literature on transportation of agricultural animals, universal concepts of physiology, and a scientific understanding of species-specific needs and differences. Good practices were developed by the committee to address thermal environment, space requirements, food and water requirements, social interaction, monitoring of transportation, emergency procedures, personnel training, and biosecurity. Guidelines for the Humane Transportation of Research Animals is an essential guide for all researchers, animal care technicians, facilities managers, administrators, and animal care and use committees at research institutions.

Showing 41,451 through 41,475 of 70,742 results

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