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This book details the interactions between the Seeds of Rangiatea, New Zealand's Maori people of Polynesian origin, and Europe from 1769 to 1900. It provides a case-study of the way Imperial era contact and colonization negatively affected naturally evolving demographic/epidemiologic transitions and imposed economic conditions that thwarted development by precursor peoples, wherever European expansion occurred. In doing so, it questions the applicability of conventional models for analyses of colonial histories of population/health and of development. The book focuses on, and synthesizes, the most critical parts of the story, the health and population trends, and the economic and social development of Maori. It adopts demographic methodologies, most typically used in developing countries, which allow the mapping of broad changes in Maori society, particularly their survival as a people. The book raises general theoretical questions about how populations react to the introduction of diseases to which they have no natural immunity. Another more general theoretical issue is what happens when one society's development processes are superseded by those of some more powerful force, whether an imperial power or a modern-day agency, which has ingrained ideas about objectives and strategies for development. Finally, it explores how health and development interact. The Maori experience of contact and colonization, lasting from 1769 to circa 1900, narrated here, is an all too familiar story for many other territories and populations, Natives and former colonists. This book provides a case-study with wider ramifications for theory in colonial history, development studies, demography, anthropology and other fields.
This brief gives a concise overview of nanoparticles and their microbial toxicity. It introduces various nanoparticles that are considered lethal to microbial cells (bacteria, virus and fungus) placing an emphasis on metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis procedures (physical, chemical, microbial) that are often employed in their fabrication are also outlined. The interaction of various nanoparticles with microbes is described with attention given to the role of additives in the form of solvents, surfactants, capping materials. Commonly used experimental and analytical techniques that are often used to evaluate and determine the toxicity of nanoparticles towards different microorganisms are presented and comparative assessments on the differences between these procedures are described. The brief ends by explaining the toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to microorganisms.
This book aims to describe the mechanisms of the internal wholesale electricity market in terms of the legal tools and practices used by electricity producers, the most important market participants. In this regard, the focus is on Northwestern Europe. Because of the book's functional perspective, it is not limited to the external regulation of electricity markets at the EU level and also describes the business models and practices employed by electricity producers. Both the physical and financial marketplaces are examined and topics including electricity supply, balancing, transmission and derivatives are covered. The target for the completion of the EU's internal electricity market was 2014. The internal wholesale electricity market is very important not only for electricity producers, suppliers and major end consumers but also for network operators, marketplace operators, electricity technology firms, investment firms and market regulators.
This book examines the effects of Europeanization on two cross-border states, Italy and Slovenia, in the period between 1990 and 2012. It does so by means of an analysis of specific funding programmes such as Interreg and Phare. The book explores whether Europeanization, through cross-border cooperation, has promoted a post-national mode of governance and new relations between the national, the supra-national and the local-regional level. It discusses whether a link can be established between the activities of sub-national actors (municipalities, regions) and the recent development of legal instruments designed to enhance cross-border cooperation. Taking the perspective of citizenship and focusing on ethnic minority groups and cultural-social associations, the book addresses the question of whether a new notion of citizenship, multi-layered and multi-dimensional, has emerged in cross-border areas through cross-border cooperation.
This book presents the theoretical-historical-comparative political framework needed to fully grasp the truly dynamic nature of 21st century global affairs. The author provides a realistic assessment of the shift from U. S predominance to a new mix of counterbalancing rival middle-tier and assertive regional powers, while highlighting those geopolitical zones of contention most critical for future international stability. The book will appeal to scholars and policy makers interested in understanding the contours of the emerging world order, and in identifying its principal shapers and leading political actors.
This book presents 22 topical contributions on international trade law and policy, with a particular focus on EU external trade law, addressing countries ranging from Ukraine to Switzerland and the US (TTIP) and aspects from trade and IPRs to anti-dumping. The volume constitutes a state-of-the-art treatment of the many facets of trade policy in the 21st century from legal, diplomatic and academic standpoints. The book is dedicated to the memory of Horst Günter Krenzler, former Director General for External Relations for the European Commission and Chief Negotiator for the European Union in many trade negotiations, honorary professor of European Union law at the University of Munich and an of counsel with Freshfields' Brussels office after retirement from the Commission.
The aim of this book is to analyze the relationships among entrepreneurship, regional development and culture in the current economy. Using an institutional approach, it examines the main theoretical issues and practices and their effect on different dimensions of society and the economy. Business creation is considered a key element of economic growth, innovation and employment. In recent years, entrepreneurial scholars have studied the factors that affect entrepreneurship and drive economic growth. In doing so, these scholars have aimed to understand what promotes entrepreneurial activity and also how to improve the development of regions or countries to increase wealth in society. The institutional approach can be applied to the entrepreneurship field to understand the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. This view considers the role of environment in the decision to create a company, which is critical to entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth. Environment relates to legal aspects, public policy and support services (formal institutions) but is especially important in terms of sociocultural context (informal institutions). The creation of new ventures is greatly influenced by culture. Furthermore, it is important to highlight the influence of entrepreneurship on regional development, specifically through job creation, stimulation of economic growth and innovation. Thus, entrepreneurship, regional development and culture are fundamental for understanding economic growth and development as well as other phenomena such as technology transfer or women's entrepreneurship. Featuring contributions and cases studies from various countries and sectors, this volume provides an essential reference for scholars, academics, and researchers in entrepreneurship, business management, innovation and economics.
This SpringerBrief sheds new light on bioactive materials from extremophiles with the focus on the biosynthesis processes and related genomics. It deals with all aspects of the chemical compounds produced by organisms living under extreme conditions that may have potential as drugs or lead to novel drugs for human use.
This authoritative reference brings together leading experts for up-to-date theory, findings, and guidelines on the core aspects of child custody evaluations. Contributors offer steps for gathering more accurate family data through home observations, interviews, and collateral information. Chapters examine psychological assessment tools commonly used in evaluations, including measures relating to parenting competencies, mental illness, domestic violence, and substance abuse, and consider increasingly salient issues such as relocation and families in therapy. The section on case studies shows best practices applied in real-life custody situations, and a chapter authored by a family court judge offers rarely-seen perspective from the bench. Featured in the Handbook: · A survey of ethical and professional issues. · Observing and interviewing children, adolescents, and adults. · Psychological assessment and personality testing. · A detailed review of the Bricklin scales. · Specialized issues, including parental alienation, attachment, cults, and more. · Illustrative case studies and psychological reports. Mental health professionals who conduct child custody evaluations, including psychiatrists, clinical psychologists clinical social workers, family and marriage counselors, and licensed clinical professional counselors, will appreciate the Handbook of Child Custody. Family law attorneys will also find the Handbook useful in assisting them in child custody litigation. Its thorough coverage will aid evaluators in making recommendations that are professional, ethical, and impartial, and family lawyers in understanding the evaluation process and preparing for expert testimony.
In 1962, the publication of Thomas Kuhn's Structure 'revolutionized' the way one conducts philosophical and historical studies of science. Through the introduction of both memorable and controversial notions, such as paradigms, scientific revolutions, and incommensurability, Kuhn argued against the traditionally accepted notion of scientific change as a progression towards the truth about nature, and instead substituted the idea that science is a puzzle solving activity, operating under paradigms, which become discarded after it fails to respond accordingly to anomalous challenges and a rival paradigm. Kuhn's Structure has sold over 1. 4 million copies and the Times Literary Supplement named it one of the "Hundred Most Influential Books since the Second World War. " Now, fifty years after this groundbreaking work was published, this volume offers a timely reappraisal of the legacy of Kuhn's book and an investigation into what Structure offers philosophical, historical, and sociological studies of science in the future.
This book deals with the limitations of economic and financial accounting as an appropriate instrument to reflect the real value created or destroyed by an organization. The authors present a sustainable social accounting approach that considers both the social and economic value - Blended Value - generated by an organization for all of its stakeholders. This approach is based on four major theories - Stakeholder Theory, Action Research, Phenomenological Perspective and Fuzzy Logic - and was developed on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis.
Extremophiles are known to thrive under harsh environmental conditions. Many extremophilic bio-products are already used as life-saving drugs. Recent technological advancements of systems biology have opened the door to explore these organisms anew as sources of products that might prove useful in clinical, environmental and drug development.
This book addresses policy research on homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools. It covers quantitative and qualitative research into policy impacts for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex students. It draws on a large-scale Australian study of the impacts of different kinds of policy at the national, state, sector and school level. The study covers over 80 policies, interviews with key policy informants and survey data from 3,134 GLBTIQ students. Since new guidelines were released by UNESCO, homophobic and transphobic bullying in schools has become a key area of interest around the world. There has been much pressure on educational leadership to engage with these issues since the UN released international human rights legislation on sexual orientation and gender identity that have implications for student rights. The book presents statistically significant correlations between specific types of state and school level education policies that explicitly named homophobia/ GLBTIQ student issues, and lowered incidence of homophobic bullying, lowered risk of suicide and self-harm for these students. It includes stories from policy makers on how the policies came to be (through lawsuits, ministerial inquiries and political activism), right through to the stories of students themselves and how they individually felt the impacts of policies or policy lacks. International contexts of homophobic and transphobic bullying are discussed, as well as recent transnational work in this field. The book considers the different types of collaborations that can lead to further policy development, the transferability of the research and some of the benefits and problems with transnational policy adoptions.
This anthology highlights the theoretical foundations as well as the various applications of Behavioural Law and Economics in European legal culture. By the same token, it fosters the dialogue between European and American Law and Economics scholars. The traditional neo-classical microeconomic theory explains human behaviour by using Rational Choice. According to this model, people tend to maximize the difference between expected utility and cost ("expected utility theory"). This theory includes three assumptions: (1) unbounded rationality, (2) unbounded self-interest, and (3) unbounded willpower. Behavioural Economics questions these assumptions and endeavours to render economic analysis more realistic by underpinning it with psychological insights. In recent years, the influence of Behavioural Economics on the Economic Analysis of Law has gained momentum. Behavioural Law and Economics generates a better theoretical understanding of legal phenomena and offers a multitude of applications in legislation and legal adjudication. This volume is testament to the growing and thriving Law and Economics movement in Europe. The European Law and Economics community has steadily grown and the yearly Law and Economics Conference at the law faculty of the University of Lucerne has successfully become a guiding star in the vast sky of Law and Economics.
How does one become a successful leader? This book teaches the theories and concepts behind leadership and explains the skills and traits needed to become a good leader. Teaching surgical faculty and trainees (i. e. , residents and fellows) how to successfully lead will create more effective surgeon leaders. The skills and theories reviewed in this Volume are highly useful for numerous leadership situations, ranging from heading a committee, leading a research laboratory, directing a clinical effort, leading a Division, leading a Department, among others. By gathering these skills and theories into one comprehensive, portable book, more readers will have access to them.
In recent years, exchanges on both sides of the Atlantic have been extensively reengineered, and their organizational structures have changed from non-profit, membership organizations to for-profit, demutualized organizations. Concurrently, new alternative trading systems have emerged and the traditional functions of broker/dealer firms have evolved. How have these changes affected the delivery of that mission? How has the efficiency of capital raising in the IPO market been impacted? These are among the key questions addressed in this book, titled after the Baruch College Conference, The Economic Function of a Stock Market. Featuring contributions from a panel of scholars, academicians, policymakers, and industry leaders, this volume examines current issues affecting market quality, including challenges in the marketplace, growth opportunities, and IPO capital raising in the global economy. The Zicklin School of Business Financial Markets Series presents the insights emerging from a sequence of conferences hosted by the Zicklin School at Baruch College for industry professionals, regulators, and scholars. Much more than historical documents, the transcripts from the conferences are edited for clarity, perspective and context; material and comments from subsequent interviews with the panelists and speakers are integrated for a complete thematic presentation. Each book is focused on a well delineated topic, but all deliver broader insights into the quality and efficiency of the U. S. equity markets and the dynamic forces changing them.
This book analyses and describes the effects of the reforms of the European science systems on research. Taking the multilevel governance of the science system into account, the authors describe the effects of the reforms on different aspects: research collaborations and research lines, PhD education, performance profiles, research funding and legal aspects. The first part of the book deals with "PhD education" from an economic perspective. How successful are Research Training Groups and is heterogeneity really a factor of success? What kind of PhD education leads to success? The second part focuses on the interactions of governance and research. How do changes at the national and organisational level influence research cooperation, research lines and research performance? The third part reflects the Europeanisation and Internationalisation of research and research funding. To what extent are research collaborations becoming international? How is the role of European funding agencies changing?
Inthis thesis single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer(FRET)spectroscopy was used to study the folding of a protein that belongsto the large and important family of repeat proteins. Cohen showsthat the dynamics of the expanded conformations is likely to be veryfast, suggesting a spring-like motion of the whole chain. Thefindings shed new lighton the elasticity of structure in repeat proteins, which is relatedto their function in binding multiple and disparate partners. Thisconcise research summary provides useful insights for studentsbeginning a PhD in this or a related area, and researchers enteringthis field.
Conflict between work and family has been a topic of discussion since the beginning of the women's movement, but recent changes in family structures and workforce demographics have made it clear that the issues impact both women and men. While employers and policymakers struggle to navigate this new terrain, critics charge that the research sector, too, has been slow to respond. Gender and the Work-Family Experience puts multiple faces - male as well as female - on complex realities with interdisciplinary and cross-cultural awareness and research-based insight. Besides reviewing the state of gender roles as they affect home and career, this in-depth reference examines and compares how women and men experience work-family conflict and its consequences for relationships at home as well as outcomes on the job. Topics as wide-ranging as gendered occupations, gender and shiftwork, heteronormative assumptions, the myth of the ideal worker, and gendered aspects of work-family guilt reflect significant changes in society and reveal important implications for both research and policy. Also included in the coverage: Gender ideology and work-family plans of the next generation Gender, poverty, and the work-family interface The double jeopardy effect: the importance of gender and race in work-family research When work intrudes upon employees' personal time: does gender matter? Work-family equality: the importance of a level playing field at home Women in STEM: family-related challenges and initiatives Family-friendly organizational policies, practices, and benefits through the gender lens Geared toward work-family and gender researchers as well as students and educators in a variety of fields, Gender and the Work-Family Experience will find interested readers in the fields of industrial and organizational psychology, business management, social psychology, sociology, gender studies, women's studies, and public policy, among others. .
The recent European Council Directive 114/08 requested the EU Member States to perform an assessment aimed at the identification and designation of the so-called European Critical Infrastructures (ECI). Every analysis of the results of the "first round" of identifications and designations has only taken into account the numbers of ECIs effectively designated, consequently leaving aside all of the other elements related to this important path towards a harmonized vision of the "European Security". This work, with its unprecedented approach, focuses on the elements that have maximized or frustrated the ambitious European objectives and on the issues that might have prevented the directive reaching its full potential. Furthermore, the study offers an in-depth perspective on the lessons learned - including those that can be learned from the US pre-post 9/11 CIP policies - as well as an assessment of the state of play of the Member States after the implementation of the directive, together with predictions for future challenges.
This collection of case studies in public management bridges the gap between mainstream CSR - confined to the for-profit corporations -and the vast bodies of workers and organizations that make up government and its public administration. The variety and discretion of managerial endeavours in public management calls for accountability and responsibility of government beyond current legal instruments: The book argues that CSR must be brought to bear with government. In government in fact, knowledge management is not a linear process, but the result of working with passion of the parts, implying discretionary behaviour and creativity which in turn imply choice and responsibility. Cases ranging from the USA to Central America, New Zealand and Europe all confirm the complex nature of public management, entailing partnership synergy for disaster recovery, the intertwined link between management and new technology and mindfulness at individual level. The cases are set in a framework by theoretical essays on bureaucratic behaviour and unknown stakeholders.
This volume offers insights in current theoretical discussions, observations, and reflections from internationally and regionally celebrated scholars on the theory and practice of teaching English informed by a new school of thought, English as an International Language (EIL). This volume provides readers (scholars, teachers, teacher-educators, researchers in the relevant fields) with: Knowledge of the changing paradigm and attitudes towards English language teaching from teaching a single variety of English to teaching intercultural communication and English language variation. Current thoughts on the theory of teaching English as an international language by internationally-celebrated established scholars and emergent scholars. Scholarly descriptions and discussions of how English language educators and teacher-educators translate the paradigm of English as an International Language into their existing teaching. Delineation of how this newly emerged paradigm is received or responded to by English language educators and students when it is implemented. Readers have a unique opportunity to observe and read the tensions and dilemmas that educators and students are likely to experience in teaching and learning EIL.
Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.
The object of this book is to describe the institutional modifications of the Italian form of state more than ten years after the review of Title V - Part II of the Italian Constitution - for an audience that goes well beyond the Italian national boundaries. The fifteen essays that make up the book discuss the birth and evolution of the Italian regionalism (including those regions with Special Statutes) as well as reforms of 1999-2001. A particular attention is devoted to the role of autonomy in defining regional statutes, regional forms of government, and regulatory and administrative powers. These are subjects on which there is by now an abundant body of constitutional case law, which is extensively referred to by the chapters. The role of the regions vis-à-vis the local bodies and vis-à-vis the European and international order is also discussed, as the right to negotiate with foreign powers has now been conferred on the regions. Lastly, the volume presents contributions on regional finance and on the new law on fiscal federalism, as well as on regional powers in the area of health and welfare.
Now more than ever, indigenous peoples' interests in their cultural heritage are in the spotlight. Yet, there is very little literature that comprehensively discusses how existing laws can and cannot be used to address indigenous peoples' interests. This book assesses how intangible aspects of indigenous cultural heritage (and the tangible objects that hold them) can be protected, within the realm of a broad range of existing legal orders, including intellectual property and related rights, consumer protection law, common law and equitable doctrines, and human rights. It does so by focusing on the New Zealand Māori. The book also looks to the future, analysing the long-awaited Wai 262 report, released in New Zealand by the Waitangi Tribunal in response to allegations that the government had failed in its duty to ensure that the Māori retain chieftainship over their tangible and intangible treasures, as required by the Treaty of Waitangi, signed between the Māori and the British Crown in 1840.
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