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Halcion: An Independent Assessment of Safety and Efficacy Data

by Committee on Halcion: An Assessment of Data Adequacy Confidence

Regulatory agencies within the United States and the United Kingdom, among several other countries, have reviewed extensively the safety and efficacy of Halcion (triazolam)--a once commonly used hypnotic drug. Concerns began to emerge about the safety of Halcion when a Dutch physician reported a possible link between it and a syndrome that included such effects as depression, amnesia, hallucinations, and increased anxiety. In addition, in 1991 its manufacturer, Upjohn, noted that "errors had been identified in a report of one of the clinical studies included in the original" application for approval. Since then, the drug has been removed from the market in several countries, whereas in the United States and Canada, the drug's labeling has been modified to reduce the recommended dose and duration of treatment and to heighten awareness of possible side effects. Yet different data and analyses have resulted in conflicting messages that are difficult to reconcile and interpret. In response to a request from the Food and Drug Administration to resolve these controversial issues related to the safety and efficacy of Halcion, this IOM book assesses the adequacy of the drug's clinical trials; the quality and quantity of data on adverse reactions; overall confidence in the data on effectiveness, adverse events, and side effects at different doses; and whether additional studies are needed.

Pacific Partnerships for Health: Charting a Course for the 21st Century

by Jill C. Feasley Robert S. Lawrence

The U.S.-Associated Pacific Basin consists of six island jurisdictions: American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. This book examines one aspect of the ties and U.S. involvement with this part of the world--its role in the region's health care delivery system. Although the health status of the islanders and the challenges faced by the health care systems naturally vary within and among the jurisdictions, in general, almost all health indicators for the islanders are worse than those of mainland Americans. The health systems in the area must deal with conditions normally seen in developing countries (e.g., malnutrition, tuberculosis, dengue fever, and cholera) and in developed countries alike (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, and cancer). In examining the strengths and weaknesses of the area's systems, the volume provides a regional health overview and assessments of health care in individual jurisdictions, evaluates the Pacific Basin Medical Officers Training Program, and lays out a strategic plan for future health services in the U.S.-Associated Pacific Basin.

Orphans and Incentives: Developing Technologies to Address Emerging Infections: Workshop Report

by Forum on Emerging Infections

Infectious diseases remain a leading cause of prolonged illness, premature mortality, and soaring health costs. In the United States in 1995, infectious diseases were the third leading cause of death, right behind heart disease and cancer. Mortality is mounting over time, owing to HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, and septicemia, with drug resistance playing an ever-increasing role in each of these disease categories. This book, a report from a Forum on Emerging Infections workshop, focuses on product areas where returns from the market might be perceived as being too small or too complicated by other factors to compete in industrial portfolios with other demands for investment. Vaccines are quintessential examples of such products. The lessons learned fall into four areas, including what makes intersectoral collaboration a reality, the notion of a product life cycle, the implications of divergent sectoral mandates and concepts of risk, and the roles of advocacy and public education. The summary contains an examination of the Children's Vaccine Initiative and other models, an industry perspective on the emerging infections agenda, and legal and regulatory issues.

Aging of U.S. Air Force Aircraft: Final Report

by Committee on Aging of U.S. Air Force Aircraft

Many of the aircraft that form the backbone of the U.S. Air Force operational fleet are 25 years old or older. A few of these will be replaced with new aircraft, but many are expected to remain in service an additional 25 years or more. This book provides a strategy to address the technical needs and priorities associated with the Air Force's aging airframe structures. It includes a detailed summary of the structural status of the aging force, identification of key technical issues, recommendations for near-term engineering and management actions, and prioritized near-term and long-term research recommendations.

Energy-Efficient Technologies for the Dismounted Soldier

by Committee on Electric Power for the Dismounted Soldier

This book documents electric power requirements for the dismounted soldier on future Army battlefields, describes advanced energy concepts, and provides an integrated assessment of technologies likely to affect limitations and needs in the future. It surveys technologies associated with both supply and demand, including energy sources and systems; low-power electronics and design; communications, computers, displays, and sensors; and networks, protocols, and operations. The advanced concepts discussed are predicated on continued development by the Army of soldier systems similar to the Land Warrior system on which the committee based its projections on energy use.

Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity

by Committee on Human Genome Diversity

This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical, organizational, and policy issues surrounding such research. Evaluating Human Genetic Diversity discusses the potential uses of such collection, such as providing insight into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

From Death to Birth: Mortality Decline and Reproductive Change

by Committee on Population

The last 35 years or so have witnessed a dramatic shift in the demography of many developing countries. Before 1960, there were substantial improvements in life expectancy, but fertility declines were very rare. Few people used modern contraceptives, and couples had large families. Since 1960, however, fertility rates have fallen in virtually every major geographic region of the world, for almost all political, social, and economic groups. What factors are responsible for the sharp decline in fertility? What role do child survival programs or family programs play in fertility declines? Casual observation suggests that a decline in infant and child mortality is the most important cause, but there is surprisingly little hard evidence for this conclusion. The papers in this volume explore the theoretical, methodological, and empirical dimensions of the fertility-mortality relationship. It includes several detailed case studies based on contemporary data from developing countries and on historical data from Europe and the United States.

Chimpanzees In Research: Strategies For Their Ethical Care, Management, And Use

by Committee On Long-term Care Of Chimpanzees

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Building Ocean Science Partnerships: The United States and Mexico Working Together

by AMC-NRC Joint Working Group on Ocean Sciences

Building Ocean Science Partnerships describes a set of potential ocean science projects for cooperative research between scientists from the United States and Mexico, particularly focused on the Pacific Coast of California and Baja California, the Gulf of California, and the Gulf of Mexico. Barriers to cooperation between scientists of the two nations are identified, and methods to overcome such barriers are recommended.The book describes how interactions can be promoted by enhancing opportunities for education and training, building and sharing scientific infrastructure, participating together in large-scale marine research programs and regional ocean observing systems, planning joint science events and publications, and developing sources of binational funding. Building Ocean Science Partnerships will be published in English and Spanish to make its contents widely accessible in the United States and Mexico.

New Strategies for New Challenges: Corporate Innovation in the United States and Japan: Report of a Joint Task Force of the National Research Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

by Committee on Japan

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety: A Proceedings

by Committee on Aviation Fuels Improved Fire Safety

The reduction of the fire hazard of fuel is critical to improving survivability in impact-survivable aircraft accidents. Despite current fire prevention and mitigation approaches, fuel flammability can overwhelm post-crash fire scenarios. The Workshop on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety was held November 19-20, 1996 to review the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for the future development of aviation fuels that are most resistant to ignition during a crash. This book contains a summary of workshop discussions and 11 presented papers in the areas of fuel and additive technologies, aircraft fuel system requirements, and the characterization of fuel fires.

Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence

by Panel on Computer Science Artificial Intelligence

The National Academies Press (NAP)--publisher for the National Academies--publishes more than 200 books a year offering the most authoritative views, definitive information, and groundbreaking recommendations on a wide range of topics in science, engineering, and health. Our books are unique in that they are authored by the nation's leading experts in every scientific field.

Research Required to Support Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

by Panel on Basic Research Requirements in Support of Comprehensive Test Ban Monitoring

On September 24, 1996, President Clinton signed the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty at the United Nations Headquarters. Over the next five months, 141 nations, including the four other nuclear weapon states -- Russia, China, France, and the United Kingdom -- added their signatures to this total ban on nuclear explosions. To help achieve verification of compliance with its provisions, the treaty specifies an extensive International Monitoring System of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasonic, and radionuclide sensors. This volume identifies specific research activities that will be needed if the United States is to effectively monitor compliance with the treaty provisions.

Emerging Technologies for Nutrition Research: Potential for Assessing Military Performance Capability

by Committee on Military Nutrition Research

The latest of a series of publications based on workshops sponsored by the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, this book's focus on emerging technologies for nutrition research arose from a concern among scientists at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine that traditional nutrition research, using standard techniques, centered more on complex issues of the maintenance or enhancement of performance, and might not be sufficiently substantive either to measure changes in performance or to predict the effects on performance of stresses soldiers commonly experience in operational environments. The committee's task was to identify and evaluate new technologies to determine whether they could help resolve important issues in military nutrition research. The book contains the committee's summary and recommendations as well as individually authored chapters based on presentations at a 1995 workshop. Other chapters cover techniques of body composition assessment, tracer techniques for the study of metabolism, ambulatory techniques for the determination of energy expenditure, molecular and cellular approaches to nutrition, the assessment of immune function, and functional and behavioral measures of nutritional status.

Building A Foundation For Sound Environmental Decisions

by Committee on Research Opportunities Priorities For Epa

Over the past decades, environmental problems have attracted enormous attention and public concern. Many actions have been taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others to protect human health and ecosystems from particular threats. Despite some successes, many problems remain unsolved and new ones are emerging. Increasing population and related pressures, combined with a realization of the interconnectedness and complexity of environmental systems, present new challenges to policymakers and regulators.Scientific research has played, and will continue to play, an essential part in solving environmental problems. Decisions based on incorrect or incomplete understanding of environmental systems will not achieve the greatest reduction of risk at the lowest cost.This volume describes a framework for acquiring the knowledge needed both to solve current recognized problems and to be prepared for the kinds of problems likely to emerge in the future. Many case examples are included to illustrate why some environmental control strategies have succeeded where others have fallen short and how we can do better in the future.

Satellite Gravity and the Geosphere: Contributions to the Study of the Solid Earth and Its Fluid Envelope

by Committee on Earth Gravity from Space

For the past three decades, it has been possible to measure the earth's static gravity from satellites. Such measurements have been used to address many important scientific problems, including the earth's internal structure, and geologically slow processes like mantle convection. In principle, it is possible to resolve the time-varying component of the gravity field by improving the accuracy of satellite gravity measurements. These temporal variations are caused by dynamic processes that change the mass distribution in the earth, oceans, and atmosphere. Acquisition of improved time-varying gravity data would open a new class of important scientific problems to analysis, including crustal motions associated with earthquakes and changes in groundwater levels, ice dynamics, sea-level changes, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns. This book evaluates the potential for using satellite technologies to measure the time-varying component of the gravity field and assess the utility of these data for addressing problems of interest to the earth sciences, natural hazards, and resource communities.

Toxicologic Assessment Of The Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests

by Subcommittee On Zinc Cadmium Sulfide

During the 1950s and 1960s, the U.S. Army conducted atmospheric dispersion tests in many American cities using fluorescent particles of zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) to develop and verify meteorological models to estimate the dispersal of aerosols. Upon learning of the tests, many citizens and some public health officials in the affected cities raised concerns about the health consequences of the tests. This book assesses the public health effects of the Army's tests, including the toxicity of ZnCdS, the toxicity of surrogate cadmium compounds, the environmental fate of ZnCdS, the extent of public exposures from the dispersion tests, and the risks of such exposures.

Resources for Teaching Middle School Science

by National Science Resources Center

With age-appropriate, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and sound teaching practices, middle school science can capture the interest and energy of adolescent students and expand their understanding of the world around them.Resources for Teaching Middle School Science, developed by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), is a valuable tool for identifying and selecting effective science curriculum materials that will engage students in grades 6 through 8. The volume describes more than 400 curriculum titles that are aligned with the National Science Education Standards.This completely new guide follows on the success of Resources for Teaching Elementary School Science, the first in the NSRC series of annotated guides to hands-on, inquiry-centered curriculum materials and other resources for science teachers.The curriculum materials in the new guide are grouped in five chapters by scientific area--Physical Science, Life Science, Environmental Science, Earth and Space Science, and Multidisciplinary and Applied Science. They are also grouped by type--core materials, supplementary units, and science activity books.Each annotation of curriculum material includes a recommended grade level, a description of the activities involved and of what students can be expected to learn, a list of accompanying materials, a reading level, and ordering information.The curriculum materials included in this book were selected by panels of teachers and scientists using evaluation criteria developed for the guide. The criteria reflect and incorporate goals and principles of the National Science Education Standards. The annotations designate the specific content standards on which these curriculum pieces focus.In addition to the curriculum chapters, the guide contains six chapters of diverse resources that are directly relevant to middle school science. Among these is a chapter on educational software and multimedia programs, chapters on books about science and teaching, directories and guides to science trade books, and periodicals for teachers and students.Another section features institutional resources. One chapter lists about 600 science centers, museums, and zoos where teachers can take middle school students for interactive science experiences. Another chapter describes nearly 140 professional associations and U.S. government agencies that offer resources and assistance.Authoritative, extensive, and thoroughly indexed--and the only guide of its kind--Resources for Teaching Middle School Science will be the most used book on the shelf for science teachers, school administrators, teacher trainers, science curriculum specialists, advocates of hands-on science teaching, and concerned parents.

A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research

by Committee to Review the Department of Defense's Breast Cancer Research Program

According to current statistical data, one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. The five-year survival rate for breast cancer patients has improved in recent years, but the overall mortality rates have changed little. In 1993 Congress allocated $210 million for breast cancer research as part of the Department of Defense budget. An Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee was convened at that time to advise the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command on strategies for managing a breast cancer research program. This book evaluates the program's management and achievements to date. Although it is too early to evaluate the program in terms of breakthrough results and new insights produced by the funded projects or investigators, this book documents the process used to select research proposals for funding and analyzes the portfolio of funded projects in terms of their responsiveness to the recommendations and fundamental questions articulated in the 1993 IOM report.

Wood in Our Future: Proceedings of a Symposium Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use

by Board On Agriculture

The United States produces 25% of the world's wood output, and wood supports a major segment of the U.S. industrial base. Trees provide fiber, resins, oils, pulp, food, paper, pharmaceuticals, fuel, many products used in home construction, and numerous other products. The use of wood as a raw material must consider production efficiencies and natural resource conservation as well as efficient, profitable use of solid wood, its residues, and by-products.To better assess the use of wood as a raw material, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service asked the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture to bring together experts to review the analytical techniques used to follow the life-cycle of wood production--from tree to product--and assess the environmental impacts. This resulting book provides a base of current knowledge, identifying what data are lacking, where future efforts should be focused, and what is known about the methodologies used to assess environmental impacts. The book also focuses on national and international efforts to develop integrated environmental, economic, and energy accounting methologies.

Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space

by Committee on Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space

Advanced Technology for Human Support in Space was written in response to a request from NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA) to evaluate its Advanced Human Support Technology Program. This report reviews the four major areas of the program: advanced life support (ALS), environmental monitoring and control (EMC), extravehicular activities (EVA), and space human factors (SHF). The focus of this program is on long-term technology development applicable to future human long-duration space missions, such as for a hypothetical new mission to the Moon or Mars.

Proliferation Concerns: Assessing U.S. Efforts to Help Contain Nuclear and Other Dangerous Materials and Technologies in the Former Soviet Union

by National Research Council Staff

The successor states of the former Soviet Union have enormous stocks of weapons-usable nuclear material and other militarily significant commodities and technologies. Preventing the flow of such items to countries of proliferation concern and to terrorist groups is a major objective of U.S. national security policy. This book reviews the effectiveness of two U.S. programs directed to this objective. These programs have supported the efforts of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan in upgrading the physical protection, control, and accountability of highly enriched uranium and plutonium and strengthening systems to control the export of many types of militarily sensitive items.

Premature Death in the New Independent States

by Committee on Population

In recent years there have been alarming reports of rapid decreases in life expectancy in the New Independent States (former members of the Soviet Union). To help assess priorities for health policy, the Committee on Population organized two workshops--the first on adult mortality and disability, the second on adult health priorities and policies. Participants included demographers, epidemiologists, public health specialists, economists, and policymakers from the NIS countries, the United States, and Western Europe. This volume consists of selected papers presented at the workshops. They assess the reliability of data on mortality, morbidity, and disability; analyze regional patterns and trends in mortality rates and causes of death; review evidence about major determinants of adult mortality; and discuss implications for health policy.

Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants: Safety and Reliability Issues

by Committee on Application of Digital Instrumentation

The nuclear industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) have been working for several years on the development of an adequate process to guide the replacement of aging analog monitoring and control instrumentation in nuclear power plants with modern digital instrumentation without introducing off-setting safety problems. This book identifies criteria for the USNRC's review and acceptance of digital applications in nuclear power plants. It focuses on eight areas: software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, systems aspects of digital instrumentation and control technology, human factors and human-machine interfaces, safety and reliability assessment methods, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software, the case-by-case licensing process, and the adequacy of technical infrastructure.

Building An Effective Environmental Management Science Program: Final Assessment

by Committee on Building an Environmental Management Science Program

This book assesses the Department of Energy's Environmental Management Science Program--a new program that funds basic research related to environmental cleanup of the department's weapons complex. The authoring committee was established to advise the department on the structure and management of the program. The book provides recommendations on long-term challenges and opportunities for the program.

Showing 42,526 through 42,550 of 70,974 results


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