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The development of agriculture has often been described as the most important change in all of human history. Volume 2 of The Cambridge World History explores the origins and impact of agriculture and agricultural communities, and also discusses issues associated with pastoralism and hunter-fisher-gatherer economies. To capture the patterns of this key change across the globe, the volume uses an expanded timeframe from 12,000 BCE-500 CE, beginning with the Neolithic and continuing into later periods. Scholars from a range of disciplines, including archaeology, historical linguistics, biology, anthropology, and history, trace common developments in the more complex social structures and cultural forms that agriculture enabled, such as sedentary villages and more elaborate foodways, and then present a series of regional overviews accompanied by detailed case studies from many different parts of the world, including Southwest Asia, South Asia, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and the Pacific, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas, and Europe.
This book addresses the uncertain state of financial literacy among today's college students and examines steps colleges and universities are taking to address this widespread concern. This work introduces a four-fold typology of organizational models for college-based financial education programs and uses these as optics for grouping and presenting case studies. The case studies presented provide a holistic representation of how universities develop, sustain and grow financial education programs. Details on the nature of programs, goals, administrative support, resources, partnerships, scale of operations, program content and delivery, advertising, evaluation, program spinoffs, and much more are captured in this work. In addition to detailed case studies, this book presents general findings on the availability of and delivery modes for college-based financial education. This work has significant utility for universities and colleges seeking to implement new financial education programs, changing existing programs, improving program relevancy or expanding program delivery on campus. It is an important contribution to the experiential understanding on how college students as consumers can acquire financial education as part of their broader college curricula and be able to better manage their financial lives. Included in the coverage: The financial literacy imperative. Program delivery and organizational models in state colle ges and universities. The academic model. The full-fledged money management center. The aspirational/seed program. The branch/interspersed model. As financial literacy is increasingly recognized as a core life skill, it becomes more crucial as a component of higher education. Personal Financial Education in State Colleges and Universities in the U. S. is salient reading for college and university administrators, researchers, social workers and mental health professionals working with college students, policy analysts and faculty from any discipline interested in promoting the financial literacy of their students.
Volume 5 of The Cambridge World History uncovers the cross-cultural exchange and conquest, and the accompanying growth of regional and trans-regional states, religions, and economic systems, during the period 500 to 1500. The volume begins by outlining a series of core issues and processes across the world, including human relations with nature, gender and family, social hierarchies, education, and warfare. Further essays examine maritime and land-based networks of long-distance trade and migration in agricultural and nomadic societies, and the transmission and exchange of cultural forms, scientific knowledge, technologies, and text-based religious systems that accompanied these. The final section surveys the development of centralized regional states and empires in both the eastern and western hemispheres. Together these essays by an international team of leading authors show how processes furthering cultural, commercial, and political integration within and between various regions of the world made this millennium a 'proto-global' era.
This work focuses on a specific aspect of the enforcement of maritime claims, namely judicial sales of ships, a procedure creditors typically resort to in the event of an irreversible default situation. A substantial part of the book approaches the topic from a comparative perspective, the goal being to assess the similarities and differences of the judicial sale procedure between three specific jurisdictions: Belgium, the Netherlands, and England & Wales. In this study, the comparison is used to further analyse the impacts of these differences on the effectiveness and reliability of the judicial sale procedure in each jurisdiction and also forms the basis for assessing the feasibility of harmonising judicial sale procedures and fostering their acceptance. Considering the international character typical of judicial sales of ships, conflict-of-law questions are very likely to arise during these procedures. Accordingly, the comparative study, where appropriate, is viewed against a private international law background.
This book will help post-secondary educators to discover the joys and challenges of implementing theoretically grounded civic engagement projects on their campuses. The essays on civic engagement and public scholarship are written by an interdisciplinary group of community college faculty who have designed and implemented civic engagement projects in their classrooms. The projects they describe stand at the intersection of research, theory and pedagogy. They challenge dominant constructions of civic engagement as students bring their community, culture and history into the classroom. The authors consider the particular complexities and constraints of doing civically engaged teaching and scholarship at the community college level and situate their projects within current theoretical debates about civic engagement, public scholarship, and public higher education.
Much of what is considered conventional wisdom about succession is not as clear cut as it is generally believed. Yet, the importance of succession in ecology is undisputed since it offers a real insight into the dynamics and structure of all plant communities. Part monograph and part conceptual treatise, An Integrative Approach to Successional Dynamics presents a unifying conceptual framework for dynamic plant communities and uses a unique long-term data set to explore the utility of that framework. The fourteen chapters, each written in a nontechnical style and accompanied by numerous illustrations and examples, cover diverse aspects of succession, including: community, population and disturbance dynamics, diversity, community assembly, heterogeneity, functional ecology and biological invasion. This unique text will be a great source of reference for researchers and graduate students in ecology and plant biology and others with an interest in the subject.
No other hospital department cares for patients as diverse as those who come to the Emergency Department (ED). These patients encompass all stages and positions of life and health. Many belong to distinct minority cultures defined by the patient's sexual orientation and gender identity, disability, spirituality, language, race, and ethnicity. It has been well documented that minorities experience inadequate emergency treatment and face poorer healthcare outcomes. Furthermore, research has established that the elderly, ethnic minorities, the poor, and persons with Medicaid coverage are more likely than other people to utilize the emergency department rather than primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, particularly the Medicaid expansion, EDs across the United States are poised to care for an unprecedented number of underserved minorities. The need to equip emergency healthcare professionals to practice medicine that is culturally competent in the broadest possible sense has never been greater. Diversity and Inclusion in Quality Patient Care aims to fill this need.
Bilingualism has given rise to significant changes in Spanish-speaking countries. In the US, the increasing importance of Spanish has engendered an English-only movement; in Peru, contact between Spanish and Quechua has brought about language change; and in Iberia, speakers of Basque, Galician and Catalan have made their languages a compulsory part of school curricula and local government. This book provides an introduction to bilingualism in the Spanish-speaking world, looking at topics such as language contact, bilingual societies, bilingualism in schools, code-switching, language transfer, the emergence of new varieties of Spanish, and language choice - and how all of these phenomena affect the linguistic and cognitive development of the speaker. Using examples and case studies drawn primarily from Spanish/English bilinguals in the US, Spanish/Quechua bilinguals in Peru and Spanish/Basque bilinguals in Spain, it provides diverse perspectives on the experience of being bilingual in distinct cultural, political and socioeconomic contexts.
The main benefit of the book is that it explores available methodologies for both conducting in-situ measurements and adequately exploring the results, based on a case study that illustrates the benefits and difficulties of concurrent methodologies. The case study corresponds to a set of 25 social housing dwellings where an extensive in situ measurement campaign was conducted. The dwellings are located in the same quarter of a city. Measurements included indoor temperature and relative humidity, with continuous log in different rooms of each dwelling, blower-door tests and complete outdoor conditions provided by a nearby weather station. The book includes a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines, such as building physics, probability and statistics and civil engineering. It presents a synthesis of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional engineers and scientists.
This book links knowledge management literature and information systems research to explore the process of knowledge preservation within a community of practice. It contributes to existing literature in different ways. First, it provides a conceptualization of the "community knowledge preservation" process. In contrast to previous knowledge management research, knowledge preservation is thus viewed as a process in its own right rather than an integral part of knowledge creation and sharing. Furthermore, the book also investigates how communities of practice preserve knowledge, by identifying the main mechanisms and tools enabling members to select, store and actualize the explicit and tacit forms of collective knowledge. More in general, the book presents guidance on how to use communities of practice to ensure the preservation of knowledge in development processes, for individuals and organizations alike.
The book shows that self-help in commercial law is a fast, inexpensive and efficient alternative to court enforcement. Self-help remedies and private debt collection are largely but not exclusively features of common law jurisdictions, since remnants of private enforcement can still be found in contract law in civilian systems. The book argues that - despite their usefulness - self-help and private debt collection entail significant risks, especially for consumer debtors. This means that private enforcement needs to be accompanied by the introduction of tailor-made consumer-debtor protection regulation. Specific attention is given to factoring, which functions in many instances as a form of pseudo-private debt collection and which has been exploited to bypass sector-specific consumer protection regulations.
This unique resource provides findings and insights regarding the multiple impacts of military duty on service members and veterans, specifically from a family standpoint. Broad areas of coverage include marital and family relationships, parenting issues, family effects of war injuries, and family concerns of single service members. The book's diverse contents highlight understudied populations and topics gaining wider interest while examining the immediate and long-term impact of service on family functioning. In addition to raising awareness of issues, chapters point to potential solutions including science-based pre- and post-deployment programs, more responsive training for practitioners, and more focused research and policy directions. Among the topics covered: * Deployment and divorce: an in-depth analysis by relevant demographic and military characteristics. * Military couples and posttraumatic stress: interpersonally based behaviors and cognitions as mechanisms of individual and couple distress. * Warfare and parent care: armed conflict and the social logic of child and national protection. * Understanding the experiences of women and LGBT veterans in Department of Veterans Affairs care. * Risk and resilience factors in combat military health care providers. * Tangible, instrumental, and emotional support among homeless veterans. War and Family Life offers up-to-date understanding for mental health professionals who serve military families, both in the U. S. and abroad.
Physical examination is a key element of clinical diagnosis in surgical practice, as well as an essential skill in postgraduate professional entry and exit examinations. With its 'at-a-glance' algorithms, mind maps, and exam-style questions and answers, Physical Examination for Surgeons provides a concise yet authoritative guide to examination technique and differential diagnosis. Written by a team of senior surgical registrars and consultant surgeons, experienced postgraduate examiners and leading international experts, it provides a comprehensive and definitive answer to the challenges of the MRCS exam on physical examination. All surgical specialties are covered, including neurosurgery, ENT, gynaecology and transplant. It is a high-yield revision aid for the Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons exam, as well as a valuable reference for the Fellowship exam (FRCS) and beyond. Of interest to trainee and practising surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, medical students and clinical nurse specialists and military healthcare practitioners.
This book introduces a new way of analyzing, measuring and thinking about mega-risks, a "paradigm shift" that moves from single-solutions to multiple competitive solutions and strategies. "Robust simulation" is a statistical approach that demonstrates future risk through simulation of a suite of possible answers. To arrive at this point, the book systematically walks through the historical statistical methods for evaluating risks. The first chapters deal with three theories of probability and statistics that have been dominant in the 20th century, along with key mathematical issues and dilemmas. The book then introduces "robust simulation" which solves the problem of measuring the stability of simulated losses, incorporates outliers, and simulates future risk through a suite of possible answers and stochastic modeling of unknown variables. This book discusses various analytical methods for utilizing divergent solutions in making pragmatic financial and risk-mitigation decisions. The book emphasizes the importance of flexibility and attempts to demonstrate that alternative credible approaches are helpful and required in understanding a great many phenomena.
Sergio Fabbrini argues that the European Union (EU) is made up of states pursuing different aims, rather than simply moving in the same direction at different speeds. He describes the alternative perspectives on the EU (an economic community, an intergovernmental union, and a parliamentary union), that led to multiple compromises in its structure and shows how the Euro crisis has called them into question. The book argues that a new European political order is necessary to deal with the consequences of the crisis, based on an institutional differentiation between the EU member states interested only in market co-operation and those advancing towards a genuine economic and monetary union. Such a differentiation would allow the latter group to become a political union, conceptualised as a compound union of states and citizens, while preserving a revised framework of a single market in which both groups of states can participate.
This book provides an overview of microgravity-induced changes in human metabolism, muscle, bone and the cardio-vascular system, and discusses in detail the nutrient uptake required during spaceflight to counteract these adaptive mechanisms and ensure an improved physical constitution upon returning to Earth. It addresses the needs of professors, researchers and students working in the field of human physiology and nutrition.
Charles Ferrall and Dougal McNeill's book analyses the vast literary response to the 1926 General Strike . The Strike not only drew writers into political action but inspired literature that served to shape twentieth-century British views of class, culture and politics. While major figures active at the time wrote on or responded to this crucial moment, this is the first volume to address their respective works. Ferrall and McNeill show how novels then in progress, such as Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse and D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, were affected by the Strike as well as the ways in which it has been remembered from the 1930s to the present. Their study sheds new light on the relationship between politics and literature of the modernist era.
The economic, political and social situation in Chile shows a country in transition. Some observers anticipate a broad "reboot" of the nation. While Chile is still seen by many as an example of progress in South America and of developmental potential in the global South, it faces a complex political constellation, particularly in the aftermath of the re-election of Michelle Bachelet. Many wonder how social and institutional innovations can be incepted without interrupting the country's remarkable success over the past decades. This book provides an interdisciplinary analysis of Chile's situation and perspectives. In particular, it addresses the questions: What is Chile's real socio-political situation behind the curtains, irrespective of simplifications? What are the nation's main opportunities and problems? What future strategies will be concretely applicable to improve social balance and mitigate ideological divisions? The result is a provocative examination of a nation in search of identity and its role on the global stage. Roland Benedikter, Dr. Dr. Dr. , is Research Scholar at the Orfalea Center for Global and International Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, Senior Research Scholar of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs Washington D. C. , Trustee of the Toynbee Prize Foundation Boston and Full Member of the Club of Rome. Katja Siepmann, MA, is Senior Research Fellow of the Counc il on Hemispheric Affairs Washington D. C. , Member of the German Council on Foreign Relations, and Lecturer at the Faculty of Interdisciplinary Cultural Sciences of the European University Frankfurt/Oder. The volume features a Foreword by Ned Strong, Executive Director of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard University, and a Preface by Larry Birns, Director of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs, Washington D. C. , and Former Senior Public Affairs Officer of the United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin America (Santiago, Chile).
Why should anyone be a Zionist, a supporter of a Jewish state in the land of Israel? Why should there be a Jewish state in the land of Israel? This book seeks to provide a philosophical answer to these questions. Although a Zionist need not be Jewish, nonetheless this book argues that Zionism is only a coherent political stance when it is intelligently rooted in Judaism, especially in the classical Jewish doctrine of God's election of the people of Israel and the commandment to them to settle the land of Israel. The religious Zionism advocated here is contrasted with secular versions of Zionism that take Zionism to be a replacement of Judaism. It is also contrasted with versions of religious Zionism that ascribe messianic significance to the State of Israel, or which see the main task of religious Zionism to be the establishment of an Israeli theocracy.
This book focuses on the interface of work and personal life of international professionals. The globalization of business has led to an increasing number of people who work in international roles either through working abroad on different kinds of assignments or through international travelling. This book provides novel knowledge on the topic from different perspectives, highlighting not only the inherent challenges but also the positive side of working in a modern globalized world. Moreover, the book contributes by bringing together international professionals' own experiences, family members' experiences, organizational aspects and new theoretical discussions and models. The book covers several different perspectives on the work and personal life interface offering insights on the areas like adjustment, social support, dual-career issues and organizational practices. The book examines the situations of several different types of international employee such as organizational expatriates, self-initiated expatriates and international business travellers. The new interesting research evidence is provided from various country contexts from North America, Europe and Asia by researchers around the world.
Charles Dickens is famous for his deathbed scenes, but these have rarely been examined within the context of his ambivalence towards the Victorian commodification of death. Dickens repeatedly criticised ostentatious funeral and mourning customs, and asserted the harmful consequences of treating the corpse as an object of speculation rather than sympathy. At the same time, he was fascinated by those who made a living from death and recognised that his authorial profits implicated him in the same trade. This book explores how Dickens turned mortality into the stuff of life and art as he navigated a thriving culture of death-based consumption. It surveys the diverse ways in which death became a business, from body-snatching, undertaking, and joint-stock cemetery companies, to the telling and selling of stories. This broad study offers fresh perspectives on death in The Old Curiosity Shop and Our Mutual Friend, and discusses lesser-known works and textual illustrations.
The respiratory tract is a frequent target of infections caused by a wide range of organisms. The book provides reader-friendly information on aspects of pulmonary infections, including comprehensive accounts of bacterial and viral diseases, therapeutic approaches, molecular and classical culture-related techniques of diagnosis and explaining the basic cell biological mechanism. The role of oxidative stress, both helpful in fighting invading pathogens and detrimental in yielding to infection is detailed as it is often undervalued and needs focus. The chapters encompass latest developments and applications in bacteriology and virology, preventive and therapeutic tips, and raise attention to implementation of proper antibiotic policies by medical institutions to decrease resistance to antimicrobials. The perennial problem of low influenza vaccination coverage rate is rationalized. The volume will be of interest to both clinicians and biomedical researchers engaged in this exciting field.
This book presents the results of the longitudinal 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. The volume discusses how self-regulation and contextual resources (e. g. , strong relationships with parents, peers, and the community) can be fostered in young people to contribute to the enhancement of functioning throughout life. Each chapter examines a particular aspect of youth thriving, and offers findings on either the bases or the role of positive development in a variety of outcomes, from reduced risk of emotional problems and harmful behaviors to increased participation in the community. Contributors introduce a contemporary model of positive development for diverse youth, provide examples of effective youth development programs, and suggest applications for informing the next generation of policies and practices. Among the featured topics: The regulation of emotion in adolescence. School engagement, academic achievement, and positive youth development. Peer relationships and positive youth development. Identity development in adolescence and the implications for youth policy and practice. Promoting adolescent sexual health in youth programming. A positive youth development approach to bullying. Researchers in developmental psychology as well as practitioners in educational or youth development programs or policies will gain from Promoting Positive Youth Development a new appreciation of the central role of young people's strengths, and initiatives to build effective youth programs. "This volume is destined to become the handbook for anyone interested in the bourgeoning field of positive youth development. Based on ground breaking, longitudinal research from top researchers in the field, Promoting Healthy Development for America's Youth presents a rich, theoretically grounded understanding of the landscape today's youth and programs. The contributors provide clear, data-driven guidance regarding the types of programs and settings that are most beneficial to young people. " Jean E. Rhodes, Ph. D. Frank L. Boyden Professor Department of Psychology University of Massachusetts, Boston
This book examines competition and collaboration among Western powers, the socialist bloc, and the Third World for control over humanitarian aid programs during the Cold War. Young-sun Hong's analysis reevaluates the established parameters of German history. On the one hand, global humanitarian efforts functioned as an arena for a three-way political power struggle. On the other, they gave rise to transnational spaces that allowed for multidimensional social and cultural encounters. Hong paints an unexpected view of the global humanitarian regime: Algerian insurgents flown to East Germany for medical care, barefoot Chinese doctors in Tanzania, and West and East German doctors working together in the Congo. She also provides a rich analysis of the experiences of African trainees and Asian nurses in the two Germanys. This book brings an urgently needed historical perspective to contemporary debates on global governance, which largely concern humanitarianism, global health, south-north relationships, and global migration.
Fifty years after the adoption of the Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources by the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 1962, this volume assesses the evolution of the principle of permanent sovereignty over natural resources into a principle of customary international law as well as related developments. International environmental and human rights law leave unresolved questions regarding the limitations of this principle, e. g. extraterritorial and international influences such as the applicable criminal and tort law, as well as the extraterritorial and international promotion of good governance, including transparency obligations.
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