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Science And Technology For Army Homeland Security: Report 1

by Committee on Army Science Technology for Homeland Defense

The confluence of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack and the U.S. Army’s historic role to support civil authorities has resulted in substantial new challenges for the Army. To help meet these challenges, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology requested the National Research Council (NRC) carry out a series of studies on how science and technology could assist the Army prepare for its role in homeland security (HLS). The NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology formed the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security to accomplish that assignment. The Committee was asked to review relevant literature and activities, determine areas of emphasis for Army S&T in support of counter terrorism and anti-terrorism, and recommend high-payoff technologies to help the Army fulfill its mission. The Department of Defense Counter-Terrorism Technology Task Force identified four operational areas in reviewing technical proposals for HLS operations: indications and warning; denial and survivability; recovery and consequence management; and attribution and retaliation. The study sponsor asked the Committee to use these four areas as the basis for its assessment of the science and technology (S&T) that will be important for the Army’s HLS role. Overall, the Committee found that: - There is potential for substantial synergy between S&T work carried out by the Army for its HLS responsibilities and the development of the next generation Army, the Objective Force. - The Army National Guard (ARNG) is critical to the success of the Army’s HLS efforts.

Materials Research to Meet 21st-century Defense Needs

by National Research Council

In order to achieve the revolutionary new defense capabilities offered by materials science and engineering, innovative management to reduce the risks associated with translating research results will be needed along with the R&D. While payoff is expected to be high from the promising areas of materials research, many of the benefits are likely to be evolutionary. Nevertheless, failure to invest in more speculative areas of research could lead to undesired technological surprises. Basic research in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science will provide the seeds for potentially revolutionary technologies later in the 21st century.

PREPARING FOR THE REVOLUTION: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University

by Panel on the Impact of Information Technology on the Future of the Research University

The rapid evolution of information technology (IT) is transforming our society and its institutions. For the most knowledge-intensive entities of all, research universities, profound IT-related challenges and opportunities will emerge in the next decade or so. Yet, there is a sense that some of the most significant issues are not well understood by academic administrators, faculty, and those who support or depend on the institution’s activities. This study identifies those information technologies likely to evolve in the near term (a decade or less) that could ultimately have a major impact on the research university. It also examines the possible implications of these technologies for the research university—its activities (learning, research, outreach) and its organization, management, and financing—and for the broader higher education enterprise. The authoring committee urges research universities and their constituents to develop new strategies to ensure that they survive and thrive in the digital age.

FRONTIERS IN High Energy Density Physics: THE X-GAMES OF CONTEMPORARY SCIENCE

by Committee on High Energy Density Plasma Physics

Recent scientific and technical advances have made it possible to create matter in the laboratory under conditions relevant to astrophysical systems such as supernovae and black holes. These advances will also benefit inertial confinement fusion research and the nation's nuclear weapons program. The report describes the major research facilities on which such high energy density conditions can be achieved and lists a number of key scientific questions about high energy density physics that can be addressed by this research. Several recommendations are presented that would facilitate the development of a comprehensive strategy for realizing these research opportunities.

Patents In The Knowledge-based Economy

by Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy

This volume assembles papers commissioned by the National Research Council's Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) to inform judgments about the significant institutional and policy changes in the patent system made over the past two decades. The chapters fall into three areas. The first four chapters consider the determinants and effects of changes in patent "quality. " Quality refers to whether patents issued by the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) meet the statutory standards of patentability, including novelty, nonobviousness, and utility. The fifth and sixth chapters consider the growth in patent litigation, which may itself be a function of changes in the quality of contested patents. The final three chapters explore controversies associated with the extension of patents into new domains of technology, including biomedicine, software, and business methods.

Decline Of The Steller Sea Lion In Alaskan Waters: Untangling Food Webs And Fishing Nets

by Committee on the Alaska Groundfish Fishery Steller Sea Lions

For an unknown reason, the Steller sea lion population in Alaska has declined by 80 percent during the past three decades. In 2001, the National Research Council began a study to assess the many hypotheses proposed to explain the sea lion decline including insufficient food due to fishing or the late 1970s climate/regime shift, a disease epidemic, pollution, illegal shooting, subsistence harvest, and predation by killer whales or sharks. The report's analysis indicates that the population decline cannot be explained only by a decreased availability of food; hence other factors, such as predation and illegal shooting, deserve further study. The report recommends a management strategy that could help determine the impact of fisheries on sea lion survival--establishing open and closed fishing areas around sea lion rookeries. This strategy would allow researchers to study sea lions in relatively controlled, contrasting environments. Experimental area closures will help fill some short-term data gaps, but long-term monitoring will be required to understand why sea lions are at a fraction of their former abundance.

EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL EVENTS at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities

by Committee on Evaluation of Chemical Events at Army Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities

For over a decade the Army has been carrying out a program aimed at the destruction of accumulated chemical weapons stored at several sites. While destruction by incineration has been successful, several incidents -- called chemical events -- occurred during the disposal process or decontamination activities that raised some public concerns about the safety of operations of three third generation incineration facilities. As a result, the Congress asked the NRC to investigate whether the incidents provide information useful to help ensure safe operation of the future sites. This book presents an analysis of causes of and responses to past chemical events, implications of such events for ongoing and future demilitarization activities, and recommendations for preparing for future events.

An Assessment of the CDC Anthrax Vaccine Safety and Efficacy Research Program

by Committee to Review the CDC Anthrax Vaccine Safety Efficacy Research Program

In 1998, the Department of Defense (DoD) began a program of mandatory immunization against anthrax for all military personnel. As the program proceeded, however, some military personnel and their families raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of the anthrax vaccine. Acknowledging both the need to protect military personnel and the concerns about the anthrax vaccine, Congress directed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to carry out a research program on its safety and efficacy. To assist in the development of this program, CDC requested the Institute of Medicine to convene a committee to review the completeness and appropriateness of the research program. "In An Assessment of the CDC Anthrax Vaccine Safety and Efficacy Research Program, the committee makes an overall assessment of the CDC research plan and reviews the specific studies proposed by CDC in the three areas of efficacy, safety, and acceptability. The committee also notes additional research needs that became evident following the bioterrorist events of 2001 and makes recommendations about the leadership of the research program.

Bioavailability Of Contaminants In Soils And Sediments: Processes, Tools, And Applications

by Committee on Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils Sediments

Bioavailability refers to the extent to which humans and ecological receptors are exposed to contaminants in soil or sediment. The concept of bioavailability has recently piqued the interest of the hazardous waste industry as an important consideration in deciding how much waste to clean up. The rationale is that if contaminants in soil and sediment are not bioavailable, then more contaminant mass can be left in place without creating additional risk. A new NRC report notes that the potential for the consideration of bioavailability to influence decision-making is greatest where certain chemical, environmental, and regulatory factors align. The current use of bioavailability in risk assessment and hazardous waste cleanup regulations is demystified, and acceptable tools and models for bioavailability assessment are discussed and ranked according to seven criteria. Finally, the intimate link between bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The report concludes with suggestions for moving bioavailability forward in the regulatory arena for both soil and sediment cleanup.

Raising Public Awareness Of Engineering

by National Academy of Engineering Staff

The public has little awareness or appreciation of engineering as the source of technology. The engineering community spends mightily to try to improve public awareness, but an NAE-commissioned survey of activities intended to raise public awareness found little coordination among them and few measures of success. This report provides the results of this survey, explains why it was needed, and recommends how the engineering community can work successfully to communicate the importance of engineering to society.

Implications of Emerging Micro- and Nanotechnologies

by Committee on Implications of Emerging Micro- Nanotechnologies

Expansion of micro-technology applications and rapid advances in nano-science have generated considerable interest by the Air Force in how these developments will affect the nature of warfare and how it could exploit these trends. The report notes four principal themes emerging from the current technological trends: increased information capability, miniaturization, new materials, and increased functionality. Recommendations about Air Force roles in micro- and nanotechnology research are presented including those areas in which the Air Force should take the lead. The report also provides a number of technical and policy findings and recommendations that are critical for effective development of the Air Force's micro- and nano-science and technology program.

Regional Issues In Aquifer Storage And Recovery For Everglades Restoration

by Committee on Restoration of the Greater Everglades Ecosystem

The report reviews a comprehensive research plan on Everglades restoration drafted by federal and Florida officials that assesses a central feature of the restoration: a proposal to drill more than 300 wells funneling up to 1. 7 billion gallons of water a day into underground aquifers, where it would be stored and then pumped back to the surface to replenish the Everglades during dry periods. The report says that the research plan goes a long way to providing information needed to settle remaining technical questions and clearly responds to suggestions offered by scientists in Florida and in a previous report by the Research Council.

Technology Development for Army Unmanned Ground Vehicles

by Committee on Army Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology

Unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) are expected to play a key role in the Army’s Objective Force structure. These UGVs would be used for weapons platforms, logistics carriers, and reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition among other things. To examine aspects of the Army’s UGV program, assess technology readiness, and identify key issues in implementing UGV systems, among other questions, the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology asked the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct a study of UGV technologies. This report discusses UGV operational requirements, current development efforts, and technology integration and roadmaps to the future. Key recommendations are presented addressing technical content, time lines, and milestones for the UGV efforts.

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2002

by Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides

The federal government operates six major health care programs that serve nearly 100 million Americans. Collectively, these programs significantly influence how health care is provided by the private sector. Leadership by Example explores how the federal government can leverage its unique position as regulator, purchaser, provider, and research sponsor to improve care--not only in these six programs but also throughout the nation's health care system. The book describes the federal programs and the populations they serve: Medicare (the elderly), Medicaid (low income patients), SCHIP (children), VHA (veterans), TRICARE (individuals in the military and their dependents), and IHS (native Americans). It then examines the steps each program takes to assure and improve safety and quality of care. The Institute of Medicine proposes a national quality enhancement strategy focused on performance measurement of clinical quality and patient perceptions of care. The discussion on which this book focuses includes recommendations for developing and pilot-testing performance measures, creating an information infrastructure for comparing performance and disseminating results, and more. Leadership by Example also includes a proposed research agenda to support quality enhancement. The third in the series of books from the Quality of Health Care in America project, this well-targeted volume will be important to all readers of To Err Is Human and Crossing the Quality Chasm--as we

Improving Birth Outcomes: Meeting The Challenge In The Developing World

by Committee on Improving Birth Outcomes

Birth outcomes have improved dramatically worldwide in the past 40 years. Yet there is still a large gap between the outcomes in developing and developed countries. This book addresses the steps needed to reduce that gap. It reviews the available statistics of low birth weight, prematurity, and birth defects; reviews current knowledge and practices of a healthy pregnancy, identifies cost-effective opportunities for improving birth outcomes and supporting families with an infant handicapped by birth problems, and recommens priority research, capacity building, and institutional and global efforts to reduce adverse birth outcomes in developing countries. The committee has based its study on data and information from several developing countries, and provides recommendations that can assist the March of Dimes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and NIH in tailoring their international program and forging new partnerships to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse birth outcomes.

Atoms, Molecules, And Light: Amo Science Enabling The Future

by Committee For An Updated Assessment Of Atomic Molecular Optical Science

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Diagnosis And Control Of Johne's Disease

by Committee on Diagnosis Control of Johne's Disease

Johne's Disease is a chronic, progressive intestinal disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) that affects primarily ruminant animals. In recent decades there has been growing concern over the lack of effective control of this disease and questions have arisen regarding the possibility that Map infection could be a cause of some cases of Crohn's disease in humans. This report presents a broad outline of the steps that should be taken to control Johne's disease, reduce the spread of Map, and minimize effects of the disease in animals. The report also describes the weaknesses of our current research agenda and provides recommendations for a new research strategy to resolve the question of whether there is a link between Johne's and Crohn's diseases.

Estimating The Public Health Benefits Of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations

by Committee on Estimating the Health-Risk-Reduction Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations

This volume contains the findings of a study the National Academy of Sciences carried out at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency to assess the health-risk-reduction benefits that would result from proposed air pollution regulations. The committee in charge of the study was made up of specialists in medicine, public health, economics, environmental science, risk assessment, epidemiology, biostatistics, and human toxicology in the US, Switzerland, and the UK. Once the methodology has been outlined the main topics are exposure and response, degree of uncertainty in EPA risk analysis, and use of health benefits analysis. Not indexed. Annotation c. Book News, Inc. , Portland, OR (booknews. com)

Review Of The Narsto Draft Report: Narsto Assessment Of The Atmospheric Science On Particulate Matter

by Committee to Review NARSTO's Scientific Assessment of Airborne Particulate Matter

The report reviews NARSTO's recent report on atmospheric science issues associated with management of airborne particulate matter (PM) to achieve air quality standards. NARSTO is a public-private partnership with members from government, utilities, industry, and academe in Canada, Mexico and the United States that coordinates ozone-related atmospheric science research and assessment.

Priority Areas for National Action: Transforming Health Care Quality

by Committee on Identifying Priority Areas for Quality Improvement

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Who Will Keep the Public Healthy?: Educating Public Health Professionalsfor the 21st Century

by Committee on Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century

Bioterrorism, drug--resistant disease, transmission of disease by global travel . . . there’s no shortage of challenges facing America’s public health officials. Men and women preparing to enter the field require state-of-the-art training to meet these increasing threats to the public health. But are the programs they rely on provide the high caliber professional training they require? Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? provides an overview of the past, present, and future of public health education, assessing its readiness to provide the training and education needed to prepare men and women to face 21st century challenges. Advocating an ecological approach to public health, the Institute of Medicine examines the role of public health schools and degree--granting programs, medical schools, nursing schools, and government agencies, as well as other institutions that foster public health education and leadership. Specific recommendations address the content of public health education, qualifications for faculty, availability of supervised practice, opportunities for cross--disciplinary research and education, cooperation with government agencies, and government funding for education. Eight areas of critical importance to public health education in the 21st century are examined in depth: informatics, genomics, communication, cultural competence, community-based participatory research, global health, policy and law, and public health ethics. The book also includes a discussion of the policy implications of its ecological framework.

A Workshop Summary Communicating Uncertainties in Weather and Climate Information

by Elbert W. Friday

The report explores how best to communicate weather and climate information by presenting five case studies, selected to illustrate a range of time scales and issues, from the forecasting of weather events, to providing seasonal outlooks, to projecting climate change.

Minorities in the Chemical Workforce: Diversity Models that Work: A Workshop Report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

by Chemical Sciences Roundtable

This report to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable presents a collection of contributed papers that report success stories for increasing diversity. The report provides background information on the value of diversity in the undergraduate environment, and the success stories address both undergraduate and graduate chemistry programs as well as chemical industry.

Ocean Noise And Marine Mammals

by Committee on Potential Impacts of Ambient Noise in the Ocean on Marine Mammals

For the 119 species of marine mammals, as well as for some other aquatic animals, sound is the primary means of learning about the environment and of communicating, navigating, and foraging. The possibility that human-generated noise could harm marine mammals or significantly interfere with their normal activities is an issue of increasing concern. Noise and its potential impacts have been regulated since the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972. Public awareness of the issue escalated in 1990s when researchers began using high-intensity sound to measure ocean climate changes. More recently, the stranding of beaked whales in proximity to Navy sonar use has again put the issue in the spotlight. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals reviews sources of noise in the ocean environment, what is known of the responses of marine mammals to acoustic disturbance, and what models exist for describing ocean noise and marine mammal responses. Recommendations are made for future data gathering efforts, studies of marine mammal behavior and physiology, and modeling efforts necessary to determine what the long- and short-term impacts of ocean noise on marine mammals.

Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care

by Institute of Medicine Staff

Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are known to reflect access to care and other issues that arise from differing socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, increasing evidence that even after such differences are accounted for, race and ethnicity remain significant predictors of the quality of health care received. Unequal Treatment, a panel of experts documents this evidence and explores how persons of color experience the health care environment. The book examines how disparities in treatment may arise in health care systems and looks at aspects of the clinical encounter that may contribute to such disparities. Patient's and provider's attitudes, expectations, and behavior are analyzed. How to intervene? Unequal Treatment offers recommendations for improvements in medical care financing, allocation of care, availability of language translation, community-based care, and other arenas. The committee highlights the potential of cross-cultural education to improve provider-patient communication and offers a detailed look at how to integrate cross-cultural learning within the health professions. The book concludes with recommendations for data collection and research initiatives. Unequal Treatment will be vitally important to health care policymakers, administrators, providers, educators, and students as well as advocates for people of color.

Showing 41,901 through 41,925 of 70,819 results

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