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This is a practical book for health and IT professionals who need to ensure that patient safety is prioritized in the design and implementation of clinical information technology. Healthcare professionals are increasingly reliant on information technology to deliver care and inform their clinical decision making. Health IT provides enormous benefits in efficiency, communication and decision making. However a number of high-profile UK and US studies have concluded that when Health IT is poorly designed or sub-optimally implemented then patient safety can be compromised. Manufacturers and healthcare organizations are increasingly required to demonstrate that their Health IT solutions are proactively assured. Surprisingly the majority of systems are not subject to regulation so there is little in the way of practical guidance as to how risk management can be achieved. The book fills that gap. The author, a doctor and IT professional, harnesses his two decades of experience to characterize the hazards that health technology can introduce. Risk can never be eliminated but by drawing on lessons from other safety-critical industries the book systematically sets out how clinical risk can be strategically controlled. The book proposes the employment of a Safety Case to articulate and justify residual risk so that not only is risk proactively managed but it is seen to be managed. These simple techniques drive product quality and allow a technology's benefits to be realized without compromising patient safety.
Tourism is an activity that anyone can take part in, regardless of their age, gender, nationality or level of income. This makes tourism one of the most rapidly developing industries in the world. Despite the number of benefits which tourism produces, it also has significant negative impacts on the environment. To minimise the scope of these negative impacts, joint efforts combining tourism and environmental management are called for. This book examines the application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method and lifecycle thinking as a tool to generate more accurate and holistic appraisals of the environmental impacts of tourism. Looking at the issue of sustainability of tourism operations, the book evaluates how it can be improved. It highlights the potential of LCA to affect tourist behaviour and contribute to tourism policy-making and managerial practice. This book provides a valuable resource for undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers interested in sustainable tourism, sustainable development and environmental impact assessment.
This book presents William Clifford's English translation of BernhardRiemann's classic text together with detailed mathematical, historical andphilosophical commentary. The basic concepts and ideas, as well as theirmathematical background, are provided, putting Riemann's reasoning into themore general and systematic perspective achieved by later mathematicians andphysicists (including Helmholtz, Ricci, Weyl, and Einstein) on the basis of hisseminal ideas. Following a historical introduction that positions Riemann's workin the context of his times, the history of the concept of space in philosophy,physics and mathematics is systematically presented. A subsequent chapter onthe reception and influence of the text accompanies the reader from Riemann's timesto contemporary research. Notonly mathematicians and historians of the mathematical sciences, but alsoreaders from other disciplines or those with an interest in physics orphilosophy will find this work both appealing and insightful.
This book provides a much-needed analysis of the current research in the global epidemic of electronic bullying. Scholars and professionals from the Americas, Europe, and Asia offer data, insights, and solutions, acknowledging both the social psychology and technological contexts underlying cyberbullying phenomena. Contributors address questions that are just beginning to emerge as well as longstanding issues concerning family and gender dynamics, and provide evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies for school and home. The global nature of the book reflects not only the scope and severity of cyberbullying, but also the tenacity of efforts to control and eradicate the problem. Included in the coverage: * Gender issues and cyberbullying in children and adolescents: from gender differences to gender identity measures. * Family relationships and cyberbullying. * Examining the incremental impact of cyberbullying on outcomes over and above traditional bullying in North America. * A review of cyberbullying and education issues in Latin America. * Cyberbullying prevention from child and youth literature. * Cyberbullying and restorative justice. Cyberbullying across the Globe is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and other professionals in child and school psychology, public health, social work and counseling, educational policy, and family advocacy.
This book presents a range of research and clinical contributions, including observational studies, practical treatment examples, diagnostic test assessment, biomarkers, and systematic reviews. The objective is to seek to explain the processes or mechanisms whereby abnormal or undesired conditions develop and progress. The attention is given to disturbed carbohydrate metabolism in perpetuation of respiratory ailments or raising therapeutic problems. The psychosocial context of chronic respiratory conditions is tackled as well. Oxidative stress is conducive to both physical and cognitive aging, which raises the specter of using its biochemical markers in future antiaging therapeutic strategies. Critical information provided in the contributions will allow readers to make informed judgments. The book will hopefully serve to create awareness and apprehension about the developments in the field of pneumology and related areas of medical research.
A new perspective on the global food security situation and highlights the need for seeking a common vision and implementing global planning to define the manner in which the human species will manage its food security. The basic question of 'is there enough food' is examined in general and then in some detail. The history of food production is reviewed in the hope that lessons can be learned from the past. But even after ten thousand years of experience we are not able to feed adequately about a third of our total population, despite what statistics can be made to tell us. Intensive agriculture has stripped out the nutrients that support plant growth and marginalised extensive tracts of land. The global solution to feed the growing population has been and continues to be - produce more food. Even during the last 30 years, about 95 percent of global research investments have focused mainly on increasing productivity. However about a third of the food produced, sufficient to feed over two billion hungry people, is lost or wasted in the food value chain. Climate change is another confounding factor that impinges on our discussions. Pests of all kinds continue to destroy food before and after it is harvested, even though the technology to protect it is available. A huge amount of food is wasted in value chains, particularly at the domestic level. Global food production systems are exposed to unprecedented biosecurity risks posed by invasive harmful organisms and this trend is likely to further exacerbate as current approach to biosecurity is based on the notional premise that lines on maps and the legislation that goes with them is sufficient to halt epidemics. Solutions include extending the number of cultivated plant and animal species to include those that can prosper in what are currently considered to be extreme environments.
This volume offers comprehensive 'state-of-the-art' overviews of educational policies concerning the teaching of English in a large number of Asian countries. Each contribution is written by a leading expert and gives a clear assessment of current policies and future trends. Starting with a description of the English education policies in the respective countries, the contributors then delve into the 'nuts and bolts' of the English education policies and how they play out in practice in the education system, in schools, in the curriculum, and in teaching. Topics covered include the balance between the acquisition of English and the national language, political, cultural, economic and technical factors that strengthen or weaken the learning of English.
This timely collection explores trust research from many angles while ably demonstrating the potential of cross-discipline collaboration to deepen our understanding of institutional trust. Citing, among other things, current breakdowns of trust in prominent institutions, the book presents a multilevel model identifying universal aspects of trust as well as domain- and context-specific variations deserving further study. Contributors analyze similarities and differences in trust across public domains from politics and policing to medicine and science, and across languages and nations. Innovative strategies for measuring and assessing trust also shed new light on this essentially human behavior. Highlights of the coverage: Consensus on conceptualizations and definitions of trust: are we there yet? Differentiating between trust and legitimacy in public attitudes towards legal authority. Examining the relationship between interpersonal and institutional trust in political and health care contexts. Trust as a multilevel phenomenon across contexts. Institutional trust across cultures. The "dark side" of institutional trust. With its stimulating array of concepts and applications, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Trust will attract a varied audience, among them experts in political science, criminal justice, psychology, law, economics, healthcare, sociology, public administration, cross-cultural studies, and business administration.
This book presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of female contraception. It offers an extensive overview of contraception types, including oral, injectable, emergency, and various cervical barrier contraceptives, as well as behavioral and sterilization methods, and discusses the clinical effectiveness, advantages, disadvantages, side effects, and mechanisms of action of each method. Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition includes coverage of chewable contraceptives, new progestins, new quadraphasic OCP regimen, Nexplanon, which is replacing the Implanon contraceptive implant, and new methods of tubal sterilization. There is also a new chapter devoted to current controversies. Each chapter also includes counseling tips that answer common questions many clinicians and patients have about contraception. The advances in contraception technologies are interplayed with practical advice on choosing the most effective and appropriate contraception for patients, from those who are young and healthy to those with serious medical diseases. The Handbook of Contraception, Second Edition, is an incomparable reference for obstetricians, gynecologists, and primary care physicians.
This book explores the relations between the EU and the BRICS in the areas of politics, economic development, trade and security. The contributions cover topics such as the position of the EU and BRICS in the global order and the EU as a "normative power," as well as the evolution, characteristics and institutionalization of BRICS and the roles of its member countries Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa. The book will appeal to researchers and scholars interested in the rise of BRICS and the resulting challenges and opportunities for the European Union and Global Governance.
This book presents the current state of the art on Construction Grammar models and usage-based language learning research. It reports on three psycholinguistic experiments conducted with the participation of university-level Italian learners of English, whose second language proficiency corresponds to levels B1 and B2 of the 'Common European Framework of Reference for Languages' (CEFR). This empirical research on the role of constructions in the facilitation of language learning contributes to assessing how bilinguals deal with L2 constructions in the light of sentence-sorting, sentence-elicitation, and sentence-completion tasks. Divided into two parts, the book first introduces the main theoretical prerequisites and then reports on the experimental studies. It provides a comprehensive review of the current research in a range of disciplines, including complexity theories, cognitive semantics, construction grammars, usage-based linguistics, and language learning.
This book addresses questions surrounding the feasibility of a global approach to ethical governance of science and technology. The emergence and rapid spread of nanotechnology offers a test case for how the world might act when confronted with a technology that could transform the global economy and provide solutions to issues such as pollution, while potentially creating new environmental and health risks. The author compares ethical issues identified by stakeholders in China and the EU about the rapid introduction of this potentially transformative technology - a fitting framework for an exploration of global agency. The study explores the discourse ethics and participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) inspired by the work of Jürgen Habermas to argue that different views can be universally recognized and agreed upon, perhaps within an ideal global community of communication. The book offers a developed discourse model, utilizing virtue ethics as well as the work of Taylor, Beck, Korsgaard and others on identity formation, as a way forward in the context of global ethics. The author seeks to develop new vocabularies of comparison, to discover shared aspects of identity and to achieve, hopefully, an 'intercultural personhood' that may lead to a global ethics. The book offers a useful guide for researchers on methods for advancing societal understanding of science and technology. The author addresses a broad audience, from philosophers, ethicists and scientists, to the interested general reader. For the layperson, one chapter surveys nanoissues as depicted in fiction and another offers a view of how an ordinary citizen can act as a global agent of change in ethics.
This volume focuses on our understanding of the reading comprehension of adolescents in a high stakes academic environment. Leading researchers share their most current research on each issue, covering theory and empirical research from a range of specializations, including various content areas, English language learners, students with disabilities, and reading assessment. Topics discussed include: cognitive models of reading comprehension and how they relate to typical or atypical development of reading comprehension, reading in history classes, comprehension of densely worded and symbolic mathematical texts, understanding causality in science texts, the more rigorous comprehension standards in English language arts classes, balancing the practical and measurement constraints of the assessment of reading comprehension, understanding the needs and challenges of English language learners and students in special education with respect to the various content areas discussed in this book. This book is of interest to researchers in literacy and educational psychology as well as curriculum developers.
This book provides comprehensive and concise definitions of risk pooling and risk-pooling methods, a straightforward statistical explanation, and a value-chain oriented framework for analyzing risk-pooling methods. Risk pooling mitigates demand and lead time uncertainty in logistics and supply chain management. The author also provides readers with a downloadable computerized decision support tool to compare and choose appropriate risk-pooling methods and to apply them in companies. Students and practitioners of logistics and supply chain management will find this book particularly useful.
This book examines ways to ensure that the rights, interests and concerns of young people are properly represented in Western democracies. One new proposal is the introduction of youth quotas in political institutions in order to counter the possible marginalization of young people caused by demographic ageing and, thereby, an overrepresentation of the interests of the elderly. The book explores key questions regarding the implementation of youth quotas from different perspectives, including philosophy, political science, sociology and demography. It examines whether youth quotas and other measures that give the young more voice and influence in political institutions are a good means for promoting the cause of intergenerational justice. In particular, it investigates how and if youth quotas can be used to ensure that the environmental interests of young and future generations are being taken into account. In addition, the book introduces an innovative model that would give a right to vote to minors without voting age boundaries. The book also discusses suffrage reforms through lowering the voting age in Western countries, as well as introducing methods especially aimed at raising the skills of children necessary for societal citizenship and empowerment of young citizens. The volume will help raise awareness and knowledge about the intergenerational implications of demographic changes in Western democracies, where ageing societies are increasingly turning into gerontocracies. It offers readers deep insight into how youth quotas in particular (and others forms of youth participation in general) might be efficient methods to ensure that younger generations are included in the political decision making process and other activities in society.
Clinical cases are a key component in modern medical education, assisting the trainee or recertifying clinician to work through unusual cases using best practice techniques. Integrative Dermatology is an important discipline in this regard since it is a highly visual subject requiring the reader to describe often very subtle differences in the presentation of patients and define accurately the diagnostic and management criteria to base their clinical decision-making on. In 1992 the National Institutes of Health established the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (now also called Integrative Medicine), which has led to increased evidence-based research. The objective of this book is to provide readers with an overview of traditional and complementary treatment options for the most common skin problems encountered in clinical practice.
In this book, suitable examples of how to increase the shelf life of food materials while preserving their desirable original features are provided.
This book is the first systematic account of Pierre Charron's influence among the major French philosophers in the period (1601-1662). It shows that Charron's Wisdom was one of the main sources of inspiration of Pierre Gassendi's first published book, the Exercitationes adversus aristoteleos. It sheds new light on La Mothe Le Vayer, who is usually viewed as a major free thinker. By showing that he was a follower of Charron, La Mothe emerges neither as a skeptical apologist nor as a disguised libertine, as combatting superstition but not as irreligious. The book shows the close presence of Charron in the preambles of Descartes' philosophy and that the cogito is mainly based on the moral Academic self-assurance of Charron's wise man. This interpretation reverses the standard view of Descartes' relation to skepticism. Once this skepticism is recognized to be Charron's Academic one, it is seen not as the target but as the source of the cogito. Pascal is the last major philosopher for whom Charron's wisdom is crucially relevant. Montaigne and Descartes influenced, respectively, Pascal's view of the Pyrrhonian skeptic and of the skeptical main arguments. The book shows that Charron's Academic skeptical wise man is one of the main targets of his projected apology for Christianity, since he considered him as a threat and counter-example of the kind of Christian view of human beings he believed. By restoring the historical philosophical relevance of Charron in early modern philosophy and arguing for the relevance of Academic skepticism in the period, this book opens a new research program to early modern scholars and will be valuable for those interested in the history of philosophy, French literature and religion.
A thorough industry analysis is of utmost importance for a study on the impact of technological changes on industry structure. This book evaluates the consequences of a vaguely chosen level of an industry analysis. Too broad a definition of the industry may disaggregate sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This is illustrated by revisiting an industry study upon which the dominant design model was based. Readers will see and understand the consequences of too broadly defined industries together with quantitative research approach can have. The book argues that the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis. This is done by revisiting the flat glass industry study, on which Anderson and Tushman's (1990) dominant design model is partly based. In their study Anderson and Tushman defined the flat glass industry based on four-digit SIC codes. It is argued that this definition was too broad and it disaggregated important sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This study uses more accurate analysis in five-digit SIC codes. The empirical findings of this study and Anderson and Tushman's study are different. Their broader industry definition revealed only the flat glass industry not two sub-industries: plate glass and sheet glass. According to this study the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis and performance parameter should defined be based on effectiveness instead of efficiency of the innovation. As a consequence of these clarifications this study regards contrary to Anderson and Tushman float glass as the dominant design.
This volume deals with the very novel issue of cyber laundering. The book investigates the problem of cyber laundering legally and sets out why it is of a grave legal concern locally and internationally. The book looks at the current state of laws and how they do not fully come to grips with the problem. As a growing practice in these modern times, and manifesting through technological innovations, cyber laundering is the birth child of money laundering and cybercrime. It concerns how the internet is used for 'washing' illicit proceeds of crime. In addition to exploring the meaning and ambits of the problem with concrete real-life examples, more importantly, a substantial part of the work innovates ways in which the dilemma can be curbed legally. This volume delves into a very grey area of law, daring a yet unthreaded territory and scouring undiscovered paths where money laundering, cybercrime, information technology and international law converge. In addition to unearthing such complexity, the hallmark of this book is in the innovative solutions and dynamic remedies it postulates.
This short, readable book is intended as a big-picture introduction/overview for environmental students and lay-people involved with environmental issues. Every freshman in college intending to study environmental science should read it. It begins with a historical perspective on waste and environmental control. Basic instruction on some important fundamentals faced by environmental professionals every day, such as sampling, analysis, data visualization, risk assessment and forensic chemistry are provided in the following chapter. Important regulatory fundamentals, such as the National Contingency Plan, which is the U. S. regulatory framework for addressing hazardous waste is also defined. The book concludes with pertinent and provocative considerations on the future of environmental management, such as alternative approaches (technical impracticability), the "not-in-my-backyard syndrome," and the safety of chemicals in consumer products. The book contains many useful facts about waste production rates, energy use and recycling rates--all referenced to allow substantiation and provide a springboard for further research.
This book analyses local school district governance in a comparative, cross-cultural perspective based on national studies of local school boards in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The overarching research question explored by the national studies contained in this volume is: How are transnational influences of standardization and accountability, alongside national policies, transformed into local policy cultures by the school boards? In all the Nordic countries, the municipalities are equivalent with the school district level, and municipalities, as such, play a role as the interface between state policies and the schools. This book discusses the variation across different national systems in the Nordic countries in the degree of decentralism, as well as the processes through which sources of political autonomy are put into practice by school boards. It explores the interplay between context and policy-making at the local level, and analyses how local discourses expressed by school boards differ from national policies and trans-national influences. The book's analysis of the country-cases and thematic chapters shows that there are both important similarities and significant differences in governance functions, power relations and understandings of school board chairs and members between the countries studied. Moreover, the book analyses the many ways in which these similarities and differences affect the work context of school leaders and teachers in the Nordic countries.
A Quick Guide to Cancer Epidemiology is an ideal addition to Springer Briefs in Cancer Research. The Brief provides core concepts in cancer epidemiology and also gives a snapshot of the epidemiology of seventeen human cancers The Brief aims to provide-with quantitative focus-estimates of the global burden of neoplasms, of recent and likely future trends, distribution, causes and strategies for prevention for major groups of cancers. Finally, the Brief will give an overview of severals factors that cause cancer including dietary factors, tobacco smoking, obesity and alcohol consumption.
A number of highly informative books have been written about what is often called the "Armenian Genocide". This book, written by a political scientist, offers a different approach: It doesn't concentrate on the past; it concentrates on the present, and shows how this past event is perceived and discussed today. The idea is that the arguments deployed in this debate, those which allege that what happened amounts to genocide and those which deny this claim reveal something about cognitive structures of present agents, such as the Turkish government, as well as about the meaning and use of the term "genocide". Analyzing current positions and communication on this historical event thereby helps to illuminate present notions of identity, justice and interethnic coexistence.
Context-aware systems aim to deliver a rich user experience by taking into account the current user context (location, time, activity, etc. ), possibly captured without his intervention. For example, cell phones are now able to continuously update a user's location while, at the same time, users execute an increasing amount of activities online, where their actions may be easily captured (e. g. login in a web application) without user consent. In the last decade, this topic has seen numerous developments that demonstrate its relevance and usefulness. The trend was accelerated with the widespread availability of powerful mobile devices (e. g. smartphones) that include a myriad of sensors which enable applications to capture the user context. However, there are several challenges that must be addressed; we focus on scalability (large number of context aware messages) and privacy (personal data that may be propagated). This book is organized in five chapters starting with an introduction to the theme raising the most important challenges. Then, chapter two presents several important definitions (establishing a common ground for the following chapters) and taxonomy. These are important to chapter three which describes some of the most relevant distributed context-aware systems that can be classified according to the taxonomy. Privacy is addressed in chapter four and chapter five presents some important conclusions. The audience for this book is wide; researchers, students and professionals interested in the areas addressed will find the most relevant information regarding scalability and privacy in distributed context-aware systems.
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