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In this compelling and timely book, Violence and Society, Larry Ray offers a wide-ranging and integrated account of the many manifestations of violence in society. He examines violent behavior and its meanings in contemporary culture and throughout history. Introducing the major theoretical debates, the book examines different levels of violence - interpersonal, institutional and collective - and different forms of violence such as racist crime, homophobic crime and genocide. It provides readers with a succinct and comprehensive overview of its nature and effects, and the solutions and conflict resolutions involved in responses to violence. Interdisciplinary in its approach, the text draws on evidence from sociology, criminology, primate studies and archaeology to shed light on arguments about the social construction and innate nature of violence.
Economic growth and burgeoning populations have put South Asia's energy security in a perilous state. Already energy and power shortages are stunting development in some of the region's least developed locations spurring political insurgences and social dislocation. Should this trend continue, Ebinger argues the Subcontinent will face dire economic, social and political crises. In Energy and Security in South Asia, Brookings ESI director Charles Ebinger, a long-time adviser to South Asian governments, lays out the current regional energy picture arguing that the only way to achieve sustainable energy security is through regional collaboration both within the subcontinent as well as with regional neighbors in the Middle East and Central and Southeast Asia,Dr. Ebinger commences by illustrating the present-day energy environment in each nation as well as the obstacles governments confront in addressing them. Among the issues examined are: (1) the technical strains that near double-digit economic growth are putting on India's dilapidated power infrastructure, (2) the economic costs the country is incurring by increasing reliance on the Middle East for oil and gas resources; (3) the prospects for expanded wind, solar, energy efficiency and nuclear power generation in India to help reduce the nation's growing carbon footprint as it accelerates the use of coal; (4) the implications of Pakistan's expanded use of coal; (5) an analysis of how poor energy pricing systems are bringing about an energy shortage throughout the region (6) an examination of how strains in Indo/Bengali relations threaten the construction of vital regional energy infrastructure projects; (7) a discussion of how continued political upheaval in Nepal is causing power shortages of up to 20 hours per day; and (8), an analysis of how hydropower development is fuelling Bhutan's "Gross National Happiness" campaign. In addition to individual domestic concerns, each nation shares a crisis whereby hundreds of millions on the Subcontinent lack access to electricity and burn inefficient resources such as fuel wood and biomass for lighting, heating, and cooking, thus contributing sizeable carbon emissions.Ebinger then details the need for regional energy cooperation, both within and outside the Subcontinent. Regarding intra-regional collaboration, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh all have an unrealized opportunity for generating income by exporting their vast hydropower resources to a power-starved India. In addition, Bangladesh and India are yet to come to agreements on gas trade and other vital bilateral energy projects. Outside the subcontinent, a plethora of pipelines have been proposed to ease the Subcontinent's fossil fuel resource thirst. Ebinger examines the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline, Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India pipeline, Oman-India subsea pipeline, and the Myanmar-Bangladesh-India pipeline arguing that all these projects offer promises for energy security; however, each has been plagued with political, economic, or security obstacles that have prevented tangible progress.In that light, the third section highlights the geopolitical concerns facing the region's energy security, from the Pakistan-India relationship - and how it relates to energy security, and the developing India-China rivalry for foreign energy resources. China, seen as a competitor to India for Asian economic preeminence, is facing its own energy resource glut.The looming Indian Subcontinent energy crisis will force more than half a billion people - and counting - from emerging from dire poverty, thus potentially sparking domestic and regional instability in an already treacherous area.
Information technology has dramatically changed our lives in areas ranging from commerce and entertainment to voting. Now, policy advocates and government officials hope to bring the benefits of enhanced information technology to health care. Already, consumers can access a tremendous amount of medical information online. Some physicians encourage patients to use email or web messaging to manage simple medical issues. Increasingly, health care products can be purchased electronically.Yet the promise of e-health remains largely unfulfilled. Digital Medicine investigates the factors limiting digital technology's ability to remake health care. It explores the political, social, and ethical challenges presented by online health care, as well as the impact that racial, ethnic, and other disparities are having on the e-health revolution. It examines the accessibility of health-related websites for different populations and asks how we can close access gaps and ensure the reliability and trustworthiness of the information presented online. Darrell West and Edward Miller use multiple sources, including original survey research and website analysis, to study the content, sponsorship status, and public usage of health care-related websites, as well as the relationship between e-health utilization and attitudes about health care in the United States. They also explore the use of health information technology in other countries. The result is an important contribution to our understanding of health information innovation in America and around the world.
Collaborative democracy--government with the people--is a new vision of governance in the digital age. Wiki Government explains how to translate the vision into reality. Beth Simone Noveck draws on her experience in creating Peer-to-Patent, the federal government's first social networking initiative, to show how technology can connect the expertise of the many to the power of the few. In the process, she reveals what it takes to innovate in government.Launched in 2007, Peer-to-Patent connects patent examiners to volunteer scientists and technologists via the web. These dedicated but overtaxed officials decide which of the million-plus patent applications currently in the pipeline to approve. Their decisions help determine which start-up pioneers a new industry and which disappears without a trace. Patent examiners have traditionally worked in secret, cut off from essential information and racing against the clock to rule on lengthy, technical claims. Peer-to-Patent broke this mold by creating online networks of self-selecting citizen experts and channeling their knowledge and enthusiasm into forms that patent examiners can easily use. Peer-to-Patent shows how policymakers can improve decisionmaking by harnessing networks to public institutions. By encouraging, coordinating, and structuring citizen participation, technology can make government both more open and more effective at solving today's complex social and economic problems. Wiki Government describes how this model can be applied in a wide variety of settings and offers a fundamental rethinking of effective governance and democratic legitimacy for the twenty-first century.
A practical guide for all teachers embarking on their Masters in Teaching and Learning (MTL), this book begins by encouraging the reader to identify their own learning style and engage in different study methods, and goes on to explore higher level study skills and academic writing. The research required at Masters level is broken down and guidance is given on how to select, approach and interpret data. The final chapter discusses the real-life issues surrounding studying for a Masters while also embarking on a new career.
The new UK teacher training framework, introduced in September 2007, requires all teachers in the post-16 sector to possess knowledge, understanding, and personal skills to at least level 2 in the minimum core for information and communication technology (ICT). Coverage and assessment of the minimum core has to be embedded in all UK Certificate and Diploma courses leading to Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills and Associate Teacher Learning and Skills status. This book is a practical guide to ICT for trainee teachers in the lifelong learning sector. It enables trainee teachers to identify and develop their own ICT skills and to support their students in ICT.
This latest edition provides clear advice and practical ideas on how to manage and motivate students, a key part of achieving QTLS. Fully updated to include the LLUK Standards, it takes account of the variety of contexts within the Lifelong Learning Sector and links to recent and current learning theory, drawing on the findings of research projects into student behaviour within the sector. Based firmly on what teachers and students have to say about their experiences, it uses case studies, dialogue and journal extracts to explore key issues and to help trainees and teachers develop professional expertise.
Nobody knows more about the duties, the difficulties, and the strategies of staffing and working in the White House than Brad Patterson. In To Serve the President, Patterson combines insider access, decades of Washington experience, and an inimitable style to open a window onto closely guarded Oval Office turf. The fascinating and entertaining result is the most complete look ever at the White House and the people that make it work. Patterson describes what he considers to be the whole White House staff, a larger and more inclusive picture than the one painted by most analysts. In addition to nearly one hundred policy offices, he draws the curtain back from less visible components such as the Executive Residence staff, Air Force One and Marine One, the First Lady's staff, Camp David, and many others--135 separate offices in all, pulling together under often stressful and intense conditions. This authoritative and readable account lays out the organizational structure of the full White House and fills it out the outline with details both large and small. Who are these people? What exactly do they do? And what role do they play in running the nation? Another exciting feature of To Serve the President is Patterson's revelation of the total size and total cost of the contemporary White House--information that simply is not available anywhere else.This is not a kiss-and-tell tale or an incendiary expos?. Brad Patterson is an accomplished public administrator with an intimate knowledge of how the White House really works, and he brings to this book a refreshingly positive view of government and public service not currently in vogue. The U.S. government is not a monolith, or a machine, or a shadowy cabal; above all, it is people, human beings doing the best they can, under challenging conditions, to produce a better life for their fellow citizens. While there are bad apples in every bunch, the vast majority of these people ply their trades honestly and earnestly, often in complete anonymity and for modest compensation. This book illuminates their roles, celebrates their service, and paints an eye-opening picture of how things really work on Pennsylvania Avenue.
Allegations of fraud have marred recent elections around the world, from Russia and Italy to Mexico and the United States. Such charges raise fundamental questions about the quality of democracy in each country. Yet election fraud and, more broadly, electoral manipulation remain remarkably understudied concepts. There is no consensus on what constitutes election fraud, let alone how to detect and deter it. E lection Fraud: Detecting and Deterring Electoral Manipulation brings together experts on election law, election administration, and U.S. and comparative politics to address these critical issues. The first part of the book, which opens with an essay by Craig Donsanto of the U.S. Department of Justice, examines the U.S. understanding of election fraud in comparative perspective. In the second part of the book, D. Roderick Kiewiet, Jonathan N. Katz, and other scholars of U.S. elections draw on a wide variety of sources, including survey data, incident reports, and state-collected fraud allegations, to measure the extent and nature of election fraud in the United States. Finally, the third part of the book analyzes techniques for detecting and potentially deterring fraud. These strategies include both statistical analysis, as Walter R. Mebane, Jr. and Peter Ordeshook explain, and the now widespread practice of election monitoring, which Alberto Simpser examines in an intriguing essay.
Successful businesses have spent the past two decades retooling and rethinking how to manage their people better. Most big companies that have survived and prospered in the 21st century view employees as a vital strategic asset. In comparison, the U.S. federal government is a Stone Age relic, with its top-down bureaucracy, stovepiping of labor and responsibilities, and lack of training and investment in its own public servants. The inevitable result is a government not keeping up with the complex demands placed on it. In T he People Factor, Linda Bilmes and Scott Gould present a blueprint for reinvigorating the public sector in order to deliver results for America. Their premise is that the federal government can achieve the same gains as the best private sector and military organizations by managing its people better. Their new vision for public service is based on "The People Factor," a set of management tools drawn from best practices in successful companies, the military, and high-performing government agencies. Part One of The People Factor book shows why the U.S. personnel system needs reform, revealing the high price of inaction. Part Two lays out the specific steps that must be taken to achieve the necessary gains. Part Three focuses on how to implement the People Factor and make the authors' vision a reality. They argue that the next president needs to turn this issue into a top priority and use political capital to push reform. Highlights of the book include: ? Extensive original survey research ? Case studies from government and the military ? Interviews with leading thinkers on strategic human capital ? A number of specific proposed innovations ? A detailed proposal for a nationwide effort to train and revitalize the public service
Introduction to Research Methods in Education focuses on helping the reader develop a clear, logical, and conceptual understanding of the nature of empirical research in education, and of how those ideas lead to and underlie the principal research techniques. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches are covered, along with practical guidance on issues such as how to prepare a research proposal, write a literature review, and analyze different types of data.
Working together with fellow professionals across different sectors of children's services is central to good practice for all those who work with children and young people. This book looks at how children's services can work together more effectively; by taking an approach that is grounded in research, the book engages critically with both the benefits and the pitfalls of integrated working. The book encourages the reader to reflect on their own background and how this influences their view of specific children, families and fellow professionals, as well as their own practice. Suitable for all those working with children and young people from Birth to 19 in any aspect of children's services, this book will ensure professionals work together successfully to the benefit of all.
This accessible text introduces students and researchers to the basics of case study research, using a wide range of real-life examples. It deals with the core issues and methods that anyone new to case study will need to understand: What is a case study? When and why should case study methods be used? How are case studies designed? What methods can be used? How do we analyze our data and write up our case?
This book provides an introduction to key theoretical and methodological issues in developing a critical health psychology. It considers alternatives to the positivist assumptions underlying traditional health psychology, and proposes a reconstructed discipline that on the one hand delves into the experience of health and illness, and on the other engages with the social and political aspects of the subject. Containing carefully edited contributions from key thinkers in the field, it provides a coherent critique of mainstream health psychology.
Almost every education studies degree includes an element of comparative education, and this book provides an accessible undergraduate-level introduction to the theme. The book begins by defining the term 'comparative education' and examines the benefits of studying it. The book then takes a largely age-phase approach with a comparative analysis of selected education systems from around the world, including the impact of globalization. Global Issues and Comparative Education is for students, policy makers, educators, and academics.
SAGE celebrated the 20th Anniversary of the Counselling in Action in November 2008. To view the video - click here ------------------------------------------------------ `The reader looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to Gestalt counselling need look no further. This work can be recommended wholeheartedly' - British Gestalt Journal `A handy update to Gestalt that shows it to be a mature and sophisticated approach to personality that has lost little of its inventiveness, iconoclasm and authenticity...a very useful source book' - Self and Society Gestalt Counselling in Action is a bestselling text , which has sold over 30,000 copies. Now in it's Third Edition, the book continues to be a popular text for training in counselling and psychotherapy and with practitioners who are new to the gestalt approach. Drawing on over 30 years experience as a gestalt practitioner, trainer and supervisor, Petruska Clarkson has written a lively and authoritative introduction to the approach, beginning with the theoretical and philosophical basis of gestalt. She clearly sets out the six main phases of the therapeutic process, introducing us to a client, 'Gary', whose case is used throughout the book to illustrate the process of therapy and the techniques used in each of the phases. Fully revised and updated, Gestalt Counselling in Action, Third Edition includes a new chapter which explores recent developments in the field and looks to the future for the gestalt approach.
Bringing together leading international researchers and drawing on the pioneering work of Douglas Barnes, this book considers ways of improving classroom talk. The book covers classroom communication and managing social relations; talk in science classrooms; using critical conversations in studying literature; exploratory talk and thinking skills; talking to learn and learning to talk in the mathematics classroom; and the 'emerging pedagogy' of the spoken word.
This highly readable text guides the reader through each stage of their research project, from getting started to writing up, with each chapter clearly explaining a step along the way. Based on the author's hugely popular The Essential Guide to Doing Research, this new book retains the warmth, wit and grounded nature of the first, while providing tools to help students through the ins and outs of their own projects, and addressing the key questions students need to tackle. This is an inspiring book full of down-to-earth advice, illuminating figures, and diagrams and engaging real life examples. With this book as your personal mentor, a successfully completed research project is well within reach.
Daily headlines warn American workers that their retirement years may be far from golden. The average worker needs more retirement income than ever, due to increased life expectancy and soaring health care costs. But the main components of the retirement income system--Social Security and employer-provided pensions--are on the decline. What's more, fewer employers are providing retiree health insurance, forcing households to purchase their own coverage or do without. This bleak picture has inspired calls to fix Social Security, shore up employer pensions, and redesign 401(k) plans. But as Alicia Munnell and Steven Sass show in this thought-provoking book, the most effective response to the retirement income challenge lies elsewhere--in remaining in the workforce longer. At first blush, it may seem almost Orwellian to suggest that saving retirement requires reducing its length. But working longer does not mean working forever. By staying on the job for another two to four years, retirees in 2030 can be as well off as those in the current generation. Wo rking Longer investigates the prospects for moving the average retirement age from 63, the current figure, to 66. The authors ask whether future generations of workers will be healthy enough to work beyond the current retirement age, as well as whether older men and women are willing to do so. They examine companies' incentives to employ older workers and ask what government can do to promote continued participation in the workforce. Finally, they consider the challenge of ensuring a secure retirement for low-wage workers and those who are unable to continue to work. Spending a few additional years in the labor force can make a big difference. By continuing to work until their mid-60s or beyond, most individuals should be able to secure a reasonably comfortable retirement. Implementing such a change on a large scale will not be simple, however. It requires thought and planning on the part of individuals, employers, and the government. In Working Longer, Munnell and Sass explain what each of these groups can and should do to keep the American dream of retirement alive.
California is synonymous with opportunity, prosperity, and natural beauty, but climate change will certainly influence the state's future. Changes will affect the economy, natural resources, public health, agriculture, and the livelihoods of its residents. But how big is the risk? How will Californians adapt? What will it cost? This book is the first to ask and attempt to answer these and other questions so central to the long-term health of the state. While California is undeniably unique and diverse, the challenges it faces will be mirrored everywhere. This succinct and authoritative review of the latest evidence suggests feasible changes that can sustain prosperity, mitigate adverse impacts of climate change, and stimulate research and policy dialog across the globe. The authors argue that the sooner society recognizes the reality of climate change risk, the more effectively we can begin adaptation to limit costs to present and future generations. They show that climate risk presents a new opportunity for innovation, supporting aspirations for prosperity in a lower carbon, climate altered future where we can continue economic progress without endangering the environment and ourselves.
In E-learning Theory and Practice the authors set out different perspectives on e-learning. The book deals with the social implications of e-learning, its transformative effects, and the social and technical interplay that supports and directs e-learning. The authors present new perspectives on the subject by exploring the way teaching and learning are changing with the presence of the Internet and participatory media; providing a theoretical grounding in new learning practices from education, communication and information science; addressing e-learning in terms of existing learning theories, emerging online learning theories, new literacies, social networks, social worlds, community and virtual communities, and online resources; and emphasizing the impact of everyday electronic practices on learning, literacy and the classroom, locally and globally. This book is for everyone involved in e-learning including teachers, educators, graduate students and researchers.
This highly accessible book guides students through the production of either a traditional or a systematic literature review, clearly explaining the difference between the two types of review, the advantages and disadvantages of both, and the skills needed. It gives practical advice on reading and organizing relevant literature and critically assessing the reviewed field. Contents include using libraries and the internet, note making, presentation, critical analysis, and referencing, plagiarism, and copyright.
Following the success of the First Edition, this fully revised and updated Second Edition of Doing Visual Ethnography explores the use and potential of photography, video, and hypermedia in ethnographic and social research. It offers a reflexive approach to theoretical, methodological, practical, and ethical issues of using these media now that they are increasingly being incorporated into field research. Author Sarah Pink adopts the viewpoint that visual research methods should be rooted in a critical understanding of local and academic visual cultures, the visual media, and technologies being used and the ethical issues they raise.
Interviewing is an invaluable tool for the qualitative researcher. Steinar Kvale provides coverage of both the theoretical background and the practical aspects of the interview process, incorporating discussion of the wide variety of methods in interview based research and the different approaches to reading the data. Consideration is also given to the crucial issue of how to ensure scientific rigour.
Doing Development Research is a comprehensive introduction to research in development studies, that provides thorough training for anyone carrying out research in developing countries. It brings together experts with extensive experience of overseas research, presenting an interdisciplinary guide to the core methodologies. Informed by years of research experience, Doing Development Research draws together many strands of action research and participatory methods, demonstrating their diverse applications and showing how they interrelate. The text provides: · an account of the theoretical approaches that underlie development work · an explanation of the practical issues involved in planning development research · a systematic overview of information and data collecting methods in three sub-sections: · methods of social research and associated forms of analysis · using existing knowledge and records · disseminating findings/research Using clear and uncomplicated language - illustrated with appropriate learning features throughout - the text guides the researcher through the choice of appropriate methods, the implementation of the research, and the communication of the findings to a range of audiences. This is the essential A-Z of development research.
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