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"Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research treats the development and evaluation of animal-use protocols as a decision-making process, not just a decision. To this end, it presents the most current, in-depth information about the best practices for animal care and use, as they pertain to the intricacies of neuroscience and behavioral research.
Since 1968 the Elementary and Secondary School Civil Rights Compliance Report (known as the E&S survey) has been used to gather information about possible disparities in access to learning opportunities and violations of students’ civil rights. Thirty-five years after the initiation of the E&S survey, large disparities remain both in educational outcomes and in access to learning opportunities and resources. These disparities may reflect violations of students’ civil rights, the failure of education policies and practices to provide students from all backgrounds with a similar educational experience, or both. They may also reflect the failure of schools to fully compensate for disparities and current differences in parents’ education, income, and family structure. The Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunities concludes that the E&S survey continues to play an essential role in documenting these disparities and in providing information that is useful both in guiding efforts to protect students’ civil rights and for informing educational policy and practice. The committee also concludes that the survey’s usefulness and access to the survey data could be improved.
An Assessment of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing
A report on the Medicare Coverage of Routine Screening for Thyroid Dysfunction
At 2:00am on October 2, 2001, Robert Stevens entered a hospital emergency room. Feverish, nauseated, and barely conscious, no one knew what was making him sick. It was the doctors and public health officials who solved this medical mystery. Stevens was the first fatal victim of bioterrorism in America. The events of September 11th and the anthrax attacks that followed only three weeks later were horrifying. Many of us felt we were living in a world gone mad. Already shaken by the images of jetliners deliberately flown into the Twin Towers at the World Trade Center, we were soon scared to open our mail. No longer could we look forward to birthday wishes or holiday postcards. We couldn’t even safely face the delivery of our monthly bills. We had now become literally afraid of the microbial menace that could be lurking in our mailboxes. This time terror had struck close to home—to everyone’s home. But behind the panic and the politics was a key line of defense. While the police and FBI frantically investigated a crime, there were other professionals at work, conducting their own painstaking inquiry – medical and scientific detectives hot on the trail of deadly organisms deliberately set loose in the postal system. Modern heroes in a quickly changing world, the public health officials, physicians, researchers, and scientists who staff our hospitals, clinics, and laboratories will be the first responders on the scene of any future biowarfare event. Conducting his own detective work, bioterrorism expert Leonard Cole has composed a series of fascinating stories that get to the heart of all the noisy sound bytes and hysterical headlines. Cole is the only person outside law enforcement to have interviewed every one of the surviving inhalation-anthrax victims, along with the relatives, friends, and associates of those who died, as well as the public health officials, scientists, researchers, hospital workers, and treating physicians – indeed, anyone who has something of value to add to the story. Speaking through their voices, the narrative reflects the tension and emotions stirred by the events from the fall of 2001. Fast paced and riveting, this minute-by-minute chronicle of the anthrax attacks recounts more than a history of recent current events, it uncovers the untold and perhaps even more important story of how scientists, doctors, and researchers perform life-saving work under intense pressure and public scrutiny. The Anthrax Letters amply demonstrates how vulnerable America and the world really were in 2001. It also shows quite clearly how scientific research promises to strengthen our ability to address the challenges we must meet in the future.
In order to achieve the Army's envisioned Objective Force related to deployability, transportability, and mobility, the Committee on Lightweight Materials for the 21st Century Army Trucks was asked to identify research and technology development opportunities related to the introduction of new lightweight structural materials for light, medium and heavy Army trucks.
Implementing Climate And Global Change Research: A Review Of The Final U.s. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Planby Committee to Review the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan
The book reviews a draft strategic plan from the U. S. Climate Change Science Program, a program formed in 2002 to coordinate and direct U. S. efforts in climate change and global change research. The U. S. Climate Change Science Program incorporates the decade-old Global Change Research Program and adds a new component--"the Climate Change Research Initiative--"whose primary goal is to measurably improve the integration of scientific knowledge, including measures of uncertainty, into effective decision support systems and resources.
Since 1943, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulating RDAs reviewed and revised its approach -- the result: Dietary Reference Intakes. This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. The first volume includes calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and fluoride. For each nutrient the committee presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease. Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U. S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age -- from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Dietary Reference Intakes provides three sets of measures for each nutrient in the volume: -- Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), estimated for age and gender categories. -- Recommend
Biologists communicate to the research community and document their scientific accomplishments by publishing in scholarly journals. This report explores the responsibilities of authors to share data, software, and materials related to their publications. In addition to describing the principles that support community standards for sharing different kinds of data and materials, the report makes recommendations for ways to facilitate sharing in the future.
The National Academies Science, Technology, and Law Program convened three workshops focusing on specific aspects of OMB's "Guidelines for Ensuring and Maximizing the Quality, Objectivity, Utility, and Integrity of Information Disseminated by Federal Agencies. " The workshops were intended to assist the agencies in developing their agency-specific implementation guidelines. This workshop report details the approaches agencies are considering using to implement the guidelines.
Envisioning A 21st Century Science And Engineering Workforce For The United States: Tasks For University, Industry, And Governmentby Shirley Ann Jackson
At the request of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR), Shirley Ann Jackson, President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, presents in this brief paper her views of the challenges of the 21st century for the science and engineering workforce. Dr. Jackson identifies factors that she believes are contributing to a declining science and engineering workforce, describes the risks and consequences of this decline, and proposes specific, short-term tasks for universities, industry, and the federal government to strengthen and revitalize the workforce.
UNDERSTANDING OTHERS, EDUCATING OURSELVES: Getting More from International Comparative Studies in Educationby Committee on a Framework Long-term Research Agenda for International Comparative Education Studies
Getting More from International Comparative Studies in Education
The Kelly Group International (KGI): A super-elite, top secret, family-run business. Qualifications: High intelligence, rock-hard body, military background. Mission: Hostage/kidnap victim recovery. Intelligence gathering. Handling jobs the U.S. government can't... Over the years, Donovan Kelly has fought relentlessly for justice, women and children always holding a special place in his heart. Working side by side with his brothers, Donovan has witnessed firsthand the toll it's taken--physically, mentally, and emotionally--on his loved ones, and the innocent lives caught in the crossfire. What he never expects is for his next mission to happen right on his home turf--or for it to take a very personal turn. Picturesque Kentucky Lake is the perfect place for a soul in search of safe harbor. A beautiful stranger has arrived--desperate, breathless, and on the run from a dark past closing in on her and the younger siblings she has vowed to protect. Donovan must now draw on every resource at his disposal--if he wants to save a woman and the children who may prove to be his destiny.
WHAT IS THE INFLUENCE OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS?: Reviewing the Evidence, A Workshop Summaryby Karen S. Hollweg
The Influence of the National Science Education Standards
Environmental data centers have been successfully acquiring, disseminating, and archiving data for decades. However, the increasing volume and number of data sets, coupled with greater demands from more diverse users, are making it difficult for data centers to maintain the record of environmental change. This workshop report focuses on technological approaches that could enhance the ability of environmental data centers to deal with these challenges, and improve the ability of users to find and use information held in data centers. Among the major findings are that data centers should rely more on off-the-shelf technology -- including software and commonly available hardware -- and should shift from tape to disk as the primary storage medium. Such technological improvements will help solve many data management problems, although data centers and their host agencies will have to continue to invest in the scientific and human elements of data center operations.
Information technology (IT) is essential to virtually all of the nation's critical infrastructures making them vulnerable by a terrorist attack on their IT system. An attack could be on the system itself or use the IT system to launch or exacerbate another type of attack. IT can also be used as a counterterrorism tool. The report concludes that the most devastating consequences of a terrorist attack would occur if it were on an IT system or used one as part of a broader attack. The report presents two recommendations on what can be done in the short term to protect the nation's communications and information systems and several recommendations about what can be done over the longer term. The report also notes the importance of considering how an IT system will be deployed to maximize protection against and usefulness in responding to attacks.
End Points for spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste in Russian and the United Statesprovides an analysis of the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in Russia and the United States, describing inventories, comparing approaches, and assessing the end-point options for storage and disposal of materials and wastes. The authoring committee finds that despite differences in philosophy about nuclear fuel cycles, Russia and the United States need similar kinds of facilities and face similar challenges, although in Russia many of the problems are worse and funding is less available. This book contains recommendations for immediate and near-term actions, for example, protecting and stabilizing materials that are security and safety hazards, actions for the longer term, such as developing more interim storage capacity and studying effects of deep injection, and areas for collaboration.
This report is a review of the draft feasibility study that was issued at the request of Congress by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Over 500 atmospheric nuclear-weapons tests were conducted at various sites around the world during 1945-1980. As public awareness and concern mounted over the possible health hazards associated with exposure to the fallout from weapons testing, a feasibility study was initiated by CDC and NCI to assess the extent of the hazard. The CDC-NCI study claims that the fallout might have led to approximately 11,000 excess deaths, most caused by thyroid cancer linked to exposure to iodine-131. The committee noted that CDC and NCI used the best available data to estimate exposure and health hazards. The committee does not recommend an expanded study of exposure to radionuclides other than 131I since radiation doses from those radionuclides were much lower than those from 131I. It also recommended that CDC urge Congress to prohibit the destruction of all remaining records relevant to fallout.
A Strategic Vision For Immunization
Information on Improving the Design of the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System
In 2000, the federal government distributed over $260 billion of funding to state and local governments via 180 formula programs. These programs promote a wide spectrum of economic and social objectives, such as improving educational outcomes and increasing accessibility to medical care, and many are designed to compensate for differences in fiscal capacity that affect governments’ abilities to address identified needs. Large amounts of state revenues are also distributed through formula allocation programs to counties, cities, and other jurisdictions. Statistical Issues in Allocating Funds by Formula identifies key issues concerning the design and use of these formulas and advances recommendations for improving the process. In addition to the more narrow issues relating to formula design and input data, the book discusses broader issues created by the interaction of the political process and the use of formulas to allocate funds.Statistical Issues in Allocating Funds by Formula is only up-to-date guide for policymakers who design fund allocation programs. Congress members who are crafting legislation for these programs and federal employees who are in charge of distributing the funds will find this book indispensable.
In response to a request from the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Institute of Medicine convened a committee to identify possible demonstration projects that might be implemented in 2003, with the hope of yielding models for broader health system reform within a few years. The committee is recommending a substantial portfolio of demonstration projects, including chronic care and primary care demonstrations, information and communications technology infrastructure demonstrations, health insurance coverage demonstrations, and liability demonstrations. As a set, the demonstrations address key aspects of the health care delivery system and the financing and legal environment in which health care is provided.
Included in this comprehensive review of the research and data on family leave, child care, and income support issues are: the effects of early child care and school-age child care on child development, the impacts of family work policies on child and adolescent well-being and family functioning, the changes to federal and state welfare policy, the emergence of a 24/7 economy, the utilization of paid family leave, and an examination of the ways parental employment affects children as they make their way through childhood and adolescence. The book also evaluates the support systems available to working families, including family and medical leave, child care options, and tax policies. The committee's conclusions and recommendations will be of interest to anyone concerned with issues affecting the working American family, especially policy makers, program administrators, social scientists, journalists, private and public sector leaders, and family advocates.
This report presents findings of a workshop featuring representatives of Internet Service Providers and others with access to data and insights about how the Internet performed on and immediately after the September 11 attacks. People who design and operate networks were asked to share data and their own preliminary analyses among participants in a closed workshop. They and networking researchers evaluated these inputs to synthesize lessons learned and derive suggestions for improvements in technology, procedures, and, as appropriate, policy.
Most major crime in this country emanates from two major data sources. The FBI's Uniform Crime Reports has collected information on crimes known to the police and arrests from local and state jurisdictions throughout the country. The National Crime Victimization Survey, a general population survey designed to cover the extent, nature, and consequences of criminal victimization, has been conducted annually since the early 1970s. This workshop was designed to consider similarities and differences in the methodological problems encountered by the survey and criminal justice research communities and what might be the best focus for the research community. In addition to comparing and contrasting the methodological issues associated with self-report surveys and official records, the workshop explored methods for obtaining accurate self-reports on sensitive questions about crime events, estimating crime and victimization in rural counties and townships and developing unbiased prevalence and incidence rates for rate events among population subgroups.
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