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This Handbook examines core questions still remaining in the field of child maltreatment. It addresses major challenges in child maltreatment work, starting with the question of what child abuse and neglect is exactly. It then goes on to examine why maltreatment occurs and what its consequences are. Next, it turns to prevention, treatment and intervention, as well as legal perspectives. The book studies the issue from the perspective of the broader international and cross-cultural human experience. Its aim is to review what is known, but even more importantly, to examine what remains to be known to make progress in helping abused children, their families, and their communities.
Fresh translations of key texts, exhaustive coverage from Plato to Kant, and detailed commentary by expert scholars of philosophy add up to make this sourcebook the first and most comprehensive account of the history of the philosophy of mind. Published at a time when the philosophy of mind and philosophical psychology are high-profile domains in current research, the volume will inform our understanding of philosophical questions by shedding light on the origins of core conceptual assumptions often arrived at before the instauration of psychology as a recognized subject in its own right. The chapters closely follow historical developments in our understanding of the mind, with sections dedicated to ancient, medieval Latin and Arabic, and early modern periods of development. The volume's structural clarity enables readers to trace the entire progression of philosophical understanding on specific topics related to the mind, such as the nature of perception. Doing so reveals the fascinating contrasts between current and historical approaches. In addition to its all-inclusive source material, the volume provides subtle expert commentary that includes critical introductions to each thematic section as well as detailed engagement with the central texts. A voluminous bibliography includes hundreds of primary and secondary sources. The sheer scale of this new publication sheds light on the progression, and discontinuities, in our study of the philosophy of mind, and represents a major new sourcebook in a field of extreme importance to our understanding of humanity as a whole.
In recent decades radiobiologists' efforts have been directed at identifying the mechanisms of radiation effects; the general mechanisms have since been studied extensively. This book describes and analyzes radiation-induced adaptation as processes produced in cells, tissues, and populations. This viewpoint helps to understand the nature and factors of induced processes, to determine the characteristics of observed radiation effects and their limitations. The investigations presented here were founded on proper lab experiments, ecological studies of plant population growth near an operating nuclear power plant and a thorough epidemiological examination of human populations living in territories polluted fifty years ago, as well as on relevant published data. This research demonstrates the radiation-induced adaptation processes that continue even when the radiation itself is no longer at a critical background level. The investigations utilized the method of statistical modeling on the basis of distributions on the number of abnormalities. This method allows us to investigate the processes induced by low-dose factors when accompanied by Darwinian selection in different systems; the distribution parameters can then be used to study the characteristics of adaptation processes and system resistance. The consequences of background-level radiation continue to provoke debate, and the mathematical bases of the adaptation model are shown, while due consideration is paid to the components of adaptation: instability, selection, and proliferation. The book will be especially useful to specialists in radiation pollution, ecology, epidemiology, and radiology for studies of radiation-induced processes; the method presented here can also be adapted to investigate low-dose effects in other fields. In addition, the book presents a number of reviews in the fields of radiation biology, including pioneering investigations in Russia which were previously unavailable to Western scientists.
Salutogenic organizations and change: The concepts behind organizational health intervention researchby Georg F. Bauer Gregor J. Jenny
New and current approaches to organizational health intervention research are the main focus of this comprehensive volume. Each chapter elaborates on the respective intervention researcher's concept of a healthy organization, his/her approach to changing organizations, and how to research these interventions in organizations. As a common ground, the book consistently relates to the notion of salutogenesis, focusing on resources and positive outcomes of health-oriented organizational change processes. Out of the virtual dialogue between the chapters, common themes and potential trends for the future are identified.
Biological management of diseases of crops is influenced by the nature of interactions between the pathogens and other organisms and the plants. Due to development of resistance in pathogens to fungicides and bactericides, determination of compatibility of biotic biocontrol agents with chemicals is essential for selecting strains of biocontrol agents (BCAs) showing resistance to chemicals to effectively restrict use of the chemicals. Microbial plant pathogens and the antagonists present in the soil and on the plant surfaces are influenced by various cultural practices. It is possible to reduce disease incidence and intensity by crop sanitation and using appropriate rotational crops. Application of physical techniques involving the use of heat, solarization and irradiation has potential to reduce the pathogen population or weaken the potential of pathogens present in the seed, planting materials and soil.
This volume is product of the third online consciousness conference, held at http://consciousnessonline.com in February and March 2011. Chapters range over epistemological issues in the science and philosophy of perception, what neuroscience can do to help us solve philosophical issues in the philosophy of mind, what the true nature of black and white vision, pain, auditory, olfactory, or multi-modal experiences are, to higher-order theories of consciousness, synesthesia, among others. Each chapter includes a target article, commentaries, and in most cases, a final response from the author. Though wide-ranging all of the papers aim to understand consciousness both from the inside, as we experience it, and from the outside as we encounter it in our science. The Online Consciousness Conference, founded and organized by Richard Brown, is dedicated to the rigorous study of consciousness and mind. The goal is to bring philosophers, scientists, and interested lay persons together in an online venue to promote high-level discussion and exchanging of views, ideas and data related to the scientific and philosophical study of consciousness.
The book deals with various clinical aspects of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) which is a potent source for oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is critical for pathogenesis of diseases and CYP2E1 is a major contributor for oxidative stress. Several clinical disorders are associated with changes in regulation of CYP2E1 and the consequent abnormalities which include alcoholic liver disease, alcoholic pancreatitis, carcinogenesis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, hepatitis C virus infection, reproductive organ toxicity, hepatocellular and cholestatic liver cirrhosis, inhibition of bone repair, cross-tolerance in smokers and people treated with nicotine, disorders of central nervous system, changes in metabolism of protoxicants in the circulatory system and susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection. Hence, CYP2E1 emerges as a new and potent player in aggravating injury and furthering disease complications.
Published annually since 1985, the Handbook series provides a compendium of thorough and integrative literature reviews on a diverse array of topics of interest to the higher education scholarly and policy communities. Each chapter provides a comprehensive review of research findings on a selected topic, critiques the research literature in terms of its conceptual and methodological rigor and sets forth an agenda for future research intended to advance knowledge on the chosen topic. The Handbook focuses on a comprehensive set of central areas of study in higher education that encompasses the salient dimensions of scholarly and policy inquiries undertaken in the international higher education community. Each annual volume contains chapters on such diverse topics as research on college students and faculty, organization and administration, curriculum and instruction, policy, diversity issues, economics and finance, history and philosophy, community colleges, advances in research methodology and more. The series is fortunate to have attracted annual contributions from distinguished scholars throughout the world.
Benefiting from the support and involvement of two major international research networks, this collection features the latest research findings in TVET. Members of INAP, the International Network on Innovative Apprenticeship, and VETNET, the Vocational Education and Training Network, have contributed key research findings to this detailed survey of the field. Featuring the inclusion of the internationally recognized memorandum released in April 2012 by the INAP Architecture Apprenticeship Commission, the volume covers a wealth of issues relating to technical and vocational education and training, including exemplar architectures such as successful school-to-work transitions, competence assessment and development models, and governance, including the role of stakeholders. The book provides many opportunities to explore in depth the scholarly debate on TVET, as well as to learn from positive international experiences. It aims to inform the practice of TVET professionals as much as the decision making of administrators.
Children's learning and understanding of science during their pre-school years has been a neglected topic in the education literature--something this volume aims to redress. Paradigmatic notions of science education, with their focus on biologically governed development and age-specific accession to scientific concepts, have perpetuated this state of affairs. This book offers a very different perspective, however. It has its roots in the work of cultural-historical activity theorists, who, since Vygotsky, have assumed that any higher cognitive function existed in and as a social relation first. Accepting this precept removes any lower limit we may deem appropriate on children's cognitive engagement with science-related concepts. The authors describe and analyze the ways in which children aged from one to five grapple with scientific concepts, and also suggest ways in which pre-service and in-service teachers can be prepared to teach in ways that support children's development in cultural and historical contexts. In doing so, the book affirms the value of cultural-historical activity theory as an appropriate framework for analyzing preschool children's participation in science learning experiences, and shows that that the theory provides an appropriate framework for understanding learning, as well as for planning and conducting training for pre-school teachers.
Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Green System -- 1st Grade
The Global Change Ecology and Wetlands book series will highlight the latest research from the world leaders in the field of climate change in wetlands. Global Change and the Function and Distribution of Wetlands highlights information of importance to wetland ecologists. The chapters include syntheses of international studies on the effects of drought on function and regeneration in wetlands, sea level rise and the distribution of mangrove swamps, former distributions of swamp species and future lessons from paleoecology, and shifts in atmospheric emissions across geographical regions in wetlands. Overall, the book will contribute to a better understanding of the potential effects of climate change on world wetland distribution and function.
Until recently, a handbook on neurosociology would have been viewed with skepticism by sociologists, who have long been protective of their disciplinary domain against perceived encroachment by biology. But a number of developments in the last decade or so have made sociologists more receptive to biological factors in sociology and social psychology. Much of this has been encouraged by the coeditors of this volume, David Franks and Jonathan Turner. This new interest has been increased by the explosion of research in neuroscience on brain functioning and brain-environment interaction (via new MRI technologies), with implications for social and psychological functioning. This handbook emphasizes the integration of perspectives within sociology as well as between fields in social neuroscience. For example, Franks represents a social constructionist position following from G.H. Mead's voluntaristic theory of the act while Turner is more social structural and positivistic. Furthermore, this handbook not only contains contributions from sociologists, but leading figures from the psychological perspective of social neuroscience.
Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun - that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun's existence - our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have been summarised, paying special attention to those that reflect processes in different parts of the Sun's interior and that display periodicities and trends which may enable us to forecast future large-scale environmental changes.
General Reports of the XVIIIth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law/Rapports Généraux du XVIIIème Congrès de l’Académie Internationale de Droit Comparéby Karen B. Brown David V. Snyder
This title presents twenty-nine topics, prepared by leading scholars in more than 20 countries, providing a comparative analysis of cutting-edge legal topics of the 21st century. Considering topics of vital moment to contemporary legal scholars, the title includes pieces on Surrogate Motherhood, The Balance of Copyright in Comparative Perspective, International Law in Domestic Systems, Constitutional Courts as "Positive Legislators," Same-sex Marriage, Climate Change and the Law, The Regulation of Private Equity, Hedge Funds, and State Funds, and Regulation of Corporate Tax Evasion. Each chapter surveys legal developments in the U.S. and Canada, Europe, Asia, Latin and South America, Africa, and the Middle East in a format that permits the reader easy access to similarities and differences in the approaches of the selected national regimes. This comprehensive volume tells the story of parallel trends in the evolution of legal doctrine despite jurisdictional, cultural, and political barriers. While each of the covered countries stands alone as a sovereign, in a technologically advanced world their disparate systems nonetheless have converged to adopt comparable strategies in dealing with complex legal issues. The volume is a critical addition to the library of any scholar hoping to keep abreast of the major trends in contemporary law.
Why is metacognition gaining recognition, both in education generally and in science learning in particular? What does metacognition contribute to the theory and practice of science learning? Metacognition in Science Education discusses emerging topics at the intersection of metacognition with the teaching and learning of science concepts, and with higher order thinking more generally. The book provides readers with a background on metacognition and analyses the latest developments in the field. It also gives an account of best-practice methodology. Expanding on the theoretical underpinnings of metacognition, and written by world leaders in metacognitive research, the chapters present cutting-edge studies on how various forms of metacognitive instruction enhance understanding and thinking in science classrooms. The editors strive for conceptual coherency in the various definitions of metacognition that appear in the book, and show that the study of metacognition is not an end in itself. Rather, it is integral to other important constructs, such as self-regulation, literacy, the teaching of thinking strategies, motivation, meta-strategies, conceptual understanding, reflection, and critical thinking. The book testifies to a growing recognition of the potential value of metacognition to science learning. It will motivate science educators in different educational contexts to incorporate this topic into their ongoing research and practice.
This handbook gives a comprehensive and copious illustrated description, with original art work, of the most common diseases in laboratory reared insect colonies, comprising Viruses (Baculoviridae, Reoviridae, Poxviridae, Iridoviridae); Bacteria (Bacillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae); Rickettsia; Fungi and Microsporidia and Protozoa. Gregarine and Coccidian parasitoids are also depicted. Manuals for the diagnostic of insect diseases have been published in the 90's, however, these were intended for professional insect pathologists or for proficient training in invertebrate pathology, hence requiring some scientific background in insect pathology. Currently, most guides are web based, not comprehensive and solely addressing the most common diseases in a particular insect, or group of insects, reared in laboratory facilities. A comprehensive and proficient practical handbook for students and technicians working with insect reared colonies is lacking in the current literature.
The controversy of flux and stasis as the groundwork of reality of Greek ancient philosophy reached its crux in the all encompassing doctrine of the logos by Heraclitus of Ephesus. It centers upon human soul in its role with the cosmos. Philosophy of the Occident corroborating Greek insights with the progress of culture in numerous interpretations (Kant, Kierkegaard, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty, Ricoeur...), presented in this collection has neglected the cosmic sphere. While contemporary development of science revealed its grounding principles (papers by Grandpierre, Kule and Trutty-Coohill) the ancient logos fully emerges. Thus, logos hitherto hidden in our commerce with earth is revealed in its intertwinings with the cosmos through the trajectories of the phenomenology/ontopoiesis of life (Tymieniecka). The crucial link between the soul and the cosmos, in a new geo-cosmic horizon, is thus being retrieved.
Many and ever more mobile users wish to enjoy a variety of multimedia services, in very diverse geographical environments. The growing number of communication options within and across wireless standards is accommodating the growing volume and heterogeneity in wireless wishes. On the other hand, advancement in radio technologies opening much more flexibility, a.o. through Software Defined Radios, opens up the possibility to realize mobile devices featuring multi-mode options at low cost and interesting form factors. It is crucial to manage the new degrees of freedom opened up in radios and standards in a smart way, such that the required service is offered at satisfactory quality as efficiently as possible. Efficiency in energy consumption is clearly primordial for battery powered mobile terminals specifically, and in the context of growing ecological concerns in a broader context. Moreover, efficient usage of the spectrum is a growing prerequisite for wireless systems, and coexistence of different standards puts overall throughput at risk. The management of flexibility risks bringing about intolerable complexity and hamper the desired agility. A systematic approach, consisting of anticipative preparing for smooth operation, allows mastering this challenge. Case studies show that already today, this approach enables smart operation of radios realizing impressive efficiency gains without hampering Quality-of-Service. In the future wireless communication scenes will be able to profit form the opening of the spectrum. Even smarter and cognitive behavior will become possible and essential.
This book gives a practical overview of Fractional Calculus as it relates to Signal Processing
This timely interdisciplinary work on current developments in ICT and privacy/data protection, coincides as it does with the rethinking of the Data Protection Directive, the contentious debates on data sharing with the USA (SWIFT, PNR) and the judicial and political resistance against data retention. The authors of the contributions focus on particular and pertinent issues from the perspective of their different disciplines which range from the legal through sociology, surveillance studies and technology assessment, to computer sciences. Such issues include cutting-edge developments in the field of cloud computing, ambient intelligence and PETs; data retention, PNR-agreements, property in personal data and the right to personal identity; electronic road tolling, HIV-related information, criminal records and teenager's online conduct, to name but a few.
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cutting-edge topic in the scientific and medical fields. This is a timely and specialized book focusing on the current understanding of miRNAs and the potential for their application in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic targets. It also provides discussion of the lessons learned from translational miRNA studies and exploration of the next steps required to advance this field. The unique book comprises 22 in-depth chapters by gathering unparalleled topics of interest in miRNAs by international team of world-renowned experts in the field. The first fifteen chapters provide comprehensive and expert perspectives on the most common cancers from bench to bedside applications, there is no current book structured in this cancer-oriented way. The next seven chapters providing thorough overviews of miRNAs and cancer stem cells; miRNAs in cancer invasion and metastasis; miRNAs in predicting radiotherapy and chemotherapy response; as well as expounding the role of miRNA in anti-cancer drug resistance and as blood-based cancer biomarkers. Furthermore, this book explicates the interplay of miRNAs in cancer metabolism and an update on the pioneering RNAi-based treatment approaches is also presented. This specialized book will contribute great to the scientific and medical community by providing the up-to-date discoveries of miRNAs and their important roles in cancer translational research.
Located at the intersection of phonology, psycholinguistics and phonetics, this volume offers the latest research findings in key areas of prosodic theory, including: *The relationship between intonation and pragmatics in speech production *Sentence modality prosody characterization *The role of pitch in quantity-based sound systems *Consonant-conditioned tone depression phonology across languages *The encoding of intonational contrasts in both intonational and tonal languages Featuring new data and ground-breaking results, the papers draw on empirical approaches that analyze production, perception and comprehension experiments such as the prepared speech paradigm and semantic scaling tasks. These are discussed in a variety of languages, some underrepresented in the literature (such as French and Estonian) while others, such as Shekgalagari, are examined in this way for the first time. This collection of cutting-edge material will be of interest to a broad range of language researchers.
As concerns about humankind's relationship with the environment move inexorably up the agenda, this volume tells the story of the history of the concept of ecology itself and adds much to the historical and philosophical debate over this multifaceted discipline. The text provides readers with an overview of the theoretical, institutional and historical formation of ecological knowledge. The varied local conditions of early ecology are considered in detail, while epistemological problems that lie on the borders of ecology, such as disunity and complexity, are discussed. The book traces the various phases of the history of the concept of ecology itself, from its 19th century origins and antecedents, through the emergence of the environmental movement in the later 20th century, to the future, and how ecology might be located in the environmental science framework of the 21st century. The study of 'ecological' phenomena has never been confined solely to the work of researchers who consider themselves ecologists. It is rather a field of knowledge in which a plurality of practices, concepts and theories are developed. Thus, there exist numerous disciplinary subdivisions and research programmes within the field, the boundaries of which remain blurred. As a consequence, the deliberation to adequately identify the ecological field of knowledge, its epistemic and institutional setting, is still going on. This will be of central importance not only in locating ecology in the frame of 21st century environmental sciences but also for a better understanding of how nature and culture are intertwined in debates about pressing problems, such as climate change, the protection of species diversity, or the management of renewable resources.
In the years since the first edition of "Arbuscular Mycorrhizas: Physiology and Function" was published, an exceptional proliferation of interest in mycorrhizal biology has developed. This has been associated with advances in different research disciplines such as genetics, genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and physiology, advances which have generated better insight into topics of mycorrhizal biology, including the mechanisms of host-mycorrhiza interactions pre- and post-penetration, the influence of the symbiosis on the host and its surroundings, and the evolution and diversity of mycorrhization. It therefore became necessary to both update and expand the book's coverage in this, its second edition.