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Quantum physics, which offers an explanation of the world on the smallest scale, has fundamental implications that pose a serious challenge to ordinary logic. Particularly counterintuitive is the notion of entanglement, which has been explored for the past 30 years and posits an ubiquitous randomness capable of manifesting itself simultaneously in more than one place. This amazing 'non-locality' is more than just an abstract curiosity or paradox: it has entirely down-to-earth applications in cryptography, serving for example to protect financial information; it also has enabled the demonstration of 'quantum teleportation', whose infinite possibilities even science-fiction writers can scarcely imagine. This delightful and concise exposition does not avoid the deep logical difficulties of quantum physics, but gives the reader the insights needed to appreciate them. From 'Bell's Theorem' to experiments in quantum entanglement, the reader will gain a solid understanding of one of the most fascinating areas of contemporary physics.
The manuscript sources of medieval song rarely fit the description of 'songbook' easily. Instead, they are very often mixed compilations that place songs alongside other diverse contents, and the songs themselves may be inscribed as texts alone or as verbal and musical notation. This book looks afresh at these manuscripts through ten case studies, representing key sources in Latin, French, German, and English from across Europe during the Middle Ages. Each chapter is authored by a leading expert and treats a case study in detail, including a listing of the manuscript's overall contents, a summary of its treatment in scholarship, and up-to-date bibliographical references. Drawing on recent scholarly methodologies, the contributors uncover what these books and the songs within them meant to their medieval audience and reveal a wealth of new information about the original contexts of songs both in performance and as committed to parchment.
This book explores the view that normative behaviour is part of a complex of social mechanisms, processes and narratives that are constantly shifting. From this perspective, norms are not a kind of self-contained social object or fact, but rather an interplay of many things that we label as norms when we 'take a snapshot' of them at a particular instant. Further, this book pursues the hypothesis that considering the dynamic aspects of these phenomena sheds new light on them. The sort of issues that this perspective opens to exploration include: Of what is this complex we call a "social norm" composed of? How do new social norms emerge and what kind of circumstances might facilitate such an appearance? How context-specific are the norms and patterns of normative behaviour that arise? How do the cognitive and the social aspects of norms interact over time? How do expectations, beliefs and individual rationality interact with social norm complexes to effect behaviour? How does our social embeddedness relate to social constraint upon behaviour? How might the socio-cognitive complexes that we call norms be usefully researched?
The Berliner Ensemble was founded by Bertolt Brecht and his wife Helene Weigel in 1949. The company soon gained international prominence, and its productions and philosophy influenced the work of theatre-makers around the world. David Barnett's book is the first study of the company in any language. Based on extensive archival research, it uncovers Brecht's working methods and those of the company's most important directors after his death. The book considers the boon and burden of Brecht's legacy and provides new insights into battles waged behind the scenes for the preservation of the Brechtian tradition. The Berliner Ensemble was also the German Democratic Republic's most prestigious cultural export, attracting attention from the highest circles of government, and from the Stasi, before it privatised itself after German reunification in 1990. Barnett pieces together a complex history that sheds light on both the company's groundbreaking productions and their turbulent times.
This book focuses on a central concept that "Theory is History", as the theory of capitalism can only be formulated on the basis of an analysis of its history. In contrast, bourgeois thinking replaces the analysis of historical capitalism with an abstract theory without any links to reality. "Economics", which is the theory of an imaginary system, then becomes an apologia intended to give legitimacy to the behaviour of the owners of capital. The author pays special attention to the globalization of the law of value. The individual chapters illustrate the author's thesis by focusing on the links between capital and land ownership, between modernity and religious interpretation, and on questions of the global expansion of capitalism, particularly the ways it has evolved in certain countries, in this case Russia and China. This anthology supplements the author's previous work, centred on the rise of the South--his reading of capitalism focusing on its imperialist nature.
This work investigates the time series properties of the unemployment rate of the Spanish regions over the period 1976-2011. For that purpose, the authors employ the PANIC procedures of Bai and Ng (2004), which allows to decompose the observed unemployment rate series into common factor and idiosyncratic components. This enables the authors to identify the exact source behind the hysteretic behaviour found in Spanish regional unemployment. Overall, the analysis with three different proxies for the excess of labour supply renders strong support for the hysteresis hypothesis, which appears to be caused by a common stochastic trend driving all the regional unemployment series. In the second part of the analysis the authors try to determine the macroeconomic and institutional factors that are able to explain the time series evolution of the common factor, and in turn help us shed light on the ultimate sources of hysteresis. The reader shall see how the variables that the empirical analysis emphasises as relevant closely fit into the main causes of the Spanish unemployment behaviour. Finally, some policy considerations drawn from the results are presented.
This work provides clear application of a new statistical modeling technique that can be used to recognize patterns in victimization and prevent repeat victimization. The history of crime prevention techniques range from offender-based, to environment/situation-based, to victim-based. The authors of this work have found more accurate ways to predict and prevent victimization using a statistical modeling, based around crime concentration and sub-group profiling with regard to crime vulnerability levels, to predict areas and individuals vulnerable to crime. Following from this prediction, they propose policing strategies to improve crime prevention based on these predictions. With a combination of immediate actions and longer-term research recommendations, this work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers in focused on crime prevention, police studies, victimology and statistical applications.
The authors address in particular the role of hormones and their links with other maternal environmental mediators in developmental programming. The crucial nature of the placenta as an interface and target between maternal and foetal environments is addressed. Emphasis is made on the emerging science of epigenetics as a potential explanation for how environmental events that occur during brief windows of development may exert effects that impact upon somatic cells through many rounds of mitosis for much of the life span of the subsequent organism.
This book deals with the development of so-called fourth generation mobile communications or 4G. It covers all aspects of the technology in a form comprehensible to the general reader, a history of its implementation on a worldwide basis and information on how it will be used to improve business transactions. It is up-to-date, comprehensive, and is based upon information acquired from well over one thousand individual sources. All of the data are set up in a manner that simplifies comparisons between countries and service providers. Based on the extensive analysis of the different contexts and progress of 4G technology, future prospects for high-speed mobile communications are also presented.
This book offers new reflections on the life world, from both phenomenological and hermeneutic perspectives. It presents a prism for a new philosophy of science and technology, especially including the social sciences but also the environment as well as questions of ethics and philosophical aesthetics in addition to exploring the themes of theology and religion. Inspired by the many contributions made by the philosopher Joseph Kockelmans, this book examines the past, present and future prospects of hermeneutic phenomenology. It raises key questions of truth and method as well as highlights both continental and analytic traditions of philosophy. Contributors to The Multidimensionality of Hermeneutic Phenomenology include leading scholars in the field as well as new voices representing analytic philosophers of science, hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophers of science, scholars of comparative literature, theorists of environmental studies, specialists in phenomenological ethics and experts in classical hermeneutics.
This reader remains the only major new reader of Old English prose and verse in the past forty years. The second edition is extensively revised throughout, with the addition of a new 'Beginning Old English' section for newcomers to the Old English language, along with a new extract from Beowulf. The fifty-seven individual texts include established favourites such as The Battle of Maldon and Wulfstan's Sermon of the Wolf, as well as others not otherwise readily available, such as an extract from Apollonius of Tyre. Modern English glosses for every prose-passage and poem are provided on the same page as the text, along with extensive notes. A succinct reference grammar is appended, along with guides to pronunciation and to grammatical terminology. A comprehensive glossary lists and analyses all the Old English words that occur in the book. Headnotes to each of the six text sections, and to every individual text, establish their literary and historical contexts, and illustrate the rich cultural variety of Anglo-Saxon England. This second edition is an accessible and scholarly introduction to Old English.
China's Civil War is the first book of its kind to offer a social history in English of the Civil War in 1945-9 that brought the Chinese Communist Party to power. Integrating history and memory, it surveys a period of intense upheaval and chaos to show how the Communist Party and its armies succeeded in overthrowing the Nationalist government to bring political and social revolution to China. Drawing from a collection of biographies, memoirs, illustrations and oral histories, Diana Lary gives a voice to those who experienced the war first-hand, exemplifying the direct effects of warfare - the separations and divisions, the exiles and losses, and the social upheaval that resulted from the conflict. Lary explores the long-term impact on Chinese societies on the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong, which have all diverged far from pre-war Chinese society.
This book analyses the legal aspects of international claims by indigenous peoples for the repatriation of their cultural property, and explores what legal norms and normative orders would be appropriate for resolving these claims. To establish context, the book first provides insights into the exceptional legislative responses to the cultural property claims of Native American tribes in the United States and looks at the possible relevance of this national law on the international level. It then shifts to the multinational setting by using the method of legal pluralism and takes into consideration international human rights law, international cultural heritage law, the applicable national laws in the United Kingdom, France and Switzerland, transnational law such as museum codes, and decision-making in extra-legal procedures. In the process, the book reveals the limits of the law in dealing with the growing imperative of human rights in the field, and concludes with three basic insights that are of key relevance for improving the law and decision-making with regard to indigenous peoples' cultural property.
This book is about how students are taught the periodic table. It reviews aspects of the periodic table's development, using the history and philosophy of science. The teaching method presented in this book is ideal for teaching the subject in high school and at introductory university level. Chemistry students taught in this new, experimental way are compared with those taught in the traditional way and the author describes how tests found more conceptual responses from the experimental group than the control group. The historical aspects of importance to this teaching method are: the role of the Karlsruhe Congress of 1860; the accommodation of the chemical elements in the periodic table; prediction of elements that were discovered later; corrections of atomic weights; periodicity in the periodic table as a function of the atomic theory; and the accommodation of argon. The experimental group of students participated in various activities, including: discussion of various aspects related to the history and philosophy of science; construction of concept maps and their evaluation by the students; PowerPoint presentations; and interviews with volunteer students.
The year is 2035, and the crew from the first expedition to Mars is returning to Earth. The crewmembers are anxious to get home, and ennui pervades the ship. The mood is broken by a series of mysterious events that jeopardize their safety. Someone or something is threatening the crew. Is it an alien being? A psychotic crewmember? A malfunctioning computer? The truth raises questions about the crewmembers' fate and that of the human race. In this novel, the intent is to show real psychological issues that could affect a crew returning from a long-duration mission to Mars. The storyline presents a mystery that keeps the reader guessing, yet the issues at stake are based on the findings from the author's research and other space-related work over the past 40+ years. The novel touches on actual plans being discussed for such an expedition as well as notions involving the search for Martian life and panspermia. The underlying science, in particular the psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal elements, are introduced and discussed by the author in an extensive appendix.
This book is both a repertory guide to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention) as well as a legal analysis of the provisions of the treaty. It traces action taken by the ICAO Assembly and the Council in the implementation of the Convention from the first ICAO Assembly in 1947 until 2012. Above all, the book offers a commentary on the functional and moral fabric of the Chicago Convention, which is not only a multilateral legal instrument that sets out basic principles of air navigation and air transport, but also serves as a moral compass that brings the people of the world together. The teleological nature of the Chicago Convention is reflected from the outset - from its Preamble which sets the tone and philosophy of the Convention - that aviation builds friendship and understanding among all people, to its technical provisions that range from rules of the air to landing at airports and customs and immigration procedures. The book effectively demonstrates the Aristotelian principle - that rules make people good by forming habits in them. Standardization, or in other words, compliance, is the driver of the Convention that keeps aviation safe, regular, efficient and economical. To that end, this book traces and details the sustained relevance of the Chicago Convention and the efforts of ICAO and the international aviation community towards keeping air transport on track and ready for its future exponential growth, both in letter and in spirit.
Plato often rejects hedonism, but in the Protagoras, Plato's Socrates seems to endorse hedonism. In this book, J. Clerk Shaw removes this apparent tension by arguing that the Protagoras as a whole actually reflects Plato's anti-hedonism. He shows that Plato places hedonism at the core of a complex of popular mistakes about value and especially about virtue: that injustice can be prudent, that wisdom is weak, that courage is the capacity to persevere through fear, and that virtue cannot be taught. The masses reproduce this system of values through shame and fear of punishment. The Protagoras and other dialogues depict sophists and orators who have internalized popular morality through shame, but who are also ashamed to state their views openly. Shaw's reading not only reconciles the Protagoras with Plato's other dialogues, but harmonizes it with them and even illuminates Plato's wider anti-hedonism.
Privilege has long been understood as the constitutional basis of Ancien Regime France, legalising the provision of a variety of rights, powers and exemptions to some, whilst denying them to others. In this fascinating new study however, Jeff Horn reveals that Bourbon officials utilized privilege as an instrument of economic development, freeing some sectors of the economy from pre-existing privileges and regulations, while protecting others. He explores both government policies and the innovations of entrepreneurs, workers, inventors and customers to uncover the lived experience of economic development from the Fronde to the Restoration. He shows how, influenced by Enlightenment thought, the regime increasingly resorted to concepts of liberty to defend privilege as a policy tool. The book offers important new insights into debates about the impact of privilege on early industrialisation, comparative economic development and the outbreak of the French Revolution. "
This brief systematically examines the trackback problem and its interaction with low-latency anonymous communication. First, it provides an overview of the common techniques a network-based attack may use to hide its origin and identity. Then the authors explore the MIX-based anonymity and the building blocks of low-latency anonymous communication. Later chapters offer a comprehensive study of the timing attacks on low-latency anonymous communication, and analyze the fundamental limitations of low-latency anonymous communication from the perspective of timing-based covert channel. Suitable for professionals and researchers, Traceback and Anonymity is a close look at a key aspect of cyber security studies. Advanced-level students interested in cyber security techniques or networking will also find the content valuable.
This Companion offers fresh insight into the art and politics of James Baldwin, one of the most important writers and provocative cultural critics of the twentieth century. Black, gay, and gifted, he was hailed as a 'spokesman for the race', although he personally, and controversially, eschewed titles and classifications of all kinds. Individual essays examine his classic novels and nonfiction as well as his work across lesser-examined domains: poetry, music, theatre, sermon, photo-text, children's literature, public media, comedy, and artistic collaboration. In doing so, The Cambridge Companion to James Baldwin captures the power and influence of his work during the civil rights era as well as his relevance in the 'post-race' transnational twenty-first century, when his prescient questioning of the boundaries of race, sex, love, leadership, and country assume new urgency.
This SpringerBrief explores the evacuation characteristics of children and their self-preservation capability during fire situations. An international survey among teachers from day-care centers and experts in child development indicates an age-limit at which pre-school children may be considered capable of evacuating a location without direct intervention by an instructor. The survey examines the ability of children to understand and follow simple instructions, walk on horizontal surfaces without physical support, and walk down stairs. It also studies how fire safety installations and fire drills differ between countries. A literature review and a presentation of the method applied are included. This data can be applied to evacuation procedures, building codes, and fire regulations. Determining Self-Preservation Capability in Pre-School Children is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation safety issues and developing methods removing potential hazards. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.
Contrary to popular assumption, the development of stronger oversight mechanisms actually leads to greater secrecy rather than the reverse. When Should State Secrets Stay Secret? examines modern trends in intelligence oversight development by focusing on how American oversight mechanisms combine to bolster an internal security system and thus increase the secrecy of the intelligence enterprise. Genevieve Lester uniquely examines how these oversight mechanisms have developed within all three branches of government, how they interact, and what types of historical pivot points have driven change among them. She disaggregates the concept of accountability into a series of specified criteria in order to grapple with these pivot points. This book concludes with a discussion of a series of normative questions, suggesting ways to improve oversight mechanisms based on the analytical criteria laid out in the analysis. It also includes a chapter on the workings of the CIA to which a number of CIA officers contributed.
Appointment Planning in Outpatient Clinics and Diagnostic Facilities provides a concise overview of the medical and mathematical aspects of appointment planning in healthcare. This SpringerBrief specifically focuses on outpatient clinics and diagnostic facilities. It begins by introducing the topic from a medical perspective, discussing the kinds of clinics and facilities that are out there, while exploring the appointment systems they use and the problems they face. Next, the mathematical aspects of appointment planning are examined, including Markov decision modelling, queueing theory, etc. Subsequently the book addresses implementation issues that may arise, whether they be technical, medical or cultural. Finally Appointment Planning in Outpatient Clinics and Diagnostic Facilities provides an outlook on the appointment systems of the future and what they will require as a consequence of current and future developments in the medical sector.
This book explores how medieval and modern Muslim religious scholars ('ulamā') interpret gender roles in Qur'ānic verses on legal testimony, marriage, and human creation. Citing these verses, medieval scholars developed increasingly complex laws and interpretations upholding a male-dominated gender hierarchy; aspects of their interpretations influence religious norms and state laws in Muslim-majority countries today, yet other aspects have been discarded entirely. Karen Bauer traces the evolution of their interpretations, showing how they have been adopted, adapted, rejected, or replaced over time, by comparing the Qur'ān with a wide range of Qur'ānic commentaries and interviews with prominent religious scholars from Iran and Syria. At times, tradition is modified in unexpected ways: learned women argue against gender equality, or Grand Ayatollahs reject sayings of the Prophet, citing science instead. This innovative and engaging study highlights the effects of social and intellectual contexts on the formation of tradition, and on modern responses to it.
This one-of-a-kind short book walks you through creating fantastic entertainment apps for one of the newest Android platforms. Android TV Apps Development: Building Media and Games will demystify some of the newest APIs and present the tools necessary for building applications that run on Android TV. Walking through example applications, you will learn the vocabulary necessary to solve real-world problems and how to present your content on the television through Android. In addition to practical code examples, you will learn about various design considerations that will make using your apps an enjoyable experience for users. What you'll learn How to design for Android TV How to create a media app for Android TV What are the game design/development considerations for Android TV How to distribute Android TV apps Who this book is for Developers with some experience with Android development who are interested in building applications for the Android TV platform. Table of Contents 1. Android TV Fundamentals 2. Designing for TV 3. Creating a Media Application 4. Enriching Your Media Apps 5. The Android TV Platform for Game Development 6. Android TV App Publishing
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