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Professor Brown in this volume discusses one of the most difficult questions in metaphysics, "what is action?" His analysis proceeds along three main lines of thought: the point of view of the agent, the primacy of inanimate action, and the pervasiveness of explanatory insight in the description of action. In the spirit of recent work on practical reasoning, he takes the central fact about human action to be the existence of the point of view, and considers the agent's relation to his own body, Professor Brown argues that the concept of human action is best understood through that of inanimate action, such as the action of wind on trees or an axe on wood. His analysis takes inanimate action as fundamental, and defends it against the popular theory that it is an anthropomorphic projection. Human action is indeed unique. But it is also Professor Brown's thesis that the classical empiricist search for the brute fact of our own agency yields no more than incidental insights into its nature; introspection does not replace the analysis of human action.The analysis in this essay caters for inanimate action as well as for the uniqueness of human action. The key to an analysis complex enough to cover both is the notion of "attributability," which Professor Brown regards as providing "an Aristotelian extension of a Humean approach to causation." Explanation by reference to the soul exploits the point of view of the rational agent. In this way, both human and inanimate action are exhibited as natural phenomena the descriptions of which are pervaded by explanatory insight.The book as a whole gives an account of action in which the peculiarities of human action find their place in nature. It does not enter on questions of ethics, but remains with concepts common to morality, psychology, and history. There are incidental discussions of deliberation, psychokinesis, casual necessity, the agent's knowledge of his action, and responsibility. Here is a controversial theory of action supported by careful argument. Professor Brown's writing is both ambitious in scope and attentive to conceptual detail, and offers a valuable contribution to one of the liveliest contemporary debates in philosophy.
The Alexander Lectures for 1949-50. In his Preface, Professor Brown says, "Isolating a single element or group of elements in the novel, and considering it in unreal separation from all the other elements which it actually fuses, is artificial, but so is all criticism. The artificiality is justified if when one turns back from the criticism to the novels these appear more intelligible and more delightful. That is the test." Applying the test to Dr. Brown's present work, the method is more than justified by the results. they are titled: "Phrase, Character, Incident," "Expanding Symbols," "Interweaving Themes," and "Rhythm in E.M. Forster's A Passage to India."
This volume, the Frank Gerstein Lectures for 1963, is the second series of Invitation Lectures to be delivered at York University. The theme "Imagination and the University" was appropriate for, as President Murray Ross states in this Foreword, it is in its early years that a university is sufficiently flexible to utilize imagination in its structure and in its curriculum. York University was in its third year when the Lectures were given.Four distinguished scholars present their views on the importance of an imaginative approach to the different academic disciplines, and to the conduct of life in contemporary society as a whole.Jacob Bronowski, speaking on Imagination in Art and Science, draws a clear and striking analogy between the role of imagination in mathematics and in poetry, drawing on his own experiences and contributions in both areas. He stresses that all creative works in art or science, must conform to the universal experience of mankind and to the private experiences of each man: the work of science, as of art, moves us profoundly, in mind and in emotion, when it matches our experience and at the same time points beyond it.Henry Steele Commager shows how important is the contribution to be made by an imaginative approach to politics, where, as in other fields of human experience, it must not be separated from reality, if it is to find expression in something more than words. He points to examples from the past and the present and asks for more imagination in public thinking, it fit our actions to the reality of change, citing the urgency of such twentieth-century phenomena as the status of Communist China, the predicted population explosion, and the threat of nuclear war. Professor Commager believes that the universities provide the key to this kind of approach, being a supreme example of the creative capacity of mankind, whose function it is to serve the commonwealth of learning.A different kind of insight is offered by Gordon W. Allport, whose subject is Imagination in Psychology. He believes that the present "impertinence" of psychology can best be cured by endowing it with more imagination. He demands a pluralistic approach to psychological investigation, which would not deny the insights yielded by traditional methods, with their characteristic minute analyses, but whose goal would be to fashion a conception of the human person that would exclude nothing that is valid, and at the same time preserve an ideal of rational consistency. This could lead, in turn, to a clear definition of the root motives of mankind, even to discovering new formulas for international peace by offsetting particularistic political demands. Finally, Paul H. Buck describes the Harvard House Plan as an example of Imagination and the Curriculum. This plan, modelled on the Oxford-Cambridge College system which is also followed in some Canadian universities, is an attempt to make all aspects of undergraduate life a process of education. And a truly liberal education for today and tomorrow, Professor Buck is confident, will combine a programme of general education, a programme of specialism, and a collegiate way of living.
The focus of this bibliography is the native literary tradition expressed in Irish and Welsh verse and prose from the earliest time to circa 1450. Priority is given to the most recent critical works and editions, provided that they supersede previous ones; however, earlier scholarly work and critical editions of texts that are now regarded as classics are also included. Because of the highly selective nature of this bibliography, Rachel Bromwich includes only a few studies on early legal texts, historical background, ecclesiastical learning, hagiography, archaeology and art, and folklore. The bibliography is divided into five chapters, of which two are intended for newcomers to the field and list the more available works of reference and aids to language study. The remaining three are devoted to literary history and criticism, texts and translations, and background material. The more than 500 entries have been arranged to show the ways in which the medieval literature of Ireland and Wales pursue parallel courses. In each chapter a general and comparative section is followed by sub-sections dealing with Irish material (including Cornish and Breton). Within each of these sub-sections individual items dealing with similar or closely related topics have been grouped together. Since this work is intended primarily for students working in English, the majority of the listings are in English, but important works in Irish, Welsh, French, and German are also cited.
An edited collection of poems by Alexander Brome in which Roman Dubinski has restored him to view.
The intriguing Bird's Nest Fungi (Nidulariaceae) of forest, meadow, and garden have been familiar to botanists since 1601, but only relatively recently has the significance of their peculiar form been realized. Dr Brodie traces the long controversy that arose when Bird's Nest Fungi were first classified as seed plants because of the numerous seed-like bodies contained in their small cup-shaped fruit bodies. The 'seeds' are now known to contain spores like those of other fungi such as puffballs, to which the Nidulariaceae are related. Present-day research has shown that certain Bird's Nest Fungi produce chemicals having previously unrecognized molecular structure. Between these milestones Dr Brodie reveals the solution to the mystery of the dispersal of the 'eggs' from the 'bird's nest': the fruit bodies are splash guns from which the reproductive spores are ejected by the force of falling raindrops. This explanation of the phenomenon is supported by copious observations and hitherto unpublished experiments.All known species of Nidulariaceae, including many only recently recognized, are described in this volume. All aspects of growth, structure, development, and life-cycle of these fungi, both in nature and in laboratory culture, are reported in a modern, comprehensive treatment of a subject which is of interest not only to mycologists but to amateur naturalists as well.
Literature and historical writing among the Czechs, as among many other nations lacking a political state, played a vital role in promoting national consciousness. This volume, written to honour the seventieth birthday of the eminent Czech historian Otakar Odložík, contains essays by outstanding scholars from Canada, Czechoslovakia, Britain, and the United States which examine significant episodes in the development of modern Czech nationalism from its origins in the late eighteenth century to the birth of an independent nation after the First World War. The main emphasis is on the middle decades of the nineteenth century, which were crucial for mapping the direction Czech nationalism was to take during the subsequent hundred years. The stand of the Czech and Slovak peoples in the crisis of August 1968 reflected the deep roots of their patriotism which developed during the nineteenth-century national renascence. This volume contains essays on Dobrovský, the pioneer of Czech language studies, and on Palacký, the author of the first great national history, as well as on other facets of literary history which have influenced national feeling. A Prague scholar investigates the social structure of the early Czech patriotic intelligentsia and reaches conclusions which considerably modify hitherto existing views. Two contributions examine the role of the press in the emergence of Czech nationalism; the Matice Ceskà, a leading patriotic literary foundation, is the subject of one of the studies. Slovak and Lusatian Serb, German, and American reaction to the Czech national renascence is examined in a series of chapters. The political expression of Czech nationalism, first during the Year of Revolutions, 1848, and then from the late 1870s until the early years of the twentieth century, is subjected to analysis in several studies. Finally, there is a brief review of the problems associated with the Czech-Slovak background of Tomáš Masaryk, the creator of modern Czechoslovakia. A fitting tribute to an outstanding scholar, this volume makes an important contribution to the literature in English on nineteenth-century Czech lands.
The Slovaks lived under Hungarian rule for centuries, with no clear sense of political separateness, preserving Slovak as their spoken language, but using Czech as their written language. In the last decades of the 18th and the first half of the 19th centuries, the efforts made by clerical intellectuals to develop a language more closely attuned to Slovak needs led to the rise of Slovak nationalism.The Slovak National Awakening describes the three major stages in the development of national consciousness. In the 1780s Catholic intellectuals began to write in the vernacular; a Catholic priest, Bernolàk, produced a Slovak grammar and dictionary and an influential treatise in defence of Slovak as a language separate from Czech. However, while Slovak ethnic distinctness was being asserted, the sense of belonging to the Hungarian nation was not questioned. The next steps were taken by the Protestant intelligentsia, who had been pro-Czech since the Reformation. Influenced by German concepts of linguistic nationalism, they began to assert Slovak cultural and linguistic separateness, but still within the political framework of the Hungarian State.The third stage in the Slovak Awakening came in the mid-1840s when a group of young Protestant intellectuals, led by L'udovít Štúr, rejected their predecessors' 'Czechoslovakism' and advocated a Slovak language and a Slovak nationality. In 1851, the Catholic Bernolákites and the Protestant Štúrites were able to agree on the language that became the basis of modern Slovak.This study of the relation between language and nationalism will appeal to specialists in European history and will be of interest for the light it throws on modern separatists and anti-imperialist movements.
Polish populism, which advocated agrarian socialism by either revolutionary or reformist means, emerged first among the émigrés who had left Poland after the Russians defeated the nationalist uprising of 1830. In exile they came into contact with the ideas of French 'Utopian' socialists such as Babeuf, Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Cabet, and they attempted to adapt these ideas to the very different conditions prevailing in their east European homeland. Thus this version of populism preceded in time, and probably influenced, the emergence of the ideas of the better-known Russian narodniks.Polish Revolutionary Populism describes the activities and conflicting ideologies of the various organizations, abroad and in partitioned Poland, which were struggling for national independence and for agrarian and social reform. Like the author's recent work, The Slovak National Awakening, this book deals with the emerging national aspirations characteristic of central and eastern Europe at the time and with the variety of political and social theories that made debate so acrimonious.
This book was written to fill a need for a basic text about medical social work. The material has specific reference to social work in the hospital organization, but much of it is applicable to social work within the broader context of health care.Any printed material now available on the subject is largely incidental and scattered reference. This book will be of great value to social workers, and to students in hospital administration, medicine, and nursing. It will also be of help to members of hospital boards and to hospital administrators who wish to establish or evaluate a social service department.Beginning with a background in the history of the hospital and social work, the book provides chapters on the role and function of a social service department in a hospital, on the staffing and administration of such a department, on the kinds of activity in which it engages, and on its place in the larger organization of which it is a part.
This volume of essays, from the Third David Nichol Smith Memorial Seminar, continues the valuable and lively tradition established in the two earlier seminars and volumes.The essays, by distinguished international scholars, range over many of the topics that make the eighteenth century a rich area of study: the burgeoning of ideas about man and his place in the world, social history, philosophy and literature, literary criticism and traditions, the poetry and prose of the giants of the age.For all students of eighteenth-century studies this book will be vital reading.
This volume presents an array of studies on many aspects of the eighteenth century: on the novel, history, the history of ideas, drama, poetry and sentimentality. The essays are as diverse as 'Pope's Essays on Man and the French Enlightenment' and 'Of Silk-worms and Farthingales and the Will of God.' One group is concerned with the works and ideas of Bayle, Alexander Gerard, Diderot, Fuseli, Hawkesworth and Swift among others.The essays are the work of leading scholars for many disciplines and were presented at the Second David Nichol Smith Seminar; together they reflect some of the liveliest and most up-to-date trends in the present reexamination of the period. The book will be invaluable to all students of the literature, thought, and civilisation of the eighteenth century.
A study of "economic imperialism" based on a theoretical inquiry into the most important research frontier in the scholarly field: the analysis of constitutions. The book evaluates constitutional arrangements by the degree to which they economize on the scarcity of resources available in any society, demonstrating a preference for constitutions that make governments efficient.
In this careful and thorough study of a Canadian field which has been relatively untouched in recent years, Dr. Brecher records and comments on the development of monetary and fiscal thinking in Canada in the inter-war period, and its impact on public policy in the federal sphere. Examining Canadian opinion about economic theory during this time, the author draws on four fields of thought: that of government and other public officials; of businessmen, such as bankers, and their views on what should be done about the depression; of the "radical group", such as those prominent in the formation of the CCF and Social Credit parties; and of economists, prominent in the universities.Dr. Brecher points out in his preface that his inquiry is rooted in the conviction that the problems associated with cyclical fluctuations remain sufficiently complex to make an understanding of the developments of the twenties and thirties an indispensable condition for effective stabilization policy. He finds the twenties distinguished only in the superficial and imperfect diagnosis of and remedial suggestions for unemployment, made chiefly by a relatively small handful of thinkers associated with the Progressive and United Farmers movements, then emerging in the West. It was the thirties which, under the impact of the depression, witnessed the first real stirrings of careful economic analysis in cyclical terms, and of statistical techniques for measuring the value of annual productive activity and income receipts in the Dominion.The author has attempted to appraise the evolution of the Canadian policy of monetary and fiscal stabilization within the thought environment in which it was conceived and implemented, and on the basis of the standards set by modern income-employment theory.
In recent years, there has been a tremendous development in the area of quantitative and statistical analysis of linguistic and literary data, generated, no doubt, by extensive advances in computer technology and their relatively easy availability to scholars. However, except for a few rather specialized examples, there has been no truly introductory text in statistics and quantitative analysis devoted to the needs of language scholars. This work was written especially to fill the gap. It introduces a mathematically naïve reader to those statistical tools which are applicable in modern quantitative text and language analysis, and does this in terms of simple examples dealing exclusively with language and literature. Exercises are included throughout.
Journalists and poets, economists and political historians, have told the story of Canada's railways, but their accounts pay little attention to the workers who built them. The Bunkhouse Man is the only study devoted to these men and their lives in construction camps; a pioneering work in sociology, it is still the best description of what it was like to be a working man in Canada before the First World War. E.W. Bradwin drew on his own experience as an instructor for Frontier College, working alongside his students during the day and teaching at night, to present this graphic portrait of life in the camps from 1903 to 1914. No detached observer, Bradwin played a vigorous role trying to improve the lot of the men--practicing the sociology of engagement advocated by radical sociologists today.Work camps have existed in Canada from early pioneer times to the 1970s and are unlikely to disappear. In the years of Bradwin's study there were as many as 3,000 large camps employing 200,000 men, 5 per cent of the male labour force. Like the settling of the prairies, these camps are a characteristic Canadian phenomenon, but they have never drawn comparable attention. The republication of The Bunkhouse Man, with an introduction by Jean Burnet, makes available once more a work essential to the exploration of Canada's history and social structure.
This is the first book devoted to investigating the scholarly commonplace that Erasmus' revival of classical learning defines his evangelical humanism. It acknowledges that it was a feat for him to challenge the obscurantism of late medieval schooling by restoring classical studies. It recognizes that his editions of Greek and Latin authors alone fix his place in the history of scholarship. But the plainest questions about this achievement may still be asked, and the most popular texts freshly interpreted. Was his work only the expression in the 'idiom of the Renaissance' or a perennial Christian humanism? Or did he advance on it theoretically as well as practically? Did Erasmus contribute conceptually to the interrogation of pagan wisdom with the Christian economy? Christening Pagan Mysteries proposes that he did.Although doctrinal issues involved, this inquiry is not systematically theological. Erasmus wrote no treatise on the subject that might be so explored. A rhetorical approach, complementary to his own method, discloses his evangelical humanism through the analysis of three significant texts. The seminal dialogue Antibarbari provides the conceptual key in one of the most important humanist declarations in the history of Christian thought to the Renaissance. The Christocentric conviction it voices is then discerned through new interpretations of two other texts which christen pagan mysteries in original and important ways: the Moria and the final colloquy, 'Epicureus,' in which a pagan goddess and a pagan philosopher are gathered to Christ.
The ashes of Herbert Norman now lie in the British cemetery at Rome, near those of Shelley and Keats. His distinguished life and tragic death, in April 1957, are recalled and examined in this book by scholars and diplomats from four countries--the United States, Japan, Canada, and Britain.Born in rural Japan the son of a Canadian missionary, Herbert Norman studied at the University of Toronto and went in 1933 to Cambridge University on a scholarship. There, in that intellectual hothouse where it seemed one had to choose politically between communism and fascism as the future of the West, he joined the Communist party--a move that became a crime later in the fixed and 'sightless' (as the editor describes them) eyes of his American accusers.According to Edwin Reischauer, later the US ambassador to Japan, 'his harassment by the American government was unforgiveable.' His suicide in Cairo, while Canadian ambassador to Nasser's Egypt during and after the delicate times of the Suez Crisis and the establishment of the UN peace-keeping force, raised broader questions for Lester Pearson--'the right, to say nothing of the propriety, of a foreign government to intervene' in Canadian affairs.Norman was also a renowned historian of Japan. His Japan's Emergence as a Modern State has been called a classic, and between 1946 and 1950, as head of the Canadian Liaison Mission in Tokyo, he was a close and friendly adviser to General Douglas MacArthur in his efforts to reconstitute that country. Both this work and his writings on Japan were sympathetic to human freedoms and democracy, and they too became controversial as sides congealed in the Cold War. Five papers in this book assess Norman's scholarly work in the historiography of Japan.Four lecture papers by Norman (three previously unpublished) are included which show his change from 'a doctrinaire Marxist to a Jeffersonian Liberal,' a change historians can accept as fact whereas intelligence agencies could not and remade Norman into a communist. He was not a spy, the editor concludes, and should be remembered as the hero of a modern tragedy.
Do Canadian cities have a distinctive form? How has this form evolved over time; and what has been the impact of growth, transportation changes and differing lifestyles on the contemporary Canadian urban environment? The research summarized in the present volume is directed at these kinds of questions. This book is an anthology of research papers and reports building around a common theme: urban development in Central Canada. Within this context, specific interests focus on the spatial structure of the city, land use distributions, patterns of population density and intercity migration, networks of interaction, communities, and lives. This collection of papers will be of interest as a general reference which is not just descriptive, but one which includes a range of examples of analytical approaches. As such it is also designed as a contribution to the growing literature on urban research and policy formulation in Canada.(University of Toronto Department of Geography Research Publications 12)
Urban problems are now a dominant social issue: the essays in this volume consider the direction some of these problems may take in Central Canada. Three broad themes are discussed: forecasting (a spectrum of methodologies and urban forecasts); assessing the consequences of these forecasts at two levels (the growth of cities as an urban system and the growth and form of individual cities or urban regions); and assessing the role of changes in public policy. Specific topics include forecasting methodology in a spatial context, population and employment growth, migration, transportation, innovations, communication linkages, regional economic structure, economic fluctuations, the effects of public policy controls within a system of cities, land use and redevelopment, household mobility and social change, the spread of urban fields, and communities and neighbourhoods within cities.
This anthology of research is divided into five sections: definition of the urban system, structural characteristics, distribution of urban growth, transportation networks and interaction between cities, and the impact of growth on urban behaviour and the rural economy. Each section is preceded by the editors' comments. This is an excellent general reference on urbanization in Canada; it complements existing and largely American-based texts and should stimulate the student's interest in research on the unique Canadian urban milieu.(Department of Geography Research Publication 9)
The Conference on Urban Housing Markets sponsored by the Centre for Urban and Community Studies in October 1977 was the first major conference on housing to be held in Canada since the First Canadian Housing Conference sponsored by the Canadian Welfare Council in 1968.This volume is at once a record of the Conference and a review of important recent research on urban housing markets and related public policy issues. The book captures the flavor of a lively debate between academics and policy analysts, and the commentaries and discussion sections provide, in non-technical language, a statement of some major questions confronting government policy on housing.In addition to its use as a record of an important Canadian conference, the book is a valuable collection of recent housing research. The ten papers cover a wide variety of topics ranging from conceptual and methodological issues on the one hand to critiques of Canadian housing policies on the other. They indicate the range of issues which must be taken into account in assessing housing policy. Taken together with the discussion material which helps to focus attention on strategic issues in both Canada and the United States, they provide a useful introduction to current debates over housing policy.
Our Intellectual Strength and Weakness: 'English-Canadian Literature' and 'French-Canadian Literature'by Thomas Guthrie Marquis Clara Thomas Douglas Lochhead John George Bourinot Camille Roy
These three works, displaying marked differences in purpose, tone, and effect, are all classics of Canadian literary and cultural criticism.John George Bourinot was a man of letters, an Imperialist, and a biculturalist, who was confident of his knowledge of the Canadian identity and felt it to be his public mission to align reality with his own personal vision. Writing in 1893 to the élite represented by the members of the Royal Society, he described his work as 'a monograph on the intellectual development of the Dominion,' describing 'the progress of culture in a country still struggling with the difficulties of the material development of half a continent.'Two decades later, Thomas Guthrie Marquis and Camille Roy wrote what were, in contrast, specialized assignments, contributions to the compendium history, Canada and Its Provinces (1913). Addressing a far larger audience, and treating a vastly enlarged body of Canadian literature, their work comes much closer to contemporary scholarship, with greater clarity, organization, and sheer bulk of information, but with the loss of some of the charm and assurance of Bourinot's wide sweep. In further contrast to Bourinot's determined biculturalism and will to unity, Roy and Marquis' essays display vivid differences in the emotional allegiances and convictions of the founding cultures. Marquis starts by asking the question, 'Has Canada a voice of her own in literature distinct from that of England?'; Roy treats French-Canadian literature in its Roman Catholic contexts.
This is the first complete biographical and critical study of Karl Philipp Moritz (1756-93), German novelist, teacher, journalist, and philogist. His psychological novel, Anton Reiser, replete with insights into the sociological and psychological life of the time, was one of the most important eighteenth-century German novels. Moritz was in close touch with most of the major intellectual currents in Weimar and Berlin--from aesthetics and linguistics on the one hand to pietistical and mystical movements on the other--and he was a friend of Goethe and of other significant German literary figures as well. His career was a turbulent one, made all the more difficult by his many-sided psychological problems, which play a large role in his autobiographical writings.Karl Philipp Moritz has never been totally forgotten, but scholarly interest in him has increased dramatically in the last few decades. His works, particularly Anton Reiser, have also generated considerable popular interest. This is the first comprehensive monograph on this multi-faceted modern writer--an amazing fact in light of the homage paid Moritz by such contemporaries as Goethe, Schiller, and Jean Paul. Mark Boulby has succeeded admirably in relating all the frequently disparate ideas of Moritz to the trends of the period, and has combined theoretical analysis and biographical investigation in a readable and lively book.
In Honor Edgeworth the sole and sincere motive of the authoress has been to hold up to the mass the little picture of society, in one of its most marked phases, that she has sketched, as she watched its freaks and caprices from behind the scenes.Ottawa, in this work, is taken merely as a representative of all other fashionable cities, for the simple reason that it is better known to the writer than any other city of social repute. Her object in publishing the volume at all, if not clearly defined throughout the work, may be discovered here: it is primarily, to attract the attention of those who, if they wished, could exercise a beneficial influence over the sphere in which they live, to the moral depravities that at present are allowed so passively to float on the surface of the social tide. It would with the same word appeal to the minds and hearts of those women who are satisfied to remain slaves to the exactions of an unscrupulous society, at the sacrifice of their most womanly impulses, and their noblest energies; and would also remind some reckless sons of Ottawa, of how miserably they are contributing towards the future prosperity of their country, by adopting, as the only aim of their lives, the paltry ambition of an unworthy self-indulgence.The predominant feeling throughout the entire composition has been one of pure philanthropy, as the authoress desires to benefit her fellow-creatures, in as far as it lies in her very limited power.