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The Gene: An Intimate History

by Siddhartha Mukherjee

From the Pulitzer Prize-winning, bestselling author of The Emperor of All Maladies--a magnificent history of the gene and a response to the defining question of the future: What becomes of being human when we learn to "read" and "write" our own genetic information?The extraordinary Siddhartha Mukherjee has a written a biography of the gene as deft, brilliant, and illuminating as his extraordinarily successful biography of cancer. Weaving science, social history, and personal narrative to tell us the story of one of the most important conceptual breakthroughs of modern times, Mukherjee animates the quest to understand human heredity and its surprising influence on our lives, personalities, identities, fates, and choices. Throughout the narrative, the story of Mukherjee's own family--with its tragic and bewildering history of mental illness--cuts like a bright, red line, reminding us of the many questions that hang over our ability to translate the science of genetics from the laboratory to the real world. In superb prose and with an instinct for the dramatic scene, he describes the centuries of research and experimentation--from Aristotle and Pythagoras to Mendel and Darwin, from Boveri and Morgan to Crick, Watson and Franklin, all the way through the revolutionary twenty-first century innovators who mapped the human genome. As The New Yorker said of The Emperor of All Maladies, "It's hard to think of many books for a general audience that have rendered any area of modern science and technology with such intelligence, accessibility, and compassion...An extraordinary achievement." Riveting, revelatory, and magisterial history of a scientific idea coming to life, and an essential preparation for the moral complexity introduced by our ability to create or "write" the human genome, The Gene is a must-read for everyone concerned about the definition and future of humanity. This is the most crucial science of our time, intimately explained by a master.

Overland to Starvation Cove: With the Inuit in Search of Franklin, 1878-1880

by Heinrich Klutschak William Barr

In May 1845 Sir John Franklin sailed westward from England in search of the Northwest Passage and was never seen again. Some thirty-five years later, Heinrich Klutschak of Prague, artist and surveyor on a small expedition led by Lieutenant Frederick Schwatka of the 3rd US Cavalry Regiment, stumbled upon the grisly remains at Starvation Cove of the last survivors among Franklin's men.Overland to Starvation Cove is the first English translation of Klutschak's account. A significant contribution to Canadian exploration history, it is also an important anthropological document, providing some of the earliest reliable descriptions of the Aivilingmiut, the Utkuhikhalingmiut, and the Netsilingmiut. But above all, it is a fascinating story of arctic adventure.

The Rise and fall of the Toronto Typographical Union

by Sally F. Zerker

A meeting of twenty-four journeymen printers at the York Hotel in Toronto in 1832 marked the birth of Canada's earliest and still continuing labour organization. This case study of the printers of Toronto traces the development of the union which began as the Toronto Typographical Society. Through a close examination of this Canadian local's relations with its eventual parent organization in the US, Zerker reveals the 'domination' and brings into question the advantages of an international connection.In 1866, under pressure from the American federation of printing unions, the Toronto body became an affiliate of the International Typographical Union, thus forming the crucial relationship which, as Zerker shows, came to govern every element of local decision and policy. Though the TTU achieved a pioneer victory in independently leading its members in their struggle for a shorter working day, from 1885 on the ITU directives and programs came to rule the Toronto union, causing enormous losses in membership and industry control.Zerker cites as examples the ITU program in the 1920s which resulted in a bitter strike which broke the Toronto union's control of the labour force in the commercial sector; and, more recently, its misdirection of the printers' strike of the Toronto newspapers in the 1960s which resulted in the expulsion of members from the workplaces that had been the preserve of the organization for nearly a century. Zerker blames the failure to respond effectively to the technology of the computer age on poor TTU management in pre-strike negotiations but, above all, on ITU intransigence, ignorance, and arrogance. In more recent years, after the end of this history, TTU membership has increased substantially and the local has been revitalized under its new leadership; the International, too, shows signs of being on the way to much-awaited reforms.This history is in many senses a microcosm of the Canadian labour movement and forms an important strand in general cultural history of Toronto.

Inside the Law: Canadian Law Firms in Historical Perspective

by Carol Wilton

Law firms are important economic institutions in this country: they collect hundreds of millions of dollars annually in fees, they order the affairs of businesses and of many government agencies, and their members include some of the most influential Canadians. Some firms have a history stretching back nearly two hundred years, and many are over a century old. Yet the history of law firms in Canada has remained largely unknown. This collection of essays, Volume VII in the Osgoode Society's series of Essays in the History of Canadian Law, is the first focused study of a variety of law firms and how they have evolved over a century and a half, from the golden age of the sole practitioner in the pre-industrial era to the recent rise of the mega-firm. The volume as a whole is an exploration of the impact of economic and social change on law-firm culture and organization. The introduction by Carol Wilton provides a chronological overview of Canadian law-firm evolution and emphasizes the distinctiveness of Canadian law-firm history.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Volume V: St-Z

by Danylo Husar Struk

Over thirty years in the making, the most comprehensive work in English on Ukraine is now complete: its history, people, geography, economy, and cultural heritage, both in Ukraine and in the diaspora.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Volume IV: Ph-Sr

by Danylo Husar Struk

Over thirty years in the making, the most comprehensive work in English on Ukraine is now complete: its history, people, geography, economy, and cultural heritage, both in Ukraine and in the diaspora.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Volume III: L-Pf

by Danylo Husar Struk

Over thirty years in the making, the most comprehensive work in English on Ukraine is now complete: its history, people, geography, economy, and cultural heritage, both in Ukraine and in the diaspora.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Volume II: G-K

by Volodymyr Kubijovyc

The appearance of Volume II of the Encyclopedia of Ukraine makes the second stage of a major publishing project. Based on twenty-five years' research by more than 100 scholars from around the world, the encyclopedia provides the most essential information about Ukraine and its people, history, geography, economy, and cultural heritage. Volume II contains entries beginning with the letters G to K, among them numerous biographies of historical figures and people currently living in and outside of Soviet Ukraine. Included are some 600 illustrations, maps, and statistical tables. The five volumes of the Encyclopedia of Ukraine will constitute a comprehensive guide to the life and culture of Ukrainians and reflect the manifold relations of Ukrainians with their neighbours and with their non-Ukrainian environments in the various countries to which they immigrated.

Encyclopedia of Ukraine: Volume I: A-F plus Map and Gazetteer

by Volodymyr Kubijovyc

Over thirty years in the making, the most comprehensive work in English on Ukraine is now complete: its history, people, geography, economy, and cultural heritage, both in Ukraine and in the diaspora.

Quaker Ways in Foreign Policy

by Robert O. Byrd

For three hundred years the Society of Friends, or Quakers, has been forwarding to governments recommendations on foreign policy, and it has often been in the vanguard of thought in its social and political views. In this study, Dr. Byrd brings together and states carefully and accurately those beliefs, principles, attitudes, and practices which have been fundamental to the Quaker approach. He illustrates and verifies his statement by an analytical Friends acting in official and semi-official capacities, which relate to foreign policy and international relations.Dr. Byrd's systematic exposition of the modern Quaker's theory of international relations offers a stimulating antidote to the realpolitik school of thought. His account of the Quaker interest in international affairs from 1647 to the present underlines for the diplomatic historian the role of morality in diplomacy, the influence of public opinion upon policy, and the part played by groups like Friends in shaping public attitudes. As Hans J. Morgenthau comments in his Foreword, "In a world which uses Christian ethics for un-Christian ends it is indeed moving to follow the historical trail of a Christian sect which seeks to transform itself and political society in the image of Christian teaching. . . . In their convictions, achievements, and sufferings the Quakers bear witness to the teachings of Christianity; in their failures they bear witness to the insuperable stubbornness of the human condition. . . . not the least of the merits of Professor Byrd's book is his ability to convey through the movement of his mind and pen something of that moving quality which makes the Quaker approach to foreign policy, if nothing else, a noble experiment in Christian living."

The Methodological Heritage of Newton

by Robert E. Butts John W. Davis

In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in Newton and his influence. His thought, like that of Aristotle and every other great thinker, underwent development which contemporary scholars are seeking to understand more clearly than did their predecessors, awed as they were by the overwhelming Newtonian achievement.As the titles indicate, the range of essays included in this volume is wide, but most are concerned not so much with explaining Newton's development as with assessing his contribution to the thought of others. They explore all aspects of the conceptual background--historical, philosophical, and narrowly methodological--and examine questions that developed in the wake of Newton's science. The papers are varied yet unified in their attention to common themes and show the wealth of philosophical matter to be found in scientific synthesis. Newton left a rich complexity of philosophical problems whose attempted resolution helps our understanding both of method and positive science. His theories are one of the greatest achievements in physics; they are also valuable case studies for those interested in grasping the methodological and broadly philosophical basis of science. Four of the seven essays in this volume were prepared for an international conference held at the University of Western Ontario in April 1967; the three other papers were added by the editors to supplement and unify the collection.

The Manuscript Tradition of Propertius

by The Estate of James Butrica

The elegist Sextus Propertius (ca 50-ca 16 BC) is generally reckoned among the most difficult of Latin authors. At the root of this difficulty lies a deeply corrupt text and uncertainty over the manuscript transmission; moreover, the manuscripts used in the standard editions of today have been selected without a comprehensive examination of the surviving copies. This study, the fullest survey of the manuscripts so far, considers the affiliation of more than 140 complete or partial witnesses and offers a thorough reassessment of the tradition. The principal novelty is the argument that six Renaissance copies represent an independent third witness to the archetype, revealing passages where corruptions, glosses, or medieval corrections are now accepted as the words of Propertius and suggesting that the archetype was far more corrupt than now commonly supposed. The study is in two parts. In Part One, after a survey of Propertius' fortuna in the Middle Ages, the author considers the affiliation and history of the known manuscripts and editions to 1502, then offers a text and revised apparatus of four elegies; in Part Two he presents detailed descriptions of 143 manuscripts, most of them from personal inspection.

The Renaissance and English Humanism

by Douglas Bush

The appearance of a fourth printing of The Renaissance and English Humanism indicated the scholarly success this book has enjoyed for more than a decade. As a brief yet thoughtful and eloquent evaluation of the influence of the Christian humanistic tradition upon our culture it has not been surpassed. The study is divided into four parts: in the first, Professor Bush discusses modern theories of the Renaissance; in the second and third, the character of classical humanism on the Continent and in England; and in the fourth, the place of Milton in the humanistic tradition."Douglas Bush has shown an unusual awareness," wrote Wallace K. Ferguson, "of the historiographical evolution of the Renaissance, and has taken his stand with rare explicitness on the side of those who find the Renaissance filled with mediaeval traditions." Professor Bush sees the dominant ideal of the English Renaissance as rational and religious order, rather than rebellious individualism, and his view has provided an important clue to the English literature and thought of the 16th and the earlier 17th century.

A Canadian Bankclerk

by Douglas Lochhead John Preston Buschlen

The story herein told is true to life; true, the greater part of it, to my own life. Also, I am convinced that my experience in A Canadian Bank was but mildly exciting as compared with that of many others. My object in publishing "Evan Nelson's" history is to enlighten the public concerning life behind the wicket and thus pave the way for the legitimate organization of bankclerks into a fraternal association, for their financial and social (including moral) betterment. Bank officials, I trust, will see to it that my misrepresentations are exposed. To mothers of bankclerks who attach overmuch importance to the gentility of their Boy's avocation; to fathers who think that because the bank is rich its employees must necessarily become so in time; to friends who criticize the bankclerks of their acquaintance for not settling down--this story is addressed. To the men of our banks who are dissatisfied with the business they have chosen, or someone else has chosen for them; to Old Country clerks who come out to Canada under the impression that Five Dollars is as good as One Pound; to bank employees in the United States, and to office men everywhere--I am telling my tale. Finally, I appeal to "the girls we have known." Be sure you study the subject thoroughly before accusing that inscrutable, proud and procrastinating clerk of yours of inconstancy. (From the Prologue)

English Merchant Shipping: 1460-1540

by Dorothy Burwash

Between 1460 and 1540 the development of merchant shipping was of vital importance to the growth of England as a European power. In this work Miss Burwash offers a complete history of the English merchant marine in the late middle ages and early renaissance period. Her account includes a description of the size and design of the ships, the trades in which they engaged, the business arrangements under which they sailed and the codes of maritime law which governed them, the wages and conditions of work of the common seaman and the degree of navigational skill of the shipmasters and pilots. This was the time when seamen and merchants of northern Europe were beginning to venture out of the familiar home waters and undertake voyages of discovery such as the Bristol expeditions 1501-1504 which in all probability reached Labrador and possibly Greenland. The author concludes that, although English shipping faced stiff competition from traders and seamen of other countries in northern Europe--most particularly the Dutch--the period was one of healthy growth which laid a good foundation for the more brilliant and better known exploits of the Elizabethan age.Based on extensive and detailed research in manuscript sources preserved in the Public Record Office, British libraries and the British Museum, this study is an essential one for serious students of English history.

New Designs for Learning: Highlights of the Reports of the Ontario Curriculum Institute, 1963-1966

by Brian Burnham

The last twenty-five years have seen unprecedented growth in the application of science in critical areas of human endeavor. Explosive acceleration in the rate of growth of learning has created unquestioned benefits but it has also served as a catalyst for social, economic, and political changes of a disturbing nature. Too often there has not been time enough to assimilate the new learning or to reach agreement on the use of powerful new technologies.How have educators responded to the need to prepare young people to live with, create, and control change? In Ontario the response was unique and dramatic. Teachers and academics, school trustees, administrators, and inspectors as well as the provincial government and private philanthropy came together to create the Ontario Curriculum Institute, chartered as a non-profit organization in January 1963. Its objectives were to study all phases of the curriculum in the schools and universities of Ontario and to disseminate the results of their research and developmental work. Studies of course content, of learning processes and instructional methodology, of school and classroom organization were launched and new learning resources, experimental programs, and demonstration classrooms were designed and executed. Findings filled seventeen small volumes to September 1966 after which the reports of the study committees were issued by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education with which the Curriculum Institute had merged.In New Designs for Learning (which can be considered a sequel to Design for Learning, edited by Northrop Frye, University of Toronto Press, 1962) extracts from all seventeen reports, many now out-of-print, have been organized to deal with the most pressing and interesting aspects of educational reform. Selections were also chosen to provide for educator and layman alike the broadest possible grounds for assessment of the Institute's work. Discerning introductions which set the book and its individual chapters clearly in the mainstream of the curriculum reform movement have been provided by the editor.

Henry Alline: 1748-1784

by J. M. Bumsted

To Canadians of this century the name of Henry Alline is almost unknown. This biography introduces him to the general reader. Through the story of his life it also recreates the early settlement of the Maritime provinces, and examines the origins of one of the most dominant and continuing themes in Canadian life, evangelical pietism. Henry Alline emigrated from Rhode Island to Nova Scotia with his parents in 1760. Following his religious conversion during adolescence, he became an evangelical preacher and travelled throughout Nova Scotia spreading the gospel. But Alline was more than an itinerant preacher. Drawing on British (and indirectly on German) mythical writings, he rejected the tenets of Calvinism in favour of universal salvation and human free will. He emphasized Christian asceticism and mysticism. His writings, and his attempts to develop an intellectual rationale for his evangelical position, made him Canada's first metaphysical and mystical philosopher.In the history of early British settlement in Nova Scotia the name of Alline stands out because of his participation in the process and problems of settlement and his leadership during the trying times of the American Revolution. His career embodied a rejection of both the United States (by a rejection of Puritanism) and of Britain (by a rejection of church and state in Nova Scotia), and put Alline in a classic Nova Scotia position, neutrality, which could be justified by the importance of Christ and the relative unimportance of government. The years in which Alline lived were particularly critical ones for Canada, and his career both mirrors and dominates a period of pioneer hardships, political crises, and spiritual concern born of the uncertainties of human existence.

The Grasping Imagination: The American Writings of Henry James

by Peter Martinus Buitenhuis

There has been almost no study of the American writings of Henry James, that is, the fiction, essays, and travel literature with an American setting. The great bulk of Jamesian criticism deals with the international novels, particularly his late works.This study places James's career in a new perspective by discussing its American aspect. It gives the critic an opportunity to come to grips with the evolution of James's technique from his second short story to his penultimate, unfinished novel, The Ivory Tower.

The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History

by John G. Reid Phillip Buckner

Nearly thirty years ago W.S. MacNutt published the first general history of the Atlantic provinces before Confederation. An outstanding scholarly achievement, that history inspired much of the enormous growth of research and writing on Atlantic Canada in the succeeding decades. Now a new effort is required, to convey the state of our knowledge in the 1990s. Many of the themes important to today's historians, notably those relating to social class, gender, and ethnicity, have been fully developed only since 1970. Important advances have been made in our understanding of regional economic developments and their implications for social, cultural, and political life.This book is intended to fill the need for an up-to-date overview of emerging regional themes and issues. Each of the sixteen chapters, written by a distinguished scholar, covers a specific chronological period and has been carefully integrated into the whole. The history begins with the evolution of Native cultures and the impact of the arrival of Europeans on those cultures, and continues to the formation of Confederation. The goal has been to provide a synthesis that not only incorporates the most recent scholarship but is accessible to the general reader. The book re-assesses many old themes from a new perspective, and seeks to broaden the focus of regional history to include those groups whom the traditional historiography ignored or marginalized.

A Question of Physics: Conversations in Physics and Biology

by F. David Peat Paul Buckley

This book contains interviews with physicists, biologists, and chemists who have been involved in some of the most exciting discoveries in modern scientific thought. The conversations--with Bohm, Pattee, Penrose, Rosen, Rosenfeld, Somorjai, Weizsäcker, Wheeler, and Nobel prizewinners Heisenberg, Dirac, and Prigogine--explore issues which have shaped modern physics and those which hint at what may form the next scientific revolution.The discussions range over a set of basic problems in physical theory and their possible solutions--the understanding of space and time, quantum and relativity theories and recent attempts to unite them--and deal with related questions in theoretical biology. The approach is non-technical, with an emphasis on the assumptions of modern science and their implications for understanding the world we live in.The book, which originated in a highly successful radio series, provides a vivid first-hand account of some of the astounding and perplexing developments in modern science, a rare overview that will intrigue the informed non-scientist and the scientist alike.

Phonological Interpretation of Ancient Greek, The: A Pandialectal Analysis

by Vit Bubenik

This volume treats systematically the variation found in the successive stages of the development of all ancient Greek dialects. It combines synchronic approach, in which generative rules expound phonological divergencies between the systems of different dialects, with a diachronic statement of unproductive and mostly pan-Hellenic shifts.Professor Bubeník presents a phonetic description and structural phonemic analysis of the best-known variant--Classical Attic of the 5th century B.C.--and displays and contrasts the vocalic and consonantal inventories of all the other dialects classified according to their major groups. Derivational histories of individual dialects are examined in their juxtaposition, to ascertain which rules are shared by various dialects and which are dialect-specific. The pandialectal framework enables Bubeník to capture various relationships among genetically related dialects which are missed in atomistic and static treatments, and to show more convincingly the extent of their similarity and their systemic cohesion.This volume makes a significant contribution to both classical scholarship and current theory of language change by offering new analyses of a variety of phonological and morphophonemic problems presented by a dead language and its dialects.

Judicial Committee and the British North America Act, The

by G P. Browne

This comprehensive study is concerned primarily with the fundamental problem of the role of the judiciary in the federal system of Canadian government. The author criticizes previous accounts of the Judicial Committee's interpretative scheme for the British North American Act because of their neglect of underlying jurisprudential assumptions and their readiness to accept the textual criticisms levelled in the O'Connor Report of 1939; they fail to note the relationship between the jurisprudential and the textual aspects. Professor Browne is convinced that O'Connor's criticism is as ill founded as the alternative interpretive scheme he proposed, and that the "three-compartment" view represents the most convincing construction of sections 91 and 92 of the Act. He considers debatable the "organic statute" argument widely accepted in the United States and becoming more and more popular in Canada; and supports the premium which English courts have traditionally placed on certainty and stability in the law.Professor Browne concludes that the almost universal criticism in Canada of the Judicial Committee's construction of the BNA Act is basically misconceived: Canadian jurists should think carefully before following trends set by American courts, for American purposes, in the context of American law, particularly when the repercussions of those trends are not as yet fully appreciated.This discussion will be of special interest for legal, political, and historical studies in this country, the United States, and other Commonwealth countries, especially those which have federal systems and consequently share the same basic problems of the judiciary in such a system.

My Lady of the Snows

by Douglas Lochhead Margaret A. Brown

This work cannot be fully understood unless the reader is aware of the writer's motives. The book has a twofold meaning -- that of a political novel, and that of the portrayal of a great love and a religious drama. As Disraeli in his novels portrayed the political and social conditions of certain eras of his country, in a simple way this work is intended to portray the conditions existing in Canada at an era when the country was in a state of transition, with the idealistic conception of what the government of a country should be, the conception being based upon a knowledge of the inherent principles of Divine Right and upon Plato's Republic of Justice. The scene is laid prior to the last election during Sir John A. Macdonald's administration. There are no great questions at issue, politics are seen in their lowest form; the protective tariff had been adopted, and with the advent of machinery the old order of things was passing away; the new order had not yet brought any great issues before the people, and the election, commonly called the "Old Flag" election, was run merely on a sentiment of loyalty to the motherland. "My Lady of the Snows" is a woman who has been born "great," and one who has based her life on principles rather than the emotions, or Plato's theory that the emotions should remain subservient to the will.

Permafrost in Canada

by Roger J.E. Brown

Permafrost is the thermal condition of the earth's crust when its temperature has been below 32°F continuously for a number of years. Half of Canada's land surface lies in the permafrost region--either in the continuous zone where the ground is frozen to a depth of hundreds of feet, or in the discontinuous zone where permafrost is thinner, and there are areas of unfrozen ground.The existence of permafrost causes problems for the development of the northern regions of all countries extending into the Arctic. Mining operations are hindered by frozen ore which resists blasting and is difficult to thaw. Agriculture is restricted by the presence of permafrost near the ground surface which limits the soil available for plant growth. Engineering structures are also affected by the low temperatures. Ice layers give soil a rock-like structure with high strength. However heat transmitted by buildings often causes the ice to melt, and the resulting slurry is unable to support the structure. Many settlements in northern Canada have examples of structural damage or failure caused by permafrost. In the construction and maintenance of railways, buildings, water and sewage lines, dams, roads, bridges, and airfields, normal techniques must often be modified at additional cost because of permafrost.For the last twenty-five years scientific investigations and engineering projects have increased steadily in Canada's permafrost region, and it is now technically possible to build any structure or conduct any activity on the worst soils and under permafrost conditions.This comprehensive analysis of permafrost--its origin, definition, and occurrence, and the effect it has on industry and agriculture--will be invaluable to the growing number of people working in the north and to those interested in its development.

Science and the Human Comedy: Natural Philosophy in French Literature from Rabelais to Maupertuis

by Harcourt Brown

New scientific theories, methods, and objectives exert subtle and often unnoticed influences on literary creation. The developments of the attitudes and aspirations of French scientists between the Renaissance and the Revolution and the impact of these new outlooks on French literature form the theme of this book by an authority in the interdisciplinary treatment of science and literature. Implicit in the author's exploration is the view that in the development of the scientific revolution there was no overall design, but rather random growth; human beings turn up at various moments, some of them appropriately, some of them not, so that the record is in part a story of successful endeavour, in part a comedy little short of farce. in the historical panorama of this book, four auhors, each known for his ironic, even comic, insight into the human condition, are chosen to illustrate the theme. As men of letters, Rabelais and Voltaire exhibit well-defined scientific interests, while Pascal and Maupertuis were drawn from their scientific vocations into the discussion of ideas in literary forms. Consideration of their similarities and differences suggested the title, Science and the Human Comedy. This work is a valuable contribution to our understanding of the historical and cultural conditions accompanying the advancement of science in a critical period, as well as of several ways in which the process was reflected, sometimes directly, more often indirectly, in literature. (University of Toronto Romance Series 30)

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