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This Brief reviews the effects of increasing and reducing atmospheric pressure on the postharvest life of fruit and vegetables. The text covers the common methods and technologies used and evaluates the history and benefits of hypobaric and hyperbaric storage. Both of these techniques have the potential to address quantitative and qualitative challenges in the postharvest sector of the fresh fruit and vegetables industry. Hypobaric and Hyperbaric Storage of Fruit and Vegetables reports on the effects of storage on over 45 types of fruit and vegetables, as well as on whole plants and cut flowers. As consumer demand for high quality product increases, proper postharvest storage will continue to gain in importance. The environmental conditions used in storage have a vital influence on the quality, safety and health benefits of fruit and vegetables.
This book discusses and provides insight on the legal and ethical dilemmas of managing those with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). This book provides a clear perspective for those clinicians and legal professionals who are working with those with this disorder, and correspondingly increases their understanding when arranging effective supports for this population. Historically, the primary focus on FASD has been on children. However, this is a lifelong disorder and the implications of this disorder become even more prominent and complex in adulthood. Those with this condition can struggle with impulsiveness, and a host of cognitive difficulties. This correspondingly impacts their independence and employability, and produces an elevated risk for homelessness and other residential issues, involvement in substance use, being exploited, development of behavioural issues, and subsequent legal difficulties. Their cognitive difficulties result in challenges for legal systems around the world to understand their issues, and to design appropriate remedial strategies, recommendations for treatments and supports, and even for understanding the failure of many of these individuals to be able to change their behaviours effectively. This produces various legal and ethical dilemmas, which are discussed in detail in this volume by 28 authors from Europe, New Zealand and North America. These include discussions regarding the rights of the unborn child, the alcohol industry's duty to warn, whether small amounts of alcohol during pregnancy can be condoned, and even the current use of involuntary hospitalization for addicted mothers. Other chapters discuss the need for training on FASD for front line officers, use of lies during interrogation of those with FASD, medical and legal interventions for offenders with FASD, access to diagnostic services and follow-up supports, and whether FASD can be considered a mitigating factor for sentencing. Furthermore, caregivers also provide their stories regarding the daily dilemmas that are faced in raising those with FASD.
This book explores the thought of Alexius Meinong, a philosopher known for his unconventional theory of reference and predication. The chapters cover a natural progression of topics, beginning with the origins of Gegenstandstheorie, Meinong's theory of objects, and his discovery of assumptions as a fourth category of mental states to supplement his teacher Franz Brentano's references to presentations, feelings, and judgments. The chapters explore further the meaning and metaphysics of fictional and other nonexistent intended objects, fine points in Meinongian object theory are considered and new and previously unanticipated problems are addressed. The author traces being and non-being and aspects of beingless objects including objects in fiction, ideal objects in scientific theory, objects ostensibly referred to in false science and false history and intentional imaginative projection of future states of affairs. The chapters focus on an essential choice of conceptual, logical, semantic, ontic and more generally metaphysical problems and an argument is progressively developed from the first to the final chapter, as key ideas are introduced and refined. Meinong studies have come a long way from Bertrand Russell's off-target criticisms and recent times have seen a rise of interest in a Meinongian approach to logic and the theory of meaning. New thinkers see Meinong as a bridge figure between analytic and continental thought, thanks to the need for an adequate semantics of meaning in philosophy of language and philosophy of mind, making this book a particularly timely publication.
NAMED BEST MARKETING BOOK OF 2011 BY THE AMERICAN MARKETING ASSOCIATIONHow organizations can deliver significant performance gains through strategic investment in marketingIn the new era of tight marketing budgets, no organization can continue to spend on marketing without knowing what's working and what's wasted. Data-driven marketing improves efficiency and effectiveness of marketing expenditures across the spectrum of marketing activities from branding and awareness, trail and loyalty, to new product launch and Internet marketing. Based on new research from the Kellogg School of Management, this book is a clear and convincing guide to using a more rigorous, data-driven strategic approach to deliver significant performance gains from your marketing.Explains how to use data-driven marketing to deliver return on marketing investment (ROMI) in any organizationIn-depth discussion of the fifteen key metrics every marketer should knowBased on original research from America's leading marketing business school, complemented by experience teaching ROMI to executives at Microsoft, DuPont, Nisan, Philips, Sony and many other firmsUses data from a rigorous survey on strategic marketing performance management of 252 Fortune 1000 firms, capturing $53 billion of annual marketing spendingIn-depth examples of how to apply the principles in small and large organizationsFree downloadable ROMI templates for all examples given in the bookWith every department under the microscope looking for results, those who properly use data to optimize their marketing are going to come out on top every time.
The book examines the role of credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the subprime mortgage crisis. The CRAs are blamed for awarding risky securities '3-A' investment grade status and then failing to downgrade them quickly enough when circumstances changed, which led to investors suffering substantial losses. The causes identified by the regulators for the gatekeeper failure were conflicts of interest (as the issuers of these securities pay for the ratings); lack of competition (as the Big Three CRAs have dominated the market share); and lack of regulation for CRAs. The book examines how the regulators, both in the US and EU, have sought to address these problems by introducing soft law self-regulation in accordance with the International Organisation of Securities Commissions Code and hard law statutory regulation, such as that found in the "Reform Act" and "Dodd-Frank Act" in the US and similar provisions in the EU. The highly topical book examines these provisions in detail by using a doctrinal black-letter law method to assess the success of the regulators in redressing the problems identified. It also examines the US case law regulation relating to the legal liability of CRAs. The book examines whether the regulations introduced have had a deterrent effect on the actions of CRAs, whether investors are compensated for their losses, and how the regulators have dealt with the issues of conflicts of interest and an anti-competitive environment. Should liability be introduced for CRAs through changes in the law so as to compel them to issue reliable ratings and solve the current problems? The book seeks to simplify the complex issues involved and is backed by concrete evidence; as such, it will appeal to both the well-informed and the lay general public who are interested in learning more about the role of CRAs in the sub-prime mortgage crisis and regulators' attempts to remedy the situation. Novice readers can familiarise themselves with the legal and financial terminology used by referring to the glossary at the end of the book.
This book explores an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of gender and development studies, disaster and land tenure policy. It is well known that women generally have weaker claims to land. But how does that translate to increased vulnerability during disaster? Using case studies from Asia, this book argues that land tenure is a key factor in mitigating the impact of disasters on women. The scale and frequency of disasters have been increasing in recent decades due to human impact on the landscape and climate. Unsustainable farming and land management systems have increased environmental risks and social vulnerabilities. However, around the world the costs of disasters are disproportionately borne by women, due largely to their reduced mobility and lack of control over assets. In post-disaster settings, women's vulnerabilities increase due to gendered rescue and rehabilitation practices. As such, a gendered approach to land rights is critical to disaster preparedness and recovery.
This book presents a new research agenda for improvements in Quality of Life research. It includes topics such as: -Studying QoL in particular subpopulations and selected subgroups -Disentangling the difficult task of identifying determinants of QoL -Perfectionating the measurement of conceptual dimensions -Defining new indicators able to measure and monitor particular social conditions and shows that these are not separated fields of studies but intersect each other and produce different outcomes which can be with difficulty classifiable, consistent with the idea of the complexity of our reality. The volume presents micro perspectives by taking into account the macro situation through both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
This volume is a very interesting research project that includes the most careful work on constitutional power and limits to authority of which I am aware. In general, the contributors find that constitutional negotiations normally took place in settings where uncertainty was considerable. They also find that the more detailed the characterization of power relationships, the more liberal and durable the democracy tends to be. Roger D. Congleton This book addresses the issue of the impact of uncertainty in constitutional design. To what extent do constitution drafters and adopters make their decisions behind a veil of ignorance? More fundamentally, can we infer from constitutional texts the degree of uncertainty faced by constitution drafters and adopters? After an introduction (chapter 1), the book proceeds in two parts. The first part (chapters 2 to 4) introduces to the intellectual filiation of the project and to its theoretical and methodological foundations. The second part (chapters 5 to 13) presents nine case studies built on the same structure: historical account of the making of the Constitution, results of the content analysis of the constitutional text, and discussion of specific issues raised in the analysis. Chapter 14 concludes.
This Brief reviews the past, present, and future use of school corporal punishment in the United States, a practice that remains legal in 19 states as it is constitutionally permitted according to the U. S. Supreme Court. As a result of school corporal punishment, nearly 200,000 children are paddled in schools each year. Most Americans are unaware of this fact or the physical injuries sustained by countless school children who are hit with objects by school personnel in the name of discipline. Therefore, Corporal Punishment in U. S. Public Schools begins by summarizing the legal basis for school corporal punishment and trends in Americans' attitudes about it. It then presents trends in the use of school corporal punishment in the United States over time to establish its past and current prevalence. It then discusses what is known about the effects of school corporal punishment on children, though with so little research on this topic, much of the relevant literature is focused on parents' use of corporal punishment with their children. It also provides results from a policy analysis that examines the effect of state-level school corporal punishment bans on trends in juvenile crime. It concludes by discussing potential legal, policy, and advocacy avenues for abolition of school corporal punishment at the state and federal levels as well as summarizing how school corporal punishment is being used and what its potential implications are for thousands of individual students and for the society at large. As school corporal punishment becomes more and more regulated at the state level, Corporal Punishment in U. S. Public Schools serves an essential guide for policymakers and advocates across the country as well as for researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students.
This volume focuses on how family-school partnerships are conceptualized, defined, and operationalized as well as the research that is needed to advance these foundational issues. Each chapter integrates prevailing approaches into a research-based framework for supporting learning from pre-K through high school. The book incorporates structural and relational methods into the larger context of educational processes to promote research about collaboration and to improve the academic and behavioral development of students. Diverse theories and models of family-school alliances demonstrate approaches and interventions that are goal-directed and strengths-based, respectful and responsive. In addition, the book analyzes cognitive, behavioral, and interpersonal aspects of partnership and discusses different methods of assessing parental involvement and student outcomes. Included in the coverage are innovative, agenda-setting discussions on: Definitions and conceptual frameworks of family-school partnerships. Need-satisfying partnerships. Diverse parent perspectives and participation. Measurement of family-school partnership constructs over time. Foundational Aspects of Family-School Partnership Research is an essential resource for researchers, professionals, and graduate students in child and school psychology, educational policy and politics, family studies, developmental psychology, sociology of education, sociology, and anthropology.
The monograph is devoted to the notion of strategic intervention and its application in the foreign language classroom, in particular with reference to teaching grammar structures. The first four chapters, which are theoretical in nature, address such concepts as form-focused instruction, language learning strategies and strategies-based instruction. The last chapter provides insight into the results of a study investigating the grammar learning strategies employed by advanced learners of English. Additionally, the chapter presents the views of foreign language teachers on the idea of introducing strategy training in the foreign language classroom. The book closes with the discussion concerning the implementation of strategy training and its value in teaching target language grammar.
This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist's point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e. g. China and India, and developed countries, e. g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
This book casts new light on the work of the German poet Friedrich Hölderlin (1770 - 1843), and his translations of Greek tragedy. It shows Hölderlin's poetry is unique within Western literature (and art) as it retrieves the socio-politics of a Dionysiac space-time and language to challenge the estrangement of humans from nature and one other. In this book, author Lucas Murrey presents a new picture of ancient Greece, noting that money emerged and rapidly developed there in the sixth century B. C. This act of monetization brought with it a concept of tragedy: money-tyrants struggling against the forces of earth and community who succumb to individual isolation, blindness and death. As Murrey points out, Hölderlin (unconsciously) retrieves the battle between money, nature and community and creatively applies its lessons to our time. But Hölderlin's poetry not only adapts tragedy to question the unlimited "machine process" of "a clever race" of money-tyrants. It also draws attention to Greece's warnings about the mortal danger of the eyes in myth, cult and theatre. This monograph thus introduces an urgently needed vision not only of Hölderlin hymns, but also the relevance of disciplines as diverse as Literary Studies, Philosophy, Psychology (Psychoanalysis) as well as Religious and Visual (Media) Studies to our present predicament, where a dangerous visual culture, through its support of the unlimitedness of money, is harming our relation to nature and one another. "Here triumphs a temperament guided by ancient religion and that excavates, in Hölderlin's translations, the central god Dionysus of Greek tragedy. " "Lucas Murrey shares with his subject, Hölderlin, a vision of the Greeks as bringing something vitally important into our poor world, a vision of which few classical scholars are now capable. " --Richard Seaford, author of Money and the Early Greek Mind and Dionysus. "Here triumphs a temperament guided by ancient religion and that excavates, in Hölderlin's translations, the central god Dionysus of Greek tragedy. " --Bernhard Böschenstein, author of "Frucht des Gewitters". Zu Hölderlins Dionysos als Gott der Revolution and Paul Celan: Der Meridian. "Lucas Murrey takes the god of tragedy, Dionysus, finally serious as a manifestation of the ecstatic scream of liberation and visual strategies of dissolution: he pleasantly portrays Hölderlin's idiosyncratic poetic sympathy. " --Anton Bierl, author of Der Chor in der Alten Komödie. Ritual and Performativität "Hölderlin most surely deserved such a book. " --Jean-François Kervégan, author of Que faire de Carl Schmitt? ". . . fascinating material. . . " --Noam Chomsky, author of Media Control and Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe.
Healthcare Changes Reach Main Street: A Call to Action for Physicians provides guidance, examples, and information on processes and time lines for physicians based on the implementation of The Affordable Care Act (ACA) that was established in 2010. This volume focuses on how geriatricians and other healthcare professionals can be engaged in responding to the roll-out of the ACA in their communities, and through this engagement assume leadership roles in local hospitals, healthcare organizations, and medical societies to advance quality improvement and new models of care for older adults. In-depth chapters provide an update on quality improvement efforts at the state level, as well as changes in Medicaid financing and the significant impact this will have for older adults, particularly dual-eligibles. Many elements of the ACA are yet to be rolled out and many healthcare decisions are yet to be made. Healthcare Changes Reach Main Street: A Call to Action for Physicians will guide healthcare decision makers and help them to play a leadership role in advancing quality care for older adults in our changing healthcare environment.
This book develops a philosophico-methodological analysis of prediction and its role in economics. Prediction plays a key role in economics in various ways. It can be seen as a basic science, as an applied science and in the application of this science. First, it is used by economic theory in order to test the available knowledge. In this regard, prediction has been presented as the scientific test for economics as a science. Second, prediction provides a content regarding the possible future that can be used for prescription in applied economics. Thus, it can be used as a guide for economic policy, i. e. , as knowledge concerning the future to be employed for the resolution of specific problems. Third, prediction also has a role in the application of this science in the public arena. This is through the decision-making of the agents -- individuals or organizations -- in quite different settings, both in the realm of microeconomics and macroeconomics. Within this context, the research is organized in five parts, which discuss relevant aspects of the role of prediction in economics: I) The problem of prediction as a test for a science; II) The general orientation in methodology of science and the problem of prediction as a scientific test; III) The methodological framework of social sciences and economics: Incidence for prediction as a test; IV) Epistemology and methodology of economic prediction: Rationality and empirical approaches and V) Methodological aspects of economic prediction: From description to prescription. Thus, the book is of interest for philosophers and economists as well as policy-makers seeking to ascertain the roots of their performance. The style used lends itself to a wide audience.
This Brief defines reliable correlations between the food packaging design and its chemical features in terms of an 'integrated food product' (the synergistic union composed of the edible content and its container). A good design, as described in this Brief, implies the best choices from a series of possibilities, taking into account economical and commercial influences or limitations in the production and processing chain and the chemical interactions that can arise between the food containers and the contained edible material. This Brief highlights how the different requirements can be combined, while avoiding dangerous food risks originating from the chemical interaction between the container and the product. Different designs are critically analysed with relation to the effect on contained foods. The influences and resulting consequences of different possible food packaging designs are highlighted and discussed in selected case studies for some every-day products (like potato chips).
This book focuses on the role of the psychiatric, medical, nutritional and psychiatric assessment and management of severely ill patients with anorexia nervosa. Leading clinicians and researchers address the essentials of risk assessment, the identification of complications and the monitoring of treatment progress. Location of care and the role of the team are fully addressed, with due consideration of legal and ethical issues. Practical guidelines are included on risk assessment, management of acute and chronic physical problems, feeding during treatment and consent, as outlined in the MARSIPAN (2010) and Junior MARSIPAN (2012) documents. Critical Care for Anorexia Nervosa will be of value for medical and paediatric teams, GPs, psychiatrists and all health-care professionals involved in the treatment of acutely ill patients with anorexia nervosa.
Demands for sustainability policies have set new challenges for business both on the individual firm level and on the level of organized business interests. This edited volume brings together economic, social, environmental, and cultural dimensions of sustainability that comprise different challenges for business processes and activities. The aim is to develop an overarching framework to the study of sustainability and business and to advance an interdisciplinary analytical perspective. The book establishes a balanced account that equally represents business as problem causers as well as problem solvers, and therefore responds to the urgent need to investigate the intersection between sustainability issues and business participation.
This fascinating book written by Ali Sanayei and Otto E. Rössler is not a classic scientific publication, but a vivid dialogue on science, philosophy and the interdisciplinary intersections of science and technology with biographic elements. Chaotic Harmony: A Dialog about Physics, Complexity and Life represents a discussion between Otto Rössler and his colleague and student, focusing on the different areas of science and highlights their mutual relations. The book's concept of interdisciplinary dialogue is unusual nowadays although it has a long tradition in science. It provides insight not only into interesting topics that are often closely linked, but also into the mind of a prominent scientist in the field of physics, chaos and complexity in general. It allows a deep look into the fascinating process of scientific development and discovery and provides a very interesting background of known and unknown facts in the areas of complex processes in physics, cosmology, biology, brains and systems in general. This book will be valuable to all who are interested in science, its evolution and in an unconventional and original look at various issues. Surely it can serve as an inspiration for students, explaining the often overlooked fact that science and philosophy enrich each other.
This book demonstrates the application of Life-cycle Cost Approach (LCCA) in the management of infrastructure and other investment projects in the context of developing countries. The main goal is to identify potential opportunities for the adoption LCCA in developing countries, with the help of case studies and best practices. The editors observe that developing countries are plagued with poor and fluctuating service delivery which affords low or no priority for environmental protection. They seek to instill at the policy-making level an understanding of why life-cycle cost assessment is central to achieving the goals of sustainable development as well as sustainable service delivery and to influence the behavior of sector stakeholders. The editors examine the evolution of LCCA from a project appraisal tool to a more comprehensive method of incorporating sustainable development aspects in a variety of sectors. By providing a compendium of concepts, tools and practical experiences, it seeks to broaden the application of LCCA, which is often limited to specific phases of the life-cycle with little or no weight given to environmental aspects. The aim of the book is to mainstream LCCA into governance processes at institutional levels from local to national, in order to increase the ability and willingness of decision makers - both users and those involved in service planning, budgeting and delivery - to reach better informed and more relevant choices among different types and levels of products and services.
Corporate Criminal Liability is on the rise worldwide: More and more legal systems now include genuinely criminal sanctioning for legal entities. The various regulatory options available to national criminal justice systems, their implications and their constitutional, economic and psychological parameters are key questions addressed in this volume. Specific emphasis is put on procedural questions relating to corporate criminal liability, on alternative sanctions such as blacklisting of corporations, on common corporate crimes and on questions of transnational criminal justice.
This book expands on law-related research by examining the legal aspects of sustainability with a focus on the impact on business strategies. It recognizes that firms must adopt an integrated approach to law and sustainability, considering multiple disciplines and goals, and serve as a forum for bringing together scholarship from fields such as environmental law, energy, government regulation and intellectual property. Firms increasingly have an interest in transitioning to sustainable business practices that take into consideration the fact that global resources are finite and will be increasingly scarce. They acknowledge that current actions have social, economic and environmental consequences and employ options to ensure that future generations have the same options and benefits. Examples of sustainable practices increasingly employed by firms include the institutionalization of "whole life-cycle" analysis in marketing and product design, utilization of sustainable inputs and energy sources, tracking and reporting sustainability performance, attempting the valuation of future generation prosperity and happiness as a discounting mechanism, and integrating sustainability into firm culture and management goals. It is clear that law and regulation have an extremely important role to play in the transition to more sustainable business practices. Broadly stated, law can provide structure for firms responding to forces that pull transition by enabling sustainability leadership and competitive advantage through funding models, intellectual property rights and collaboration means. Additionally, law can work to push transition by compelling firms to act through regulatory structures, accounting and governance mechanisms.
Organisations face many challenges, which induce them to perform better, and thus to establish mature (or excellent) business processes. As they now face globalisation, higher competitiveness, demanding customers, growing IT possibilities, compliancy rules etc. , business process maturity models (BPMMs) have been introduced to help organisations gradually assess and improve their business processes (e. g. CMMI or OMG-BPMM). In fact, there are now so many BPMMs to choose from that organisations risk selecting one that does not fit their needs or one of substandard quality. This book presents a study that distinguishes process management from process orientation so as to arrive at a common understanding. It also includes a classification study to identify the capability areas and maturity types of 69 existing BPMMs, in order to strengthen the basis of available BPMMs. Lastly it presents a selection study to identify criteria for choosing one BPMM from the broad selection, which produced a free online selection tool, BPMM Smart-Selector.
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