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يلاحظ نجيب المتميز برغبته في حل الألغاز بطريقة "الباحث" المنهجية بأن الطيور الزرقاء قد اختفت من البلدة. فيبدأ بالتساؤل وجمع الاستدلالات للتوصل لحل هذا اللغز المفاجئ. وبينما يحاول معرفة حل للغز, يجد نجيب الكثير من المعلومات عن طريق البحث وتوجيه الأسئلة والقراءة إلى أن يصل لطريقة تحافظ على الطيور الزرقاء وتشجعها على البقاء.
قصة فتاة صغيرة أرادت أن تساعد معلمتها المفضلة بتوصيل رسالة منها إلى معلمة أخرى, ولكن لأنها لم تكن ترغب في أن توجه أسئلة أو أن تخبر معلمتها بأنها لم تجد حجرة المعلمة الأخرى فقد انتهى بها المطاف بأنها لم تسلم الرسالة. وبسبب شعورها بالخجل من العودة لمعلمتها لسؤالها أو إخبارها بأنها لم تجد حجرة المعلمة الأخرى, فإنها لم تخبر معلمتها بأنها لم توصل الرسالة. ثم بسبب شعورها بالذنب لم تتمكن من النوم طوال الليل, مما جعلها تفيق في الصباح متعبة جداً لدرجة عدم قدرتها على الذهاب للمدرسة. وعلى الرغم من أن والدتها مكثت في البيت معها طوال اليوم, إلا أنها لم تستمتع بوقتها في البيت. وفي اليوم التالي قابلت معلمتها وأخبرتها بالحقيقة, فعفت عنها المعلمة وأخبرتها بأنها قد قابلت زميلتها في الوقت المحدد حسب الرسالة وأنه لا توجد مشكلة. ولكن المعلمة طلبت منها أن تعدها بألا تتردد في السؤال عن أي شيء إن كانت لا تعرفه. وهذا ما جعل الفتاة سعيدة ووعدتها بذلك.
In 1934 the republic of Haiti celebrated its 130th anniversary as an independent nation. In that year, too, another sort of Haitian independence occurred, as the United States ended nearly two decades of occupation. In the first comprehensive political history of postoccupation Haiti, Matthew Smith argues that the period from 1934 until the rise of dictator Fran ois "Papa Doc" Duvalier to the presidency in 1957 constituted modern Haiti's greatest moment of political promise. Smith emphasizes the key role that radical groups, particularly Marxists and black nationalists, played in shaping contemporary Haitian history. These movements transformed Haiti's political culture, widened political discourse, and presented several ideological alternatives for the nation's future. They were doomed, however, by a combination of intense internal rivalries, pressures from both state authorities and the traditional elite class, and the harsh climate of U. S. anticommunism. Ultimately, the political activism of the era failed to set Haiti firmly on the path to a strong independent future.
In the American South at the turn of the twentieth century, the legal segregation of the races and psychological sciences focused on selfhood emerged simultaneously. The two developments presented conflicting views of human nature. American psychiatry and psychology were optimistic about personality growth guided by the new mental sciences. Segregation, in contrast, placed racial traits said to be natural and fixed at the forefront of identity. In a society built on racial differences, raising questions about human potential, as psychology did, was unsettling. As Anne Rose lays out with sophistication and nuance, the introduction of psychological thinking into the Jim Crow South produced neither a clear victory for racial equality nor a single-minded defense of traditional ways. Instead, professionals of both races treated the mind-set of segregation as a hazardous subject. Psychology and Selfhood in the Segregated Southexamines the tensions stirred by mental science and restrained by southern custom. Rose highlights the role of southern black intellectuals who embraced psychological theories as an instrument of reform; their white counterparts, who proved wary of examining the mind; and northerners eager to change the South by means of science. She argues that although psychology and psychiatry took root as academic disciplines, all these practitioners were reluctant to turn the sciences of the mind to the subject of race relations.
Americans have always shown a fascination with the people, customs, and legends of the "East"--witness the popularity of the stories of theArabian Nights, the performances of Arab belly dancers and acrobats, the feats of turban-wearing vaudeville magicians, and even the antics of fez-topped Shriners. In this captivating volume, Susan Nance provides a social and cultural history of this highly popular genre of Easternized performance in America up to the Great Depression. According to Nance, these traditions reveal how a broad spectrum of Americans, including recent immigrants and impersonators, behaved as producers and consumers in a rapidly developing capitalist economy. In admiration of theArabian Nights, people creatively reenacted Eastern life, but these performances were also demonstrations of Americans' own identities, Nance argues. The story of Aladdin, made suddenly rich by rubbing an old lamp, stood as a particularly apt metaphor for how consumer capitalism might benefit each person. The leisure, abundance, and contentment that many imagined were typical of Eastern life were the same characteristics used to define "the American dream. " The recent success of Disney'sAladdinmovies suggests that many Americans still welcome an interpretation of the East as a site of incredible riches, romance, and happy endings. This abundantly illustrated account is the first by a historian to explain why and how so many Americans sought out such cultural engagement with the Eastern world long before geopolitical concerns became paramount.
Choosing Craftexplores the history and practice of American craft through the words of influential artists whose lives, work, and ideas have shaped the field. Editors Vicki Halper and Diane Douglas construct an anecdotal narrative that examines the post-World War II development of modern craft, which came of age alongside modernist painting and sculpture and was greatly influenced by them as well as by traditional and industrial practices. The anthology is organized according to four activities that ground a professional life in craft--inspiration, training, economics, and philosophy. Halper and Douglas mined a wide variety of sources for their material, including artists' published writings, letters, journal entries, exhibition statements, lecture notes, and oral histories. The detailed record they amassed reveals craft's dynamic relationships with painting, sculpture, design, industry, folk and ethnic traditions, hobby craft, and political and social movements. Collectively, these reflections form a social history of craft. Choosing Craftultimately offers artists' writings and recollections as vital and vivid data that deserve widespread study as a primary resource for those interested in the American art form.
By the end of World War I, the skyrocketing divorce rate in the United States had generated a deep-seated anxiety about marriage. This fear drove middle-class couples to seek advice, both professional and popular, in order to strengthen their relationships. InMaking Marriage Work, historian Kristin Celello offers an insightful and wide-ranging account of marriage and divorce in America in the twentieth century, focusing on the development of the idea of marriage as "work. " Examining the marriage counseling profession, advice columns in women's magazines, movies, and television shows, Celello describes how professionals and the public worked together to define the nature of marital work throughout the twentieth century. She also demonstrates that the maxim of "working at marriage" often masked important inequalities in regard to men's and women's roles within marriage. Most experts, for instance, assumed that women needed marriage more than men and thus held wives accountable for marital success or failure. Making Marriage Workpresents a new interpretation of married life in the United States, illuminating the interaction of marriage and divorce over the century and revealing how the idea that marriage requires work became part of Americans' collective consciousness.
The Land Has Memory: Indigenous Knowledge, Native Landscapes, and the National Museum of the American Indianby Duane Blue Spruce
In the heart of Washington, D. C. , a centuries-old landscape has come alive in the twenty-first century through a re-creation of the natural environment as the region's original peoples might have known it. Unlike most landscapes that surround other museums on the National Mall, the natural environment around the Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) is itself a living exhibit, carefully created to reflect indigenous ways of thinking about the land and its uses. Abundantly illustrated,The Land Has Memoryoffers beautiful images of the museum's natural environment in every season as well as the uniquely designed building itself. Essays by Smithsonian staff and others involved in the museum's creation provide an examination of indigenous peoples' long and varied relationship to the land in the Americas, an account of the museum designers' efforts to reflect traditional knowledge in the creation of individual landscape elements, detailed descriptions of the 150 native plant species used, and an exploration of how the landscape changes seasonally. The Land Has Memoryserves not only as an attractive and informative keepsake for museum visitors, but also as a thoughtful representation of how traditional indigenous ways of knowing can be put into practice.
American religious pacifism is usually explained in terms of its practitioners' ethical and philosophical commitments. Patricia Appelbaum argues that Protestant pacifism, which constituted the religious center of the large-scale peace movement in the United States after World War I, is best understood as a culture that developed dynamically in the broader context of American religious, historical, and social currents. Exploring piety, practice, and material religion, Appelbaum describes a surprisingly complex culture of Protestant pacifism expressed through social networks, iconography, vernacular theology, individual spiritual practice, storytelling, identity rituals, and cooperative living. Between World War I and the Vietnam War, she contends, a paradigm shift took place in the Protestant pacifist movement. Pacifism moved from a mainstream position to a sectarian and marginal one, from an embrace of modernity to skepticism about it, and from a Christian center to a purely pacifist one, with an informal, flexible theology. The book begins and ends with biographical profiles of two very different pacifists, Harold Gray and Marjorie Swann. Their stories distill the changing religious culture of American pacifism revealed inKingdom to Commune.
Bird lovers, take heart! While the birding literature is filled with tales of expert observers spotting rare species in exotic locales, John Yow's The Armchair Birder reminds us that the most fascinating birds can be the ones perched right outside our windows. In thirty-five engaging, humorous, and even irreverent essays, Yow reveals the fascinating lives of birds you probably already recognize and naturally want to know more about--because they're the ones you see nearly every day. Following the seasons of the year, Yow covers forty-two species, from the Carolina wren that rings in the springtime to the sandhill crane croaking high overhead at the end of winter. Leisurely and entertaining, the essays explore the improbable, unusual, and comical aspects of their subjects' lives--from the philandering of the ruby-throated hummingbird to the occasional dipsomania of the cedar waxwing. Rather than bare facts and field marks, The Armchair Birder offers observations, anecdotes, and stories--not only Yow's own, but also those of America's classic bird writers, such as John James Audubon, Arthur Bent, and Edward Forbush, experts who saw it all and wrote with wit and passion. With The Armchair Birder, backyard birders will take new delight in the birds at their feeders, while veteran check-listers will enjoy putting their feet up. All will applaud this unique addition to bird literature, one that combines the fascination of bird life with the pleasure of good reading.
Like many black school principals, Ulysses Byas, who served the Gainesville, Georgia, school system in the 1950s and 1960s, was reverently addressed by community members as "Professor." He kept copious notes and records throughout his career, documenting efforts to improve the education of blacks. Through conversations with Byas and access to his extensive archives on his principalship, Vanessa Siddle Walker finds that black principals were well positioned in the community to serve as conduits of ideas, knowledge, and tools to support black resistance to officially sanctioned regressive educational systems in the Jim Crow South. Walker explains that principals participated in local, regional, and national associations, comprising a black educational network through which power structures were formed and ideas were spread to schools across the South. The professor enabled local school empowerment and applied the collective wisdom of the network to pursue common school projects such as pressuring school superintendents for funding, structuring professional development for teachers, and generating local action that was informed by research in academic practice. The professor was uniquely positioned to learn about and deploy resources made available through these networks. Walker's record of the transfer of ideology from black organizations into a local setting illuminates the remembered activities of black schools throughout the South and recalls for a new generation the role of the professor in uplifting black communities.
يستخدم هذا الكتاب التورية بطريقة صادمة لتقديم معلومات شيقة ومهمة عن تسوس الأسنان. فهو يقدم المعلومات على هيئة نصائح على لسان الجراثيم التي يهمها وجود التسوس لتعيش عليه. تنصح الجراثيم الأطفال بألا يفرشوا أسنانهم, ولا يذهبوا لطبيب الأسنان, وأن يستمروا في أكل الحلويات والأشياء الضارة بأسنانهم. سيشعر الأطفال الذين يقرأون هذا الكتاب بأنهم وجهاً لوجه مع العدو المتمثل بالجراثيم, ويقررون بأنفسهم وبقناعة ألا يفعلوا الأشياء التي تضر بأسنانهم. ففي الوقت الذي يجابه القارئ نصائح العدو الخادعة, فإنه يتعلم كل شيء عن تسوس الأسنان وأسبابه.
قصة عن دجاجة صغيرة نشيطة تعيش مع حيوانات أخرى ليست بنفس نشاطها. فالدجاجة تقوم بكل الأعمال وكلما طلبت المساعدة من اصدقائها, القط والكلب والإوزة, فإنهم يرفضون ذلك. عندما وجدت الدجاجة حبات قمح في الطريق بدأت تطلب المساعدة من أصدقائها, لكن لم يساعدها منهم أحد. وحدث نفس الشيء عندما طلبت منهم مساعدتها في الاهتمام بالنبتات وحصادها وطحنها ثم خبز رغيف من الخبز منها. عندما أصبح رغيف الخبز جاهزاً, يأتون كلهم للأكل. لكن الدجاجة الصغيرة تذكرهم بأنهم لم يفعلوا شيئاً لمساعدتها خلال مراحل الزراعة والحصاد والطحن والعجين والخبز, وبالتالي فإنهم لن يساعدوها الآن في أكل الرغيف.
يصاب الطفل بالمرض, فيبدأ بالتذمر من كل الأشياء التي يعاني منها نتيجة مرضه: فهو لا يذهب المدرسة, ولا يجد مذاقاً للطعام, ويعاني من الصداع والحمى والسعال والطعم السيء للدواء. ولكن وجود والده لمساعدته وإعطائه الدواء والغذاء, والأهم من هذا أنه يقرأ له الكتب, يخفف عنه كثيراً. هذا الكتاب يبدأ بالإقرار بالضعف الذي يتسم به الأطفال في هذه المرحلة وخاصة عند مرضهم, ويفصل جميع مظاهر هذا الضعف, ثم ينتقل لتوضيح أن وجود أشخاص يهتمون لأمرنا يخفف عنا هذه الأعراض وسرعان ما نصبح أقوى.
Every day, thousands of people quietly face decisions as agonizing as those made famous in the Terri Schiavo case. Throughout that controversy, all kinds of people--politicians, religious leaders, legal and medical experts--made emphatic statements about the facts and offered even more certain opinions about what should be done. To many, courts were either ordering Terri's death by starvation or vindicating her constitutional rights. Both sides called for simple answers. If That Ever Happens to Medetails why these simple answers were not right for Terri Schiavo and why they are not right for end-of-life decisions today. Lois Shepherd looks behind labels like "starvation," "care," or "medical treatment" to consider what care and feeding really mean, when feeding tubes might be removed, and why disability groups, the faithful, and even the dying themselves often suggest end-of-life solutions that they might later regret. For example, Shepherd cautions against living wills as a pat answer. She provides evidence that demanding letter-perfect documents can actually weaken, rather than bolster, patient choice. The actions taken and decisions made during Terri Schiavo's final years will continue to have repercussions for thousands of others--those nearing death, their families, health-care professionals, attorneys, lawmakers, clergy, media, researchers, and ethicists. If That Ever Happens to Meis an excellent choice for anyone interested in end-of-life law, policy, and ethics--particularly readers seeking a deeper understanding of the issues raised by Terri Schiavo's case.
Lars Schoultz offers a comprehensive chronicle of U.S. policy toward the Cuban Revolution. Using a rich array of documents and firsthand interviews with U.S. and Cuban officials, he tells the story of the attempts and failures of ten U.S. administrations to end the Cuban Revolution He concludes that despite the overwhelming advantage in size and power that the United States enjoys over its neighbor, the Cubans' historical insistence on their right to self-determination has been a constant thorn in the side of American administrations, influenced both U.S. domestic politics and foreign policy on a much larger stage, and resulted in a freeze in diplomatic relations of unprecedented longevity.
Focusing on one of the most dramatic and controversial periods in modern Greek history and in the history of the Cold War, James Edward Miller provides the first study to employ a wide range of international archives--American, Greek, English, and French--together with foreign language publications to shed light on the role the United States played in Greece between the termination of its civil war in 1949 and Turkey's 1974 invasion of Cyprus. Miller demonstrates how U. S. officials sought, over a period of twenty-five years, to cultivate Greece as a strategic Cold War ally in order to check the spread of Soviet influence. The United States supported Greece's government through large-scale military aid, major investment of capital, and intermittent efforts to reform the political system. Miller examines the ways in which American and Greek officials cooperated in--and struggled over--the political future and the modernization of the country. Throughout, he evaluates the actions of the key figures involved, from George Papandreou and his son Andreas, to King Constantine, and from John Foster Dulles and Dwight D. Eisenhower to Richard Nixon and Henry Kissinger. Miller's engaging study offers a nuanced and well-balanced assessment of events that still influence Mediterranean politics today.
Historians have often glorified eighteenth-century Virginia planters' philosophical debates about the meaning of American liberty. But according to Noeleen McIlvenna, the true exemplars of egalitarian political values had fled Virginia's plantation society late in the seventeenth century to create the first successful European colony in the Albemarle, in present-day North Carolina. Making their way through the Great Dismal Swamp, runaway servants from Virginia joined other renegades to establish a free society along the most inaccessible Atlantic coastline of North America. They created a new community on the banks of Albemarle Sound, maintaining peace with neighboring Native Americans, upholding the egalitarian values of the English Revolution, and ignoring the laws of the mother country. Tapping into previously unused documents, McIlvenna explains how North Carolina's first planters struggled to impose a plantation society upon the settlers and how those early small farmers, defending a wide franchise and religious toleration, steadfastly resisted. She contends that the story of the Albemarle colony is a microcosm of the greater process by which a conglomeration of loosely settled, politically autonomous communities eventually succumbed to hierarchical social structures and elite rule. Highlighting the relationship between settlers and Native Americans, this study leads to a surprising new interpretation of the Tuscarora War.
Using fathers' first-hand accounts from letters, journals, and personal interviews along with hospital records and medical literature, Judith Walzer Leavitt offers a new perspective on the changing role of expectant fathers from the 1940s to the 1980s. She shows how, as men moved first from the hospital waiting room to the labor room in the 1960s, and then on to the delivery and birthing rooms in the 1970s and 1980s, they became progressively more involved in the birth experience and their influence over events expanded. With careful attention to power and privilege, Leavitt charts not only the increasing involvement of fathers, but also medical inequalities, the impact of race and class, and the evolution of hospital policies. Illustrated with more than seventy images from TV, films, and magazines, this book provides important new insights into childbirth in modern America, even as it reminds readers of their own experiences.
Exploring the increasing impact of the Internet on Muslims around the world, this book sheds new light on the nature of contemporary Islamic discourse, identity, and community. The Internet has profoundly shaped how both Muslims and non-Muslims perceive Islam and how Islamic societies and networks are evolving and shifting in the twenty-first century, says Gary Bunt. While Islamic society has deep historical patterns of global exchange, the Internet has transformed how many Muslims practice the duties and rituals of Islam. A place of religious instruction may exist solely in the virtual world, for example, or a community may gather only online. Drawing on more than a decade of online research, Bunt shows how social-networking sites, blogs, and other "cyber-Islamic environments" have exposed Muslims to new influences outside the traditional spheres of Islamic knowledge and authority. Furthermore, the Internet has dramatically influenced forms of Islamic activism and radicalization, including jihad-oriented campaigns by networks such as al-Qaeda. By surveying the broad spectrum of approaches used to present dimensions of Islamic social, spiritual, and political life on the Internet,iMuslimsencourages diverse understandings of online Islam and of Islam generally.
Lynch mobs in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century America exacted horrifying public torture and mutilation on their victims. InLynching and Spectacle, Amy Wood explains what it meant for white Americans to perform and witness these sadistic spectacles and how lynching played a role in establishing and affirming white supremacy. Lynching, Wood argues, overlapped with a variety of cultural practices and performances, both traditional and modern, including public executions, religious rituals, photography, and cinema, all which encouraged the horrific violence and gave it social acceptability. However, she also shows how the national dissemination of lynching images ultimately fueled the momentum of the antilynching movement and the decline of the practice. Using a wide range of sources, including photos, newspaper reports, pro- and antilynching pamphlets, early films, and local city and church records, Wood reconfigures our understanding of lynching's relationship to modern life. Wood expounds on the critical role lynching spectacles played in establishing and affirming white supremacy at the turn of the century, particularly in towns and cities experiencing great social instability and change. She also shows how the national dissemination of lynching images fueled the momentum of the antilynching movement and ultimately led to the decline of lynching. By examining lynching spectacles alongside both traditional and modern practices and within both local and national contexts, Wood reconfigures our understanding of lynching's relationship to modern life.
Joseph Holt, the stern, brilliant, and deeply committed Unionist from Kentucky, spent the first several months of the American Civil War successfully laboring to maintain Kentucky's loyalty to the Union, then went on to serve as President Lincoln's judge advocate general. InLincoln's Forgotten Ally, Elizabeth Leonard offers the first full-scale biography of Holt, who has long been overlooked and misunderstood by historians and students of the war. In his capacity as the administration's chief arbiter and enforcer of military law, Holt strove tenaciously, often against strong resistance, to implement Lincoln's wartime policies, including emancipation. After Lincoln's assassination, Holt accepted responsibility for pursuing and bringing to justice everyone involved in John Wilkes Booth's conspiracy. It was because of this role, in which he is often portrayed as a brutal prosecutor, and because of his hard position toward the South, Leonard contends, that Holt's reputation suffered. Leonard argues, however, that Holt should not be defined by what Southern sympathizers and proponents of the Lost Cause came to think of him. Lincoln's Forgotten Allyseeks to restore Holt, who dedicated both his energy and his influence to ensuring that the Federal victory would bring about lasting positive change for the nation, to his rightful place in American memory.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez is one of the most influential writers of our time. His unique literary creativity is rooted in the history of the region, with all its social and political implications. In this beautifully written examination of Garcia Marquez and his work, Gene Bell-Villada traces the major forces that have shaped the Colombian novelist and describes his life, his personality, and his political opinions. He considers Garcia Marquez's place in world literature and analyzes his short fiction and all of his novels from the great and complexOne Hundred Years of Solitude-- a cultural phenomenon the likes of which we have seldom seen -- throughLove in the Time of Cholera. He shows why Garcia Marquez has achieved a confluence of high art and popular success that is virtually unique in the twentieth century. Bell-Villada examines the narrative works of Garcia Marquez for their historical and human content, for their literary technique and structure, and for their expert use of fantasy, ribaldry, humor, and satire. He describes Garcia Marquez as a global phenomenon and as a local boy, as a Nobel Laureate and as a Latin American Everyman, as a political writer and as a novelist of love. The book will appeal to a broad spectrum of readers -- generalists who enjoy his novels, teachers and students, and literary specialists and Latin Americanists investigating the culture and politics of the region.
التفكير والمنطق وحل المسائل هي الأسس التي تقوم عليها الرياضيات. وكلما إزدادت خبرة الأطفال في حل المسائل، إزدادت قدرتهم على تعلم الرياضيات بنجاح. في حياتنا اليومية، لا تظهر المسائل الرياضية بالشكل نفسه الذي تظهر به في كتب الرياضيات المدرسية، فهي ليست أعمالاً حسابية بحتة ذات إجابات مباشرة. إن حل المسائل الرياضية التي تواجهنا في حياتنا اليومية تحتاج منا في الغالب معرفة المعلومات التي علينا استخدامها، وإختيار الطريقة الأنسب للإستفادة منها، والوصول إلى استخلاص نتيجة ذات دلالة. تتضمن قصة «لغز كنز الفناء الخلفي» مجموعة متنوعة من المسائل الرياضية، على الأولاد حلها بالتتابع كي يصلوا إلى كشف اللغز. إيجاد الحلول لهذه المسائل يحتاج استعمال مهارات رياضية متعددة كمعرفة الأعداد والأرقام واستعمال المنطق والقياس ومبادئ الهندسة. القصة الأطفال كيفية حل المسائل
كتاب حول المثابرة في التعلم ودور الأسرة والأصدقاء في تشجيع الطفل على المحاولة وتكرار المحاولة حتى يتحقق النجاح. فالقصة تبرز كيف أن الطفل "كريم" ليس لديه أي اهتمام بكرة القدم بسبب اعتقاده بأنه لا يملك أي مهارة في لعبها. لكن الجميع يشجعونه على المحاولة. وبالرغم من أنه لا ينجح في البداية ويبدي رغبته القوية في التوقف عن المحاولة, إلا أن والده وأصدقائه يستمرون في حثه على المحاولة. وأخيراً يحصل كريم على فرصة لتسديد ركلة لم يكن واثقاً من أنها ستكون جيدة, لكنها طارت فوق الجميع ودخلت في المرمى مسجلة هدفاً لفريق كريم, مما جعل الجميع يصفق له.
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