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The world as it is viewed from modern physics and cosmology has many strange and unexpected features. Often these are in stark contrast with our everyday experience or our preconceptions, such as the concept of space and time as finite and changeable. Nevertheless it is this strange world which is the fundamental basis of our existence. Therefore modern science also has a few things to say about the age-old questions: Who are we? - Where do we come from? - Where are we going? The author, an experienced scientist and teacher, presents the knowledge that we have about our world for non-experts. He takes us on a journey through cosmology and the quantum world of elementary particles. And he sketches the impact of the insights gained into philosophical assumptions and religious beliefs in these disciplines. In the end he asks the speculative question whether there is something beyond the limits of the natural sciences.
The current volume is a collection of papers representing the most recent developments in linguistics, specifically in the fields of language, discourse and translation studies. It includes papers representative of traditionally distinguished linguistic subdisciplines such as phonetics and phonology, morphology and syntax, historical linguistics, pragmatics, discourse analysis and sociolinguistics, as well as translation. Since the contributions contained in the book touch upon such a variety of disciplines and do so from both more traditional and more innovative perspectives, it will be an important point of reference for scholars, graduate students and lecturers teaching courses in linguistics.
Adaptive immune responses serve as a key defense mechanism for the control of infections in vertebrates. Immune responses must be of sufficient strength to contain invading pathogens, antigen specific responses require regulatory mechanisms to ensure termination or downmodulation to avoid excessive damage to the host tissue. For both branches of the adaptive immune system, regulatory molecules i.e. coreceptors and ligands have been identified that control the signaling cascades initiated by engagement of the T cell and B cell antigen receptors. This book describes biological functions as well as molecular mechanisms of these molecules.
Predicting thermodynamic quantities for chemically realistic systems on the basis of atomistic calculations is still, even today, a nontrivial task. Nonetheless, accurate treatment of inter-particle interactions, in terms of quantum chemical first principles methods, is a prerequisite for many applications, because of the complexity of both reactants and solvents in modern molecular sciences. Currently, a straightforward calculation of thermodynamic properties from these methods is only possible for high-temperature and low- density systems. Although the enthalpy of a system can often be predicted to a good level of precision with this ideal gas approach, calculating the entropy contribution to the free energy is problematic, especially as the density of the system increases. This thesis contains a compact and coherent introduction of basic theoretical features. The foundations are then laid for the development of approaches suitable for calculation of condensed phase entropies on the basis of well-established quantum chemical methods. The main emphasis of this work is on realistic systems in solution, which is the most important environment for chemical synthesis. The presented results demonstrate how isolated molecular concepts typically employed in modern quantum chemistry can be extended for the accurate determination of thermodynamic properties by means of scale- transferring approaches.
The intention of this book was to have investigators describe an expert opinion on their field of research and cutting-edge work in their laboratory on the neurobiology and treatment of eating disorders.
The silencing of gene expression by small interfering RNAs has been recognized for only a relatively short time, but this has transformed our understanding of both transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms. Multiple pathways culminate in formation of an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) containing a member of the Argonaute protein family bound to a 22-nt RNA strand that interacts with a target mRNA or gene through Watson-Crick base pairing. One consequence is mRNA-specific inhibition of protein synthesis. Evidence has been presented for diverse mechanisms, but there is not universal agreement in the field of how RISCs affect the translational machinery. The chapters collected in this volume represent contribution by leaders in the search to understand how miRNAs affect translation. They include chapters representing work in plants and Caenorhabditis elegans, the biological systems that originally led to the discovery of small interfering RNAs, but also include chapters on mammalian systems, with special emphasis on regulation of a key tumor suppressor and a protein that restricts human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).
All individuals who operate in the business sphere, whether as consumers, employers, employees, entrepreneurs, or financial traders to name a few constituents, share a common biological heritage and are defined by a universal human nature. As such, it is surprising that so few business scholars have incorporated biological and evolutionary-informed theories within their conceptual toolboxes. This edited book addresses this lacuna by culling chapters at the intersection of the evolutionary behavioral sciences and specific business contexts including in marketing, consumer behavior, advertising, innovation and creativity, intertemporal choice, negotiations, competition and cooperation in organizational settings, sex differences in workplace patterns, executive leadership, business ethics, store design, behavioral decision making, and electronic communication. To reword the famous aphorism of T. G. Dobzhansky, nothing in business makes sense except in the light of evolution.
This work reviews the state of the art in SVM and perceptron classifiers. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is easily the most popular tool for dealing with a variety of machine-learning tasks, including classification. SVMs are associated with maximizing the margin between two classes. The concerned optimization problem is a convex optimization guaranteeing a globally optimal solution. The weight vector associated with SVM is obtained by a linear combination of some of the boundary and noisy vectors. Further, when the data are not linearly separable, tuning the coefficient of the regularization term becomes crucial. Even though SVMs have popularized the kernel trick, in most of the practical applications that are high-dimensional, linear SVMs are popularly used. The text examines applications to social and information networks. The work also discusses another popular linear classifier, the perceptron, and compares its performance with that of the SVM in different application areas. >
English-medium universities around the world face real challenges in ensuring that incoming students have the language and literacy skills they need to cope with the demands of their degree programmes. One response has been a variety of institutional initiatives to assess students after admission, in order to identify those with significant needs and advise them on how to enhance their academic language ability. This volume brings together papers from Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Oman, South Africa and the United States, written by language assessment specialists who discuss issues in the design and implementation of these post-admission assessments in their own institutions. A major theme running through the book is the need to evaluate the validity of such assessments not just on their technical quality but on their impact, in terms of giving students access to effective means of developing their language skills and ultimately enhancing their academic achievement.
This book offers systematic instruction and evidence-based guidance to academic authors. It demystifies scholarly writing and helps build both confidence and skill in aspiring and experienced authors. The first part of the book focuses on the author's role, writing's risks and rewards, practical strategies for improving writing, and ethical issues. Part Two focuses on the most common writing tasks: conference proposals, practical articles, research articles, and books. Each chapter is replete with specific examples, templates to generate a first draft, and checklists or rubrics for self-evaluation. The final section of the book counsels graduate students and professors on selecting the most promising projects; generating multiple related, yet distinctive, publications from the same body of work; and using writing as a tool for professional development. Written by a team that represents outstanding teaching, award-winning writing, and extensive editorial experience, the book leads teacher/scholar/authors to replace the old "publish or perish" dictum with a different, growth-seeking orientation: publish and flourish.
This book provides an overview of Moving Target Defense (MTD) and the importance of developing novel MTD schemes to protect distributed systems. It presents MTD-based research efforts to protect cloud data centers, along with network and security risk-aware approaches to place Virtual Machines (VM) in cloud data centers. These approaches include MTD-based network diversity models that enable an evaluation of the robustness of cloud data centers against potential zero-day attacks. Since these models can be used as a security metric the authors include different network configurations and policies, consider the similarity and dissimilarity of network resources, and account for minimum impact to maximum impact attacks. Also offered is a framework for determining the cost of MTD-based VM migration on cloud data centers. Designed for researchers and practitioners, Moving Target Defense for Distributed Systems enables readers to understand the potential of MTD capabilities. It enables defenders to change system or network behaviors, policies, and configurations automatically to keep potential attack surfaces protected. Advanced level students in computer science, especially those interested in networks and security, will benefit from this book.
This book approaches the differential diagnosis and management of rare, hereditary cancer syndromes from a practical angle, addressing the issues pertinent to each tumour type as encountered by health professionals in their day-to-day practice. This book enables readers to correctly identify patients with rare cancer syndromes who would benefit from genetic counselling and testing, and provides the necessary knowledge for appropriate patient management and advising at-risk family members. It begins by describing recent advances in genetic testing for cancer-predisposing genes. Leading experts from Europe and Australia then offer detailed, up-to-date guidance on the diagnosis and management of a wide range of hereditary cancers. The concluding chapter examines the wider issues that are raised by genetic testing for rare cancer syndromes for patients, families and health professionals. This book is an invaluable source of information for all specialists involved in the care of such patients and their families.
This volume of the Series SpringerBriefs in Space Life Sciences summarizes the newest finding in the field of mental health and physiological exercise in Space. Currently two major challenges are impacting human health in the western societies, one being a move towards a sedentary society, the second one being longevity. Both have a considerable impact on physical as well as mental health. Space life science research helps to understand the underlying degenerative physiological and neuro-psychological processes as living in space, living in microgravity can be regarded as a time lapse of the sedentary and aging human being. Translational research of the past years has shown that exercise can be regarded as a key factor to counteract physical and mental deconditioning in space, guaranteeing a holistic approach to health and a benefit to the socio-demographic changes of our society. The book is written for scientists in biomedicine, more specific in aging research, sports physiology and neurosciences.
This book begins by giving a summary of sonochemistryand explains how a chemical reaction can be induced by the interaction of soundwaves and gas bubbles in liquids. The work outlines how primary and secondaryradicals combined with the physical effects generated during acousticcavitation are active in the ultrasonic synthesis of a variety of functionalmaterials. The brief covers hot topics that include ultrasonic synthesis ofvarious functional materials covering the following broad areas: acoustic cavitationand sonochemistry, synthesis of functional polymers and their applications, synthesisof functional inorganic materials and their applications, improving functionality of food/dairy systems, synthesis of functionalbiomaterials and their applications, synthesis of graphene based catalytic materials. Theory is kept to a minimum. The book is aimed at individuals at universitiesand will also interest those in industry. It is suitable for all levels.
This book provides hands-on information on how to manage pregnant cancer patients in clinical practice. In this context a multidisciplinary perspective is essential, and contributions are accordingly presented from experts in surgical management, medical oncology, radiotherapy, pharmacokinetics, obstetric care, psychological care, neonatal and pediatric care. In addition a series of chapters focused on management in particular disease settings are presented, including breast cancer, melanoma, cervical cancer, ovarian tumors, lymphoma, leukemia, and thoracic cancers. The book reflects the major progress that has been achieved in the care of pregnant cancer patients in the recent years as important data have become available on patient management, and fetal safety in addition to valuable preclinical research on the impact of pregnancy on pharmacokinetics of anti-cancer agents. Edited and authored by worldwide leaders in the field, it will serve as a valuable resource not only for oncologists but also for obstetricians, gynecologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians caring for pregnant cancer patients and their newborns.
This book is designed to meet the needs of nurse practitioners, advanced practice nurses and also physician assistants, working in urology. The full range of domains of practice is covered, including assessment and diagnosis, clinical management, nurse practitioner and patient relationships, consultation, health promotion and disease prevention, and practice management and research. Some background knowledge is assumed regarding the normal anatomy and physiology of the genitourinary system and the pathophysiology underlying specific urologic health-related problems. The Nurse Practitioner in Urology will be invaluable in ensuring that the nurse practitioner is able to maintain exemplary management of patients with acute and chronic urologic conditions in a wide variety of settings, including independent practices, hospitals, and academic urologic practices. It explains fully the role of the nurse practitioner as a skilled clinician in urology, blending nursing and medical management and capable of managing many chronic nonoperative urologic conditions while recognizing those conditions which may benefit from surgical management. As populations continue to age worldwide, there is no doubt that the provision of advanced urologic care by nurse practitioners is an area that will continue to expand, benefiting from additional training and expertise.
This book describes a large number of open problems in the theory of stochastic neural systems, with the aim of enticing probabilists to work on them. This includes problems arising from stochastic models of individual neurons as well as those arising from stochastic models of the activities of small and large networks of interconnected neurons. The necessary neuroscience background to these problems is outlined within the text, so readers can grasp the context in which they arise. This book will be useful for graduate students and instructors providing material and references for applying probability to stochastic neuron modeling. Methods and results are presented, but the emphasis is on questions where additional stochastic analysis may contribute neuroscience insight. An extensive bibliography is included. Dr. Priscilla E. Greenwood is a Professor Emerita in the Department of Mathematics at the University of British Columbia. Dr. Lawrence M. Ward is a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Brain Research Centre at the University of British Columbia.
In this book, the four leading experts on the ACE inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine and the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine explain the practical pharmacology of these symptomatic drugs with the aim of providing a sound basis for their clinical use in patients with Alzheimer's disease. In addition, an introductory chapter considers the basic theory of pharmacology for Alzheimer's disease and the book closes with an overview of the ways in which symptomatic drugs for dementia are used. The wide acceptance of the amyloid cascade hypothesis has led to vigorous development of disease-modifying drugs for Alzheimer's disease, such as amyloid vaccinations and gamma- or beta-secretase inhibitors. The failure of clinical trials of these drugs to yield satisfactory results has, however, meant that for the time being patients continue to be treated only with symptomatic drugs. There is accordingly a need to become more proficient in the use of symptomatic medicines, and it is against the background of this quest that Practical Pharmacology for Alzheimer's Disease will be of wide interest.
This brief examines recent developments in the Heterogeneous Vehicular NETworks (HETVNETs), integrating cellular networks with Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) for meeting the communications requirements of the Intelligent Transport System (ITS)services. Along with a review of recent literature, a unified framework of the HetVNET is presented. The brief focuses on introducing efficient MAC mechanisms for vehicular communications, including channel access protocols, broadcast/multicast protocols, the location-based channel congestion control scheme and the content-based resource allocation scheme. The cooperative communication between vehicles is discussed. This brief concludes with a discussion on future research directions, and provides the readers with useful insights into the future designs in the HetVNETs, to motivate new ideas for performance improvements in vehicular networks.
This book develops a comprehensive framework for creating sustainable new business approaches on a massive scale. It relates the power of entrepreneurship, investment and technology to four areas in which progress is urgently needed to get out of the world's current impasse. These are: game-changing innovations in companies; a way forward for the global fashion industry that reconciles competitiveness and worker dignity; turning around the energy crisis; and restoring capital markets to being the funders of human progress and prosperity that they once were--the pieces of the puzzle that is our future. Numerous case studies and actionable guidelines show how to concretely get the job done.
Plant RNA- and DNA-viruses have small genomes and with this limited coding capacity exhibit a strong dependency on host cellular processes and factors to complete their viral life cycle. Various interactions of viral proteins or nucleic acids with host components (proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids and metabolites) evolved, which are essential for a successful systemic spread of viruses within the plant. For example, in plants, transport of endogenous macromolecules like proteins and nucleic acids occurs in a highly selective and regulated manner and viruses exploit these specifically controlled trafficking pathways. Research on plant virus movement is located at the interface of molecular plant virology and plant cell biology. The proposed book project aims to give an overview on the current state of this research and to highlight novel insights into the dynamic interplay between plant viruses and host cells. The book is intended for researchers in plant biology and virology and especially written for those who aim to understand cell biology of virus-plant interactions.
This book describes the complex processes involved in styrene degradation by microbes, including highly adaptive microorganisms, the various enzymes involved in styrene biodegradation, new styrene-catabolic routes, novel regulatory mechanisms, and the genes coding for styrene metabolizing enzymes. Numerous biotechnological applications are discussed, such as the development of sustainable eco-friendly technologies as well as the use of styrene degrading microorganisms and their enzymes as a rich resource for biotechnology.
This book presents and analyzes the concept of online brand communities, an emerging and exciting topic in marketing and eCommerce. First, it lays out the foundations like the evolution of the Web and the so-called Social Web, its utility for users and businesses, and the evolution of the marketing mind-set to adapt the Social Web. On this basis, the book then presents a detailed analysis of online brand communities, examining the concept of virtual community with a specific focus on virtual brand communities. In this context the book also explores recent trends related to branding and brand management. Next, it proposes a classification system for online brand communities, taking into account questions like the motivating factors for consumers to join, participate and stay in a community. The process of value creation in communities is examined from both business and consumer perspectives. The book draws to a close with a brief presentation of the process broadly accepted for the successful development of online brand communities.
The first authoritative textbook specifically addressing issues of the field, this book delivers a focused discussion on several themes in psychiatry while providing a sound background on pharmacovigilance. Internationally-recognised researchers, clinicians and pharmacovigilance experts contributed to this textbook, giving it the benefit of different perspectives and years of experience. Pharmacovigilance in psychiatry provides a thorough introduction to this field but goes on to explore advanced themes such as methodologies and resources used for pharmacovigilance in psychiatry, challenges as well as most recent developments to this field, making it suitable for under-graduates, graduate and post-doctoral students and persons working pharmacovigilance who seek to broaden their knowledge on this subject.
This volume thoroughly explores of the functional role of microRNAs in cancer. It not only expertly describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the malignant transformation process but also compiles cutting-edge research on microRNAs in several forms of cancer, including colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, leukemia/lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and bone cancer. Distinguished experts, currently working in prestigious institutions, elegantly discuss these fundamental themes. The text, which opens with a foreword by the renowned Dr. Carlo M. Croce, is enhanced by abundant color photographs, schemes, diagrams, and tables that fully support and complement the content. microRNA: Cancer is an ideal companion to both microRNA: Basic Science andmicroRNA: Medical Evidence. Taken together, these three books provide a state-of-the-art overview of this rapidly-expanding and fascinating field, from the molecular level to clinical practice. It will be invaluable to medical students, physicians, and researchers, as a complete and unique guide in the exploration of microRNA in basic science, cancer and clinical practice.