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This advanced textbook aims at providing a simple but fully operational introduction to applied general equilibrium. General equilibrium is the backbone of modern economic analysis and as such generation after generation of economics students are introduced to it. As an analytical tool in economics, general equilibrium provides one of the most complete views of an economy since it incorporates all economic agents (households, firms, government, foreign sector) in an integrated way that is compatible with microtheory and microdata. The integration of theory and data handling is required for successful modeling but it requires a double ability that is not found in standard books. With this book we aim at filling the gap and provide advanced students with the required tools, from the building of consistent and applicable general equilibrium models to the interpretation of the results that ensue from the adoption of policies. The topics include: model design, model development, computer code examples, calibration and data adjustments, practical policy examples.
Volume 2 uses the economic and legal concepts/theories of Volume 1 to (1) analyze the U. S. and E. U. antitrust legality of mergers, joint ventures, and the pricing-technique and contractual/sales-policy distributor-control surrogates for vertical integration and (2) assess related positions of scholars and U. S. and E. U. antitrust officials. Its analysis of horizontal mergers (1) delineates non-market-oriented protocols for determining whether they manifest specific anticompetitive intent, would lessen competition, or are rendered lawful by the efficiencies they would generate, (2) criticizes the U. S. courts' traditional market-share/market-concentration protocol, the HHI-oriented protocols of the 1992 U. S. DOJ/FTC Guidelines and the European Commission (EC) Guidelines, and the various non-market-oriented protocols the DOJ/FTC have increasingly been using, (3) argues that, although the 2010 U. S. Guidelines and DOJ/FTC officials discuss market definition as if it matters, those Guidelines actually reject market-oriented approaches, and (4) reviews the relevant U. S. and E. U. case-law. Its analysis of conglomerate mergers (1) shows that they can perform the same legitimate and competition-increasing functions as horizontal mergers and can yield illegitimate profits and lessen competition by increasing contrived oligopolistic pricing and retaliation barriers to investment, (2) analyzes the determinants of all these effects, and (3) assesses limit-price theory, the toe-hold-merger doctrine, and U. S. and E. U. case-law. Its analysis of vertical conduct (1) examines the legitimate functions of each type of such conduct, (2) delineates the conditions under which each manifests specific anticompetitive intent and/or lessens competition, and (3) assesses related U. S. and E. U. case-law and DOJ/FTC and EC positions. Its analysis of joint ventures (1) explains that they violate U. S. law only when they manifest specific anticompetitive intent while they violate E. U. law either for this reason or because they lessen competition, (2) discusses the meaning of an "ancillary restraint" and demonstrates that whether a joint-venture agreement would be illegal if it imposed no restraints and whether any restraints imposed are ancillary can be determined only through case-by-case analysis, (3) explains why scholars and officials overestimate the economic efficiency of R&D joint ventures, and (4) discusses related U. S. and E. U. case-law and DOJ/FTC and EC positions The study's Conclusion (1) reviews how its analyses justify its innovative conceptual systems and (2) compares U. S. and E. U. antitrust law as written and as applied.
The future of agriculture strongly depends on our ability to enhance productivity without sacrificing long-term production potential. An ecologically and economically sustainable strategy is the application of microorganisms, such as the diverse bacterial species of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). The use of these bio-resources for the enhancement of crop productivity is gaining worldwide importance. "Bacteria in Agrobiology: Stress Management" covers the major aspects on PGPR in amelioration of both abiotic and biotic stresses. PGPR mediated in priming of plant defense reactions, nutrient availability and management in saline and cold environment, hormonal signaling, ACC deaminase and its role in ethylene regulation under harsh conditions are suitably described.
The third volume of the European Yearbook of International Economic law focuses on two major topics of current academic and political interest. Firstly, it adresses the 10th anniversary of China's accession to the WTO and its implications; secondly, it deals with different legal aspects of global energy markets.
This book is devoted to the probabilistic description of the behavior of a network in the process of random removal of its components (links, nodes) appearing as a result of technical failures, natural disasters or intentional attacks. It is focused on a practical approach to network reliability and resilience evaluation, based on applications of Monte Carlo methodology to numerical approximation of network combinatorial invariants, including so-called multidimensional destruction spectra. This allows to develop a probabilistic follow-up analysis of the network in the process of its gradual destruction, to identify most important network components and to develop efficient heuristic algorithms for network optimal design. Our methodology works with satisfactory accuracy and efficiency for most applications of reliability theory to real -life problems in networks.
- Overview of materials and treatment aspects of manufacturability of sheet metal - Written by an industrial expert turned scientist - Concentrates on the formability of sheet metal, one of the fundamental form material is used in metalworking
Cloud computing is a buzz-word in today's information technology (IT) that nobody can escape. But what is really behind it? There are many interpretations of this term, but no standardized or even uniform definition. Instead, as a result of the multi-faceted viewpoints and the diverse interests expressed by the various stakeholders, cloud computing is perceived as a rather fuzzy concept. With this book, the authors deliver an overview of cloud computing architecture, services, and applications. Their aim is to bring readers up to date on this technology and thus to provide a common basis for discussion, new research, and novel application scenarios. They first introduce the foundation of cloud computing with its basic technologies, such as virtualization and Web services. After that they discuss the cloud architecture and its service modules. The following chapters then cover selected commercial cloud offerings (including Amazon Web Services and Google App Engine) and management tools, and present current related open-source developments (including Hadoop, Eucalyptus, and Open CirrusTM). Next, economic considerations (cost and business models) are discussed, and an evaluation of the cloud market situation is given. Finally, the appendix contains some practical examples of how to use cloud resources or cloud applications, and a glossary provides concise definitions of key terms. The authors' presentation does not require in-depth technical knowledge. It is equally intended as an introduction for students in software engineering, web technologies, or business development, for professional software developers or system architects, and for future-oriented decision-makers like top executives and managers.
In an age of globalization there is frequent migration across national borders, resulting in a reconsideration of the notion, practice and social institution of national citizenship. Addressing this phenomenon, the book focuses on the exchange between, and responses, of Korea and Germany. In particular, the book deals extensively with citizenship in Korea where the concept of citizenship is young, and thus the study of citizenship is relatively scarce. This book may be the first of its kind, bringing together eminent Korean and German scholars to analyse various aspects of citizenship in Korea. It is hoped that it will contribute to scholarship in the fields of citizenship and migration and to an understanding of the flow of people and ideas between Asia and Europe.
This text centers around three main subjects. The first is the concept of modularity and independence in classical logic and nonmonotonic and other nonclassical logic, and the consequences on syntactic and semantical interpolation and language change. In particular, we will show the connection between interpolation for nonmonotonic logic and manipulation of an abstract notion of size. Modularity is essentially the ability to put partial results achieved independently together for a global result. The second aspect of the book is the authors' uniform picture of conditionals, including many-valued logics and structures on the language elements themselves and on the truth value set. The third topic explained by the authors is neighbourhood semantics, their connection to independence, and their common points and differences for various logics, e.g., for defaults and deontic logic, for the limit version of preferential logics, and for general approximation. The book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in logic and theoretical computer science.
Risk is a popular topic in many sciences - in natural, medical, statistical, engineering, social, economic and legal disciplines. Yet, no single discipline can grasp the full meaning of risk. Investigating risk requires a multidisciplinary approach. The authors, coming from two very different disciplinary traditions, meet this challenge by building bridges between the engineering, the statistical and the social science perspectives. The book provides a comprehensive, accessible and concise guide to risk assessment, management and governance. A basic pillar for the book is the risk governance framework proposed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC). This framework offers a comprehensive means of integrating risk identification, assessment, management and communication. The authors develop and explain new insights and add substance to the various elements of the framework. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by several examples from different areas of applications.
The push-pull test is a powerful site characterization technique that has been applied to a wide range of problems in contaminant hydrogeology. The theoretical and practical apsects of push-pull testing were initially developed to characterize groundwater acquifers but the method has now been extended to saturated and unsaturated soils and sediments as well as to surface water bodies. Dr. Istok and his collaborators have been instrumental in the development of these techniques and he is widely recognized as the world's leading expert push-pull testing. This is the only reference book available on this powerful method.
This book examines the linkages between environmental change and forced migration. This has been a headline topic during the past few years with predictions of "millions of refugees". It presents case studies from across the world of responses to climate change as well as other environmental changes and examines the role that environmental change plays among the other factors that lead to a decision to migrate.
This book is based on presentations by some of the world's leading experts at the Sixth International Conference on Clinical Cancer Prevention, held in St. Gallen, Switzerland, during March 2010. The main themes are the latest advances in the prevention of breast and prostate cancer and the role of infection in the development of liver and gastric cancer. Special emphasis is given to perspectives on the chemoprevention of breast cancer, as the conference included an international consensus meeting on this subject. New research findings are presented and potentially more effective cancer prevention strategies are discussed, with careful consideration of controversies. The expertise of the contributors encompasses genetics and microbiology, epidemiology, and health economics, as well as clinical cancer prevention. This book will be of interest to all who wish to learn about the most recent progress in combating the development of cancer.
This book outlines the transitions between cultured and natural land cover/vegetation types and their implications in the search for alternatives to reverse the trend of anthropogenic environmental degradation. It also elaborates on the proposed "standardized hierarchical Mexican vegetation classification system" and geobotanical mapping, a critical transversal environmental issue. The first chapter consists of an historical review of the common approaches to the study of vegetation both in Mexico and in other regions of the world. The second chapter concisely analyzes the existing schools of thought that have led to the development of vegetation classification systems based on physiognomic, structural and floristic approaches. The focal point of the book is the "standardized hierarchical Mexican vegetation classification system" (SECLAVEMEX - "Sistema jerárquico estandarizado para la clasificación de la vegetación de México"). Chapter 3 describes the system's organizational levels along with the criteria defining them and the nomenclatural basis for the denomination of each type of vegetation. It also includes a series of tables explaining and precisely defining the meaning of each concept, criterion, character and element used to help readers successfully identify the type of vegetation in a determined area. The fourth chapter highlights SECLAVEMEX's inclusive character as evidenced through its compatibility with other systems currently used around the globe. Three concepts are critically reviewed: land cover, land use and vegetation. These are often the study subject of the contrasting disciplines geography, agronomy and ecology, which all rely upon plant species assemblages. As such, the final chapter focuses on a critical transversal environmental issue - geobotanical mapping. Geobotanical mapping offers a baseline for land cover/use planning and provides critical information on ecological, economic and cultural attributes, which can be used as a basis for environmental-policy decisions. The proposed SECLAVEMEX was applied to Mexico as an example of land cover, land use and vegetation patterns intermingling as the result of a long human influence. SECLAVEMEX, however, can be adapted and hopefully adopted globally as a baseline for consistently comparing geobotanical patterns and their transitions.
This title discusses the magnitude of the problem of angina pectoris. The author also goes on to describe the characteristics and clinical profile of patients with angina in a contemporary population. The different types and multiple mechanisms of angina pectoris are described, while the clinical presentation, typical and atypical features and complications (MI, HF) and clinical management and outcomes are evaluated. The author also evaluates the various antianginal therapies used in special populations: the elderly, post revascularised patients, patients with LVSD or HF, patients with CKD, patients with diabetes.
This handbook covers established and advanced techniques for biomarker analysis, such as guidelines and strategies for assay validation methods; different mathematical models that are necessary in contemporary drug discovery and development; and evaluation of new cytometry methods. Expertly curated by two practicing professionals in drug development and biotherapeutics, individual chapters are selected for novel and sound research; information is chosen based on its relevance to lab applications and clinical trials, such as the topic of selecting animal models for their relevancy to humans. The book is multifaceted, discussing the ethics and issues with biospecimens and providing an in-depth analysis to the differences between pre-clinical and clinical assay development. The book is an essential read for general readers who need an introduction to the history and background of biomarkers, and it also provides critical analyses of various new validation methods for practitioners and researchers.
This brief broadens readers' understanding of stochastic control by highlighting recent advances in the design of optimal control for Markov jump linear systems (MJLS). It also presents an algorithm that attempts to solve this open stochastic control problem, and provides a real-time application for controlling the speed of direct current motors, illustrating the practical usefulness of MJLS. Particularly, it offers novel insights into the control of systems when the controller does not have access to the Markovian mode.
Self-study research is making an impact on the field of science education. University researchers employ these methods to improve their instruction, develop as instructors, and ultimately, impact their students' learning. This volume provides an introduction to self-study research in science education, followed by manuscripts of self-studies undertaken by university faculty and those becoming university faculty members in science teacher education. Chapter authors range from those new to the field to established researchers, highlighting the value of self-study research in science teacher education for every career rank. The fifteen self-studies provided in this book support and extend this contemporary work in science teacher education. They, and the subsequent reflections on professional knowledge, are organized into four sections: content courses for preservice teachers, elementary methods courses, secondary methods courses, and preparation of future teacher educators. Respondents from various locations around the globe share their reflections on these sections. A culminating reflection of the findings of these studies is provided at the end of the book that provides an overview of what we have learned from these chapters, as well as a reflection on the role of self-study research in the future of science teacher education.
The bibliography provides information about the presence and distribution of plants and animals in cities throughout Europe. It will be of considerable interest to and should be used by a wide range of people including academics, researchers, librarians, school teachers, and people with a general interest in the natural history of cities. The bibliography is an important tool for the professions involved in the planning, design and management of high quality urban developments, including biologists, architects, urban designers, planners, consultants, medics. , sociologists, engineers, politicians, landscape architects, building surveyors, agronomists and landscape managers.
This book presents the latest insights into the role of nutrition and diet in the pathophysiology and clinical outcome of many digestive diseases, including gastrointestinal cancer, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, autism and other severe neurological diseases, and liver disease. The editors have aimed to build upon the dissemination of scientific information on human health and nutrition that took place at Expo Milano 2015 (theme: "Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life") by bringing together distinguished experts in gastroenterology from prestigious Italian universities and hospital centers to tackle novel topics in human nutrition and diet. In the context of modern, high tech gastroenterology, it is easy to neglect or underplay the importance of factors such as nutrition. Readers will find this book to be an excellent source of the most recently acquired scientific knowledge on the topic, and a worthy legacy of Expo Milano 2015.
Liar's Poker meets The Social Network in an irreverent exposé of life inside the tech bubble, from industry provocateur Antonio García Martínez, a former Twitter advisor, Facebook product manager and startup founder/CEO.The reality is, Silicon Valley capitalism is very simple:Investors are people with more money than time.Employees are people with more time than money.Entrepreneurs are the seductive go-between.Marketing is like sex: only losers pay for it. Imagine a chimpanzee rampaging through a datacenter powering everything from Google to Facebook. Infrastructure engineers use a software version of this "chaos monkey" to test online services' robustness--their ability to survive random failure and correct mistakes before they actually occur. Tech entrepreneurs are society's chaos monkeys, disruptors testing and transforming every aspect of our lives, from transportation (Uber) and lodging (AirBnB) to television (Netflix) and dating (Tinder). One of Silicon Valley's most audacious chaos monkeys is Antonio García Martínez.After stints on Wall Street and as CEO of his own startup, García Martínez joined Facebook's nascent advertising team, turning its users' data into profit for COO Sheryl Sandberg and chairman and CEO Mark "Zuck" Zuckerberg. Forced out in the wake of an internal product war over the future of the company's monetization strategy, García Martínez eventually landed at rival Twitter. He also fathered two children with a woman he barely knew, committed lewd acts and brewed illegal beer on the Facebook campus (accidentally flooding Zuckerberg's desk), lived on a sailboat, raced sport cars on the 101, and enthusiastically pursued the life of an overpaid Silicon Valley wastrel.Now, this gleeful contrarian unravels the chaotic evolution of social media and online marketing and reveals how it is invading our lives and shaping our future. Weighing in on everything from startups and credit derivatives to Big Brother and data tracking, social media monetization and digital "privacy," García Martínez shares his scathing observations and outrageous antics, taking us on a humorous, subversive tour of the fascinatingly insular tech industry. Chaos Monkeys lays bare the hijinks, trade secrets, and power plays of the visionaries, grunts, sociopaths, opportunists, accidental tourists, and money cowboys who are revolutionizing our world. The question is, will we survive?
In the heat of an Israeli summer, amidst fresh attempts to restart peace talks with the Palestinians, Udi struggles to fill a UK immigration form. At 26, Udi is a veteran of the Israeli Defence Force and has killed five men. He wants a new life, in a new country. Daniel is 29, a Londoner, an investment banker, an Arsenal fan, and a Jew. He wants for nothing, yet he too is unable to escape an intangible yearning for something more, and for less. He looks to Israel for the answer. But as the war with Hamas breaks out, Daniel cannot know that the star-crossed love of Dara and Kaseem, a Jewish girl and an Arabic man in Jerusalem 10 years earlier, will soon complicate all that he thinks has become clear.
Maeve Maloney is a force to be reckoned with. Despite nearing 80, she keeps Sea View Lodge just as her parents did during Morecambe's 1950s heyday. But now only her employees and regular guests recognize the tenderness and heartbreak hidden beneath her spikiness. Until, that is, Vincent shows up. Vincent is the last person Maeve wants to see. He is the only man alive to have known her twin sister, Edie. The nightingale to Maeve's crow, the dawn to Maeve's dusk, Edie would have set her sights on the stage--all things being equal. But, from birth, things never were. If only Maeve could confront the secret past she shares with Vincent, she might finally see what it means to love and be loved--a lesson that her exuberant yet inexplicable twin may have been trying to teach her all along.
Patrick Owen managed seven years at Highfields Secondary School without punching a pupil in the face. Unknowingly drawn into a war against his own pupils, Patrick's patience finally snaps as he finds himself the number one target with the boy the school just can't seem to expel. When one of his art students needs his help, she unwittingly pulls Patrick further into the line of fire, altering their lives forever. With the media circling and rumors of his involvement reaching new highs, Patrick must escape the world he lives in, or face the consequences.
My new shrink asks me, 'What things do you remember about being very young?'It's like looking into a murky river, I say. Memories flash near the surface like fish coming up for flies. The past peeps out, startles me, and then is gone . . . Amanda secludes herself in her bedroom, no longer willing to face the outside world. Gradually, she pieces together the story of her life: her brothers have had to abandon her, her mother scarcely talks to her, and the Wacky Man could return any day to burn the house down. Just like he promised. As her family disintegrates, Amanda hopes for a better future, a way out from the violence and fear that has consumed her childhood. But can she cling to her sanity, before insanity itself is her only means of escape?
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