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This book discusses Asia's rapid pace of urbanization, with a particular focus on new spaces created by and for everyday religiosity. The essays in this volume - covering topics from the global metropolises of Singapore, Bangalore, Seoul, Beijing, and Hong Kong to the regional centers of Gwalior, Pune, Jahazpur, and sites like Wudang Mountain - examine in detail the spaces created by new or changing religious organizations that range in scope from neighborhood-based to consciously global. The definition of "spatial aspects" includes direct place-making projects such as the construction of new religious buildings - temples, halls and other meeting sites, as well as less tangible religious endeavors such as the production of new "mental spaces" urged by spiritual leaders, or the shift from terra firma to the strangely concrete effervesce of cyberspace. With this in mind, it explores how distinct and blurred, and open and bounded communities generate and participate in diverse practices as they deliberately engage or disengage with physical landscapes/cityscapes. It highlights how through these religious organizations, changing class and gender configurations, ongoing political and economic transformations, continue as significant factors shaping and affecting Asian urban lives. In addition, the books goes further by exploring new and often bittersweet "improvements" like metro rail lines, new national highways, widespread internet access, that bulldoze - both literally and figuratively - religious places and force relocations and adjustments that are often innovative and unexpected. Furthermore, this volume explores personal experiences within the particularities of selected religious organizations and the ways that subjects interpret or actively construct urban spaces. The essays show, through ethnographically and historically grounded case studies, the variety of ways newly emerging religious communities or religious institutions understand, value, interact with, or strive to ignore extreme urbanization and rapidly changing built environments.
'Learning Bodies' addresses the lack of attention paid to the body in youth and childhood studies. Whilst a significant range of work on this area has explored gender, class, race and ethnicity, and sexualities - all of which have bodily dimensions - the body is generally studied indirectly, rather than being the central focus. This collection of papers brings together a scholarly range of international, interdisciplinary work on youth, with a specific focus on the body. The authors engage with conceptual, empirical and pedagogical approaches which counteract perspectives that view young people's bodies primarily as 'problems' to be managed, or as sites of risk or deviance. The authors demonstrate that a focus on the body allows us to explore a range of additional dimensions in seeking to understand the experiences of young people. The research is situated across a range of sites in Australia, North America, Britain, Canada, Asia and Africa, drawing on a range of disciplines including sociology, education and cultural studies in the process. This collection aims to demonstrate - theoretically, empirically and pedagogically - the implications that emerge from a reframed approach to understanding children and youth by focusing on the body and embodiment.
This monograph examines the influence of ideational and socio-economic factors on Japanese marriage and fertility behaviour. It also investigates the historical change in attitudes toward partnership and family in Japan, which, if current trends continue, can lead to population shrinkage and an asymmetrical age structure. The author first details the differences between ideational and economic approaches. He examines these two behavioural models from a viewpoint of rational choice theory, which he then follows with a discussion on the influence of institutional contexts on matrimony and childbirth. Next, the book considers salient features of Japanese marriage behaviour, including the relation between these patterns and changes in society and the influence of marriage on attitudes toward partnership and family relations. Coverage then goes on to explore the influence of ideational factors on fertility and analyse the impact of childbirth on couples' attitudes. The author also investigates attitudinal changes between generations in Japan. He provides a theoretical review on the relation between socio-economic development and value-orientation as well as looks at the difference in attitudes from a viewpoint of cohorts and periods. Overall, the book presents an authoritative, theoretical and empirical analysis using data from panel and repeated cross-sectional surveys. Throughout, the author clearly identifies the sources of his data as well as the methods used in his analysis.
This book examines essential problems in the current International Monetary System, especially those concerning the International Standard. To do so, it focuses on the different monetary systems of today's major currencies - the US dollar, the euro and the CNY, as well as the performance of the standards used in the international monetary system, i. e. , the SDRs. In addition, it projects the potential consequences of including the Chinese CNY in the current SDR system, thus proposing a reform of the SDRs. The analytical research is mainly based on a performance comparison of the major international standards in the current international monetary system. The author illustrates that the political/policy reactions and economic philosophies underlying each monetary system constitute not only reasonable responses to the current international monetary system, but also fundamental factors in decisions concerning changes to or reforms of the international monetary system. div>
This book provides a comprehensive understanding of public hospital reform in China, which is a hot topic for China's new round of health sector reform. The authors use rich data from both health provider side and service user side and conduct a cross-sectional study in China with some comparative analysis between different locations. It provides the audience with a big picture of China's public hospital and other components of health system as well. The book reviews the main policy measurements in the public hospital reforms and evaluates how these policies influence public hospitals' practices, especially on hospital governance and internal management.
In the middle years of the ninth-century, the fierce Danes stormed onto British soil, hungry for spoils and conquest. Kingdom after kingdom fell to the ruthless invaders until but one realm remained. And suddenly the fate of all England--and the course of history--depended upon one man, one king.From New York Times bestselling storyteller Bernard Cornwell comes a rousing epic adventure of courage, treachery, duty, devotion, majesty, love, and battle as seen through the eyes of a young warrior who straddled two worlds.
This edited volume explores the interplay between philosophies in a wide-ranging analysis of how technological applications in science inform our systems of thought. Beginning with a historical background, the volume moves on to explore a host of topics, such as the uses of technology in scientific observations and experiments, the salient relationship between technology and mechanistic notions in science and the ways in which today's vast and increasing computing power helps scientists achieve results that were previously unattainable. Technology allows today's researchers to gather, in a matter of hours, data that would previously have taken weeks or months to assemble. It also acts as a kind of metaphor bank, providing biologists in particular with analogies (the heart as a 'pump', the nervous system as a 'computer network') that have become common linguistic currency. This book also examines the fundamental epistemological distinctions between technology and science and assesses their continued relevance. Given the increasing amalgamation of the philosophies of science and technology, this fresh addition to the literature features pioneering work in a promising new field that will appeal both to philosophers and scientific historiographers.
This is a completely revised and updated second edition of Rights Before Courts (2005, paper edition 2008). This book carefully examines the most recent wave of the emergence and case law of activist constitutional courts: those that were set up after the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe. In contrast to most other analysts and scholars, the study does not take for granted that they are a "force for good" but rather subjects them to critical scrutiny against a background of wide-ranging comparative and theoretical analysis of constitutional judicial review in the modern world. The new edition takes in new case law and constitutional developments in the decade since the first edition, including considering the recent disturbing disempowerment of the Hungarian Constitutional Court (which previously was probably the most powerful constitutional court in the world) resulting from the fundamental constitutional changes brought about by the Fidesz government.
This volume deals with strategies aimed at increasing psychological well-being in both clinical and non-clinical settings, with a special focus on the impact of cross-cultural influences on these processes. Consisting of two parts, the book first examines clinical interventions for increasing well-being and positive functioning in adult populations. It looks at cultural differences in the experience of psychological well-being, presents an analysis of the concept of psychological well-being and discusses various interventions, including Well-Being Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Other concepts discussed are post-traumatic growth, wisdom and motivation. The second part of the book deals with psychological interventions in childhood and adolescence and has a strong emphasis on educational settings. It provides an overview of the main evidence-based psychotherapies for affective disorders in youths, and looks at the importance and impact of positive education, resilience, and hope. The book presents models for intervention and discusses several therapies in detail.
The collective, inclusive, and intersectional framework used in this book speaks to the significance of understanding aging across diverse cultures from multiple perspectives, but still as a shared human experience The underlying message of the book is that although we are unique and different in our aging processes, we are ultimately connected through this physical, mental and spiritual experience of aging Thus, regardless of whether we are service providers, service recipients, educators or merely fellow human beings, it is important that we approach the aging experience through a collective lens for discovering and sharing resources as we age; honoring the past while simultaneously accepting that the future is here. A few select examples of key findings from this collaborative work are as follows First, despite progress in the field, certain issues remain to be addressed including the challenges of racism and sexism, mistreatment, the digital divide, poverty, and other social and economic crises in urban and rural communities as they relate to our aging population Second, the need for sustaining a sense of independence among the aged and interdependence among supportive systems is warranted Third, our elders continue to benefit from culturally competent services community-based health interventions and social services that addresses normative and emerging challenges for them Fourth, spirituality in both indigenous and contemporary perspectives remains important for our elders' development and quality of life.
This book considers the question: to what extent does it make sense to qualify technical artefacts as moral entities? The authors' contributions trace recent proposals and topics including instrumental and non-instrumental values of artefacts, agency and artefactual agency, values in and around technologies, and the moral significance of technology. The editors' introduction explains that as 'agents' rather than simply passive instruments, technical artefacts may actively influence their users, changing the way they perceive the world, the way they act in the world and the way they interact with each other. This volume features the work of various experts from around the world, representing a variety of positions on the topic. Contributions explore the contested discourse on agency in humans and artefacts, defend the Value Neutrality Thesis by arguing that technological artefacts do not contain, have or exhibit values, or argue that moral agency involves both human and non-human elements. The book also investigates technological fields that are subject to negative moral valuations due to the harmful effects of some of their products. It includes an analysis of some difficulties arising in Artificial Intelligence and an exploration of values in Chemistry and in Engineering. The Moral Status of Technical Artefacts is an advanced exploration of the various dimensions of the relations between technology and morality
The book Gamete and Embryo-fetal Origins of Adult Diseases introduces various diseases resulting from the abnormal gametogenesis and embryo development, which manifests as growth retardation, birth defects, or increased susceptibility to chronic metabolic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in childhood and adult life, even fertility disorders and the risk of transgenerational transmission. Six common kinds of these diseases are discussed in separate chapters. The authors explore the connections between these diseases and epigenetic reprogramming, rapid cell differentiation and organ formation and environmental influences, including assisted reproductive technology and adverse intrauterine environments. With a summary of findings on the causes and progression of adult diseases at the phase of gametogenesis and embryo development, this book provides insights into the pathogenesis of disease and aids in the treatment and prevention of disease, meeting the requirement for improving the quality of the newborn population, and effectively preventing and curing major diseases at an early stage. This book offers new perspectives and will be an enlightening resource for obstetricians, paediatricians, epidemiologists, endocrinologists and sanitarians. Editor He-Feng Huang, M. D. , is Professor and President of Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China. Editor Jian-Zhong Sheng, Ph. D. , is Professor at the Department of Pathology & Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China.
This book has two mutually reinforcing aims/parts. The first aim is to contribute to a more productive debate between different theoretical standpoints. There is surprisingly little theoretical and conceptual debate in this burgeoning field, which is one major reason for the failure to fully grasp the diversity of today's interregionalism. Too often theorists speak past each other, without really engaging with alternative theoretical perspectives or competing research results. Indeed, this book constitutes the first systematic attempt to bring together leading theories and theorists of interregionalism. Leading scholars from around the world develop their own distinctive theoretical perspectives on interregionalism, with a particular emphasis on the dynamic relationship between regionalism and interregionalism. These highly acclaimed theorists have all been associated over the years with a variety of disciplines, institutions, schools and debates and so bring a rich set of insights and connections to this pioneering project. The second part of the book 'unpacks' and problematises the region, the driving actors and institutions that are engaged in interregional relations. There is a strong tendency in the field to treat regions as coherent units actors in an interregional relationship, and such simplified notions about 'regions' and 'regional organisations' necessarily result in superficial and misleading understandings of interregionalism. This part of the book connects the theoretical discussion in the first part with a manageable empirical object.
The book focusses on questions of individual and collective action, the emergence and dynamics of social norms and the feedback between individual behaviour and social phenomena. It discusses traditional modelling approaches to social norms and shows the usefulness of agent-based modelling for the study of these micro-macro interactions. Existing agent-based models of social norms are discussed and it is shown that so far too much priority has been given to parsimonious models and questions of the emergence of norms, with many aspects of social norms, such as norm-change, not being modelled. Juvenile delinquency, group radicalisation and moral decision making are used as case studies for agent-based models of collective action extending existing models by providing an embedding into social networks, social influence via argumentation and a causal action theory of moral decision making. The major contribution of the book is to highlight the multifaceted nature of the dynamics of social norms, consisting not only of emergence, and the importance of embedding of agent-based models into existing theory.
This book explores a new pedagogical model called The Third Model, which places the encounter between the child and the curriculum at the center of educational theory and practice. The Third Model is implemented in an alternative classroom called Community of Thinking. Teaching and learning in a Community of Thinking is based on three "stations": the fertile question; research; and concluding performance. The essence of a Community of Thinking is the formation of a group of students and teachers who grapple with a troubling question to which they do not know the answer at the outset - and sometimes even at the end of their investigation. The Community of Thinking framework is supported by a whole school model - the Intel-Lect School. The model, or parts of it, is currently implemented in schools in Israel, England, Australia, and New Zealand. The book suggests a new pedagogical narrative based on alternative "atomic pictures" of learning, teaching, knowledge, mind and the aim of education, and a systematic pedagogical practice based on this narrative.
The book provides an overview of current trends in biotechnology and medicinal plant sciences. The work includes detailed chapters on various advance biotechnological tools involved in production of phytoactive compounds of medicinal significance. Some recent and novel research studies on therapeutic applications of different medicinal plants from various geographical regions of the world have also been included. These studies report the antimicrobial activity of various natural plant products against various pathogenic microbial strains. Informative chapters on recent emerging applications of plant products such as source for nutraceuticals and vaccines have been integrated to cover latest advances in the field. This book also explores the conservation aspect of medicinal plants. Thus, chapters having comprehensively complied in vitro conservation protocols for various commercially important rare, threatened and endangered medicinal plants were provided in the present book.
"Applied Computational Genomics" focuses on an in-depth review of statistical development and application in the area of human genomics including candidate gene mapping, linkage analysis, population-based, genome-wide association, exon sequencing and whole genome sequencing analysis. The authors are extremely experienced in the area of statistical genomics and will give a detailed introduction of the evolution in the field and critical evaluations of the advantages and disadvantages of the statistical models proposed. They will also share their views on a future shift toward translational biology. The book will be of value to human geneticists, medical doctors, health educators, policy makers, and graduate students majoring in biology, biostatistics, and bioinformatics. Dr. Yin Yao Shugart is investigator in the Intramural Research Program at the National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland USA.
Nitrous oxide gas is a long-lived relatively active greenhouse gas (GHG) with an atmospheric lifetime of approximately 120 years, and heat trapping effects about 310 times more powerful than carbon dioxide per molecule basis. It contributes about 6% of observed global warming. Nitrous oxide is not only a potent GHG, but it also plays a significant role in the depletion of stratospheric ozone. This book describes the anthropogenic sources of N2O with major emphasis on agricultural activities. It summarizes an overview of global cycling of N and the role of nitrous oxide on global warming and ozone depletion, and then focus on major source, soil borne nitrous oxide emissions. The spatial-temporal variation of soil nitrous oxide fluxes and underlying biogeochemical processes are described, as well as approaches to quantify fluxes of N2O from soils. Mitigation strategies to reduce the emissions, especially from agricultural soils, and fertilizer nitrogen sources are described in detail in the latter part of the book.
Reunification is a primary goal of foster care systems and the most common permanency planning decision. It is defined as the return of children placed in protective care to the home of their birth family and used to describe the act of restoring a child in out-of-home care back to the biological family. Yet reunification decision-making and the process of reintegrating children into birth families remains under researched. This Brief takes a look at family reunification knowledge and research in Australia where there is evidence that most children placed in protective care are eventually reunited with their birth parents. It explores how a knowledge of reunification decision making and outcomes can contribute to strengthening practice and informing policy formulation and program planning in Child Welfare.
The growing knowledge on tumor-immune response interactions and on the tumor microenvironment did not translate so far into better control of cancer by anti-tumor vaccination. The percentage of patients who benefited from vaccination strategies is still too small to justify their general use. It is the aim of this book to present an alternative to the conventional approach of developing injected tumor vaccines to activate anti-tumor immunity, which will fight cancer. It is argued that in situ tumor ablation (destruction) that involves tumor antigen release; cross presentation and the release of danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can make the tumor its own cellular vaccine. Tumor ablation methods using chemicals, radiation, photodynamic therapy, cryoablation, high-temperature, radiofrequency, high intensity focused ultrasound, and electric-based ablation have been developed for focal tumors. In this book experts will deal with two main topics: I. What are the principles of the various ablation modalities, and II. How each method affects the tumor cells and their microenvironment, and how these effects are responsible for the induction of specific anti-tumor immunity. The aims of this book are thus: 1. Familiarize the readers with various methods of in situ tumor ablation. 2. Review the literature and stimulate comparisons on the efficacy of different ablation methods for the treatment of tumors of different histotypes. 3. Review the literature on the effects of various ablation methods on systemic and local anti tumor immunity and on other manifestations of the interactions of tumors with their microenvironment. 4. Stimulate comparative studies on the immunostimulatory effects of different ablation modalities.
The second edition will be an update and further elaboration of the literature related to subjective well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction. It will have a new substantial section that focuses on reviewing much of the literature of subjective well-being within specific life domains (social life, material life, leisure life, work life, community life, spiritual life, family life, health life, sex life, travel life, etc.) In the 1st edition the research in these various life domains was discussed only briefly. The second edition will maintain the same organizational structure of the first edition; that is, Part 1 will focus on introduction (definitions and distinctions; examples of measures of subjective well-being, happiness, and life satisfaction; and motives underlying subjective well-being). Part 2 will focus on psychological strategies that are allow people to optimize subjective well-being by engaging in psychological processes related to the relationship between and among life domains (e.g., social life, family life, love life, spiritual life, community life, financial life, etc.) This part will contain four chapters related to these various "inter-domain" processes: bottom-up spillover, top-down spillover, horizontal spillover, and compensation. Part 3 of the book will focus on "intra-domain" psychological strategies designed to optimize subjective well-being. These include re-evaluation based on personal history, re-evaluation based on self-concept, re-evaluation based on social comparison, goal selection, goal implementation and attainment, and re-appraisal. Part 4 of the book will focus on balance processes--how people attempt to create balance in their lives using psychological processes within specific life domains (intra-domain strategies) and processes that relate one domain to another (inter-domain strategies).
This birefs examines mortality among young children in the period from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. It does so using several types and sources of information from the census unit England and Wales, and from Ireland. The sources of information used in this study include memoirs, diaries, poems, church records and numerical accounts. They offer descriptions of the quality of life and child mortality over the three centuries under study. Additional sources for the nineteenth century are two census-derived numerical indexes of the quality of life. They are the VICQUAL index for England and Wales, and the QUALEIRE index for Ireland. Statistical procedures have been applied to the numbers provided by the sources with the aim to identify effects of and associations between such variables as gender, age, and social background. The briefs examines the results to consider the impact of children's deaths upon parents and families, and concludes that there are differences and continuities across the centuries.
"Although standards-based reform emerged in the United States and the United Kingdom, the idea has spread across the world, as an approach to systemic reform. It might appear that there is a world-wide "tsunami" of standards-based reform that will standardize and homogenize the educational system across the globe. This volume makes it very clear, however, that there is no one approach to standards-based reform and countries change - there is a danger in paying attention to its evolution and impact in only one context. That's what makes this volume so valuable. Louis Volante has drawn together descriptions from a wide range of countries, all involved in large-scale reform and using standards and assessments as part of their process. What becomes very obvious is that the language may be the same but the words reflect different contexts and can represent very different ideals, values, and processes. I'm sure you will find this book as interesting and challenging as I have - a gem that pushes your thinking and does not allow readers to remain neutral." (Lorna Earl)
The capability approach of Martha Nussbaum and Amartya Sen places human capabilities at the centre stage of discussions about justice, equality, development and the quality of life. It rejects too much emphasis on mere preference satisfaction or resource provision and highlights the importance of human agency and freedom. This approach has already significantly influenced different fields of application, such as economics and development studies. Only recently have scholars started to explore its relevance for and application to the area of technology and design, which can be crucial factors in the expansion of human capabilities. How does technology influence human capabilities? What difference could a capability approach make to policies and practices of applying ICT in development processes in the South? How can we criticize and improve the design of technology from the perspective of the capability approach? The authors of this volume explore the implications of the capability approach for technology & design and together create the first volume on this emerging topic.
The US is currently well ahead of the rest of the world in the development and application of SB and its principles especially as they pertain to basic medical research and development. This lead is largely due to its earlier start in the academic arena. However, there is evidence of rapid development in both the UK/EU and Japan, and the gap is narrowing, particularly in the UK. From an industrial point of view, the Pharmaceutical Industry based in the US and UK can capitalize on these opportunities and gain the benefits of this technology. Many educational institutions (particularly their medical divisions) at present are heavily business-oriented, realize that in this particular industrial environment, that every dollar counts.
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