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This book describes the mechanisms of nutrient taken up by plants at the biochemical and molecular level. This is a new concept developed over the past 30 years, primarily due to use of modern technology developed in biotechnological research, instrumentation, modern computation facilities, bioinformatics, the large volumes of information generated by use of various 'omics' and of course the dedicated hard work of a large number of researchers. Recent research indicates that nutrient uptake, its transport and redistribution in plants are under genetic control. There are groups of genes for each nutrient that encode transporter proteins whose functions are to acquire the specific nutrient from the soil and transport it across the plasma membrane of the root hair cells for use in plant metabolism. Deficiency or sufficiency of a plant nutrient induces different groups of genes to produce m-RNA transcripts for translation of transporter proteins. A large number of metabolic enzymes are up or down regulated in response to deficiency of plant nutrients. Morphological and metabolic adaptations in order to better acquire nutrients and use them frugally when nutrients are scarce in the growth medium can be observed in plants. Heavy metals, which are toxic to plants, induce different sets of defence mechanisms. In 20 chapters, the book describes plants' uptake mechanisms for all the major, secondary and micronutrients, beneficial elements and heavy metals. References to research work quoted in the text are updated up to 2014 and included at the end of each chapter. Biotechnological approaches to improving nutrient use efficiency are discussed wherever such information is available. The structure and functions of transporter proteins involved in the uptake of nutrients are discussed. Additional information on some of the specific topics is provided in text boxes or as separate sections within the chapters. Lastly, the terminology used has been explained as far as possible in the text, mostly within parentheses.
Genetic mapping and marker assisted selection (MAS) is considered as one of the major tools in genetic improvement of crop plants in this genomics era. This book describes basics in linkage mapping, step-by-step procedure to perform MAS, achievements made so far in different crops, and limitations and prospects of MAS in plant breeding. It summarizes all this in a simple but comprehensive mode using suitable examples so as to explain the concept and its historical developments. To summarize, this book describes technologies for identification of genes of interest through genetic mapping, recaps the major applications of MAS to plant breeding; lists examples in which MAS is being applied to various breeding programs, and emphasizes the various difficulties that limit the application of MAS in plant breeding, providing possible solutions to overcome these difficulties, and finally tries to illustrate the future prospects. This book would be a valuable guide to the under-graduates and post-graduates of agricultural universities and institutes that are interested and/or involved in genetic improvement of crop plants using modern tools. Bibliography listed in this book constitutes two parts: literature cited and further reading. Literature cited contains references cited in the text and further information on the given concept/technique can be obtained from these references. Further reading provides a list of suggested readings for in-depth coverage of the topics.
This cinematic story about legendary Cosmopolitan editor and champion of the single girl Helen Gurley Brown chronicles her rise as a cultural icon who redefined what it means to be an American woman.In 1965, Helen Gurley Brown, author of the groundbreaking bestseller Sex and the Single Girl, took over an ailing Cosmopolitan and soon revamped it into one of the most bankable--and revolutionary--brands on the planet. At a time when women's magazines taught housewives how to make the perfect casserole, Helen spoke directly to the single girl next door, cheekily advising her on how to pursue men, money, power, pleasure, and, most of all, personal happiness.In this retro romp that will appeal to fans of Mad Men, journalist Brooke Hauser reveals how a self-proclaimed "mouseburger" from the Ozarks became one of the most influential women of her time. Though she was married (to the renowned movie producer David Brown), no one embodied the idea of the Cosmo Girl more than Helen, who willed, worked, and flirted her way to the top. Bringing New York City vibrantly to life during the sexual revolution and the women's movement, and featuring a rich cast of characters, including Hugh Hefner and Gloria Steinem, Enter Helen is the riveting story of a polarizing pioneer who bucked convention to define her own destiny, baiting a generation that both revered and rejected her.
Human iPS cells have a great potential to be cell sources forregenerative medicine because of the promise of infinite self-renewal and thecapability to differentiate into multiple cell types. This book focuses onanother great potential of human iPS cells, which is the establishment of humandisease models using patient-specific iPS cells. Human iPS cells can be easilyobtained from a patient's somatic cells and provide the entire information on thepatient's genome. Accordingly, we can generate disease models for inheritablediseases in cell culture dishes using iPS cells. This is a quite new techniquebut holds tremendous potential for our increased understanding of pathogenesis,and will then be the basis for novel drug development industries. All theauthors are leading researchers in this field and they have reported many kindsof patient-derived iPS cells. In this book, they introduce the aspects thatcould be recapitulated in terms of disease modelling as well as furtherinnovative findings such as novel pathogenetic insights and novel therapies.
The Asian model of export-led growth served it well in the post-war period, but prolonged sluggish growth of the developed economies following the global financial crisis, together with growing inequality and rising environmental problems, point to the need for a new growth model. The purpose of this book is to describe the challenges facing Asian economies in the post-global financial crisis environment and to identify structural issues and policies that can help guide Asian policymakers to expand the growth potential of domestic and regional demand in coming years, and thereby create a basis for balanced, sustainable, and inclusive long-term growth. These issues and policies span a variety of dimensions, including macroeconomic policy (monetary, fiscal, and foreign currency management), real sector issues (trade and industrial structure), infrastructure development, labor market and social policy, financial sector reform and regulation, and regional cooperation and architecture. Key recommendations to achieve these goals include measures to: deepen social protection to support social resilience; increase infrastructure investment to create a "seamless Asia"; enhance productivity in the services sector; establish a region-wide free trade agreement to encourage intraregional trade in goods and services and investment through economies of scale and dynamic efficiency of a larger market; promote a shift to a low-carbon society and support green growth; and deepen and integrate financial markets to facilitate the recycling of Asia's high savings for investment within the region.
This book provides a unique comparative view of the extremely low fertility and drastic population aging in Eastern Asian countries. After discussing demographic and political developments of Japan in detail as a reference case, accelerated changes in Korea, Taiwan and China are interpreted with a comparative cultural view. In addition to the well-known cultural divide between countries with strong and weak family ties, this book proposes another divide between offspring of the feudal family and that of the Confucian family. Included is a discussion of how the discrepancy between the compressed change in the socioeconomic system and the slow change in the family system has resulted in extremely low fertility in Eastern Asia. A comparison of policy development reveals that the sense of overpopulation has caused difficulty in launching pro-natal policy interventions in Eastern Asia, especially in China. Impacts of fertility decline on population aging, total dependency ratio and the timing of population decline in Eastern Asia are analyzed with a stylized model. The remaining Confucian family pattern is especially important in understanding and predicting political development to cope with accelerated population aging. This book is a valuable resource for researchers who are interested in the latest and most surprising demographic phenomena in the region.
The international literature on non-standard employment has mostly focussed on its impact on employment, and more recently on working and living conditions. This volume explores these issues with special reference to Italy. Italy is characterized by very low participation rates (particularly women's), a high degree of fragmentation of labour contracts and a very intense non-standard work diffusion that make this context a particularly interesting case for analysis. New elements of discussion are provided with reference to the interaction of non-standard work, employment probability and living conditions. Interesting insights on the impact of non-standard work on the transition to stable employment and workers' careers emerge, suggesting a possible failure of companies' internal systems of work evaluation. The effects on labour productivity and on companies' performance are analysed. Within this framework, a new perspective on quality of work is suggested.
This book provides a pragmatic analytical model grounded on the solid idea that technologies and the accompanying implementation efforts only make sense if they are successfully deployed in markets. The analytical model also provides an exhaustive analysis of all critical variables at the global, regional and national levels, which contribute to failure or success of technology transfer efforts. The model is validated by an incisive analysis of technology transfer experiences of Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan (province of China), and Malaysia. While this book finds that these East Asian countries have had both diverging and converging models, and experiences with technology transfer, the enduring and fundamental aspects of technology transfer in specific industrial sectors and economic growth in these countries is then used to draw lessons for African countries. This book therefore is a timely and compelling piece of research work that provides valuable answers to the increasingly urgent question of how African countries can industrialize through technology transfer to meet their economic development and growth ideals.
This book breaks with convention and provides an overview of Chinese history in the form of special topics. These topics include the major issues of "A Scientific Approach to the Origins of Chinese Civilization," "Ancient Chinese Society and the Change of Dynasties," "The Golden Ages of the Han, Tang and Qing Dynasties: a Comparative Analysis," "Transportation Systems and Cultural Communication in Ancient China," "Ethnic Relations in Chinese History," "The Systems of Politics, Law and Selecting Officials in Ancient China," "Agriculture, Handicraft and Commerce in Ancient China," "The Military Thought and Military Systems of Ancient China," "The Rich and Colorful Social Life in Ancient China," "The Evolution of Ancient Chinese Thought," "The Treasure House of Ancient Chinese Literature and Art," "The Emergence and Progress of Ancient Chinese Historiography," "Reflection on Ancient Chinese Science and Technology," "New Issues in the Modern History of China," and "A General Progression to the Socialist Modernization of the People's Republic of China. " The book is based on current literature and research by university students. The modern history section is relatively concise, while the topics related to ancient Chinese history are longer, reflecting the country's rich history and corresponding wealth of materials. There is also an in-depth discussion on the socialist modernization of the People's Republic of China. The book provides insights into Chinese history, allowing readers "to see the value of civilization through history; to see the preciseness of history through civilization. " It focuses on the social background, lifestyle and development processes to illustrate ideologies and ideas.
This book examines in detail the basic trajectory of the cultural transformation and brings to light the extrinsic conditions and intrinsic mechanisms involved. It focuses on the period from after the Opium Wars to the New Culture Movement, as the New Culture Movement can be considered a pivotal phase in the cultural transformation of modern-day China. The New Culture Movement was a revolutionary eruption triggered by the accumulation of all the new qualitative cultural factors since the Opium Wars. Superficially, the movement's goal seemed to be to overthrow the traditional culture. But in essence its true objective was to conduct an overall "screening" of that culture. The book elaborates a broad variety of points in this context, including: the ideological and cultural evolution following the Opium Wars; the pressing challenges faced by "Zhong Ti"; the initial shaping of social, public and cultural spaces and major trends in ideological and cultural transformation at the end of the Qing Dynasty; the political disarray and conflicts between the new and old ideology in the first years of the Republic; the rise of the New Culture Movement; and the role of conservatism in the transition to a modern culture.
This publication provides an unparalleled comparative analysis of two "hot topics" in the field of antitrust and unfair competition laws with regard to a number of key countries. The first part of the book examines whether small and middle-sized businesses could or should be subject to specific competition rules. These businesses account for 99% of the enterprises in Europe and the United States, making this a particularly important topic. The papers consider both the public and private enforcement rules across a range of jurisdictions and a detailed international report, prepared by Michele Carpagnano, identifies general trends and highlights differences and the most interesting features of national regulations. The second part of the book gathers contributions from various jurisdictions on the unfair competition question of whether a company could or should be protected against the use of their trademark, distinctive signs and other components of their image and identity on the part of non-competing companies. The papers focus on the fundamental issue of the competitive relationship as a condition of protection under unfair competition acts and the connection to intellectual property protection. The comprehensive and insightful international report, prepared by Martine Karsenty-Ricard, brings together these reflections by comparing various national positions. The book also includes the resolutions passed by the General Assembly of the LIDC following a debate on each of these topics, which include proposed solutions and recommendations. The International League of Competition Law (LIDC) is a long-standing international association that focuses on the interface between competition law and intellectual property law, including unfair competition issues.
Even though Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become a widely accepted concept promoted by different stakeholders, business corporations' internal strategies, known as corporate self-regulation in most of the weak economies, respond poorly to this responsibility. Major laws relating to corporate regulation and responsibilities of these economies do not possess adequate ongoing influence to insist on corporate self-regulation to create a socially responsible corporate culture. This book describes how the laws relating to CSR could contribute to the inclusion of CSR principles at the core of the corporate self-regulation of these economies in general, without being intrusive in normal business practice. It formulates a meta-regulation approach to law, particularly by converging patterns of private ordering and state control in contemporary corporate law from the perspective of a weak economy. It proposes that this approach is suitable for alleviating regulators' limited access to information and expertise, inherent limitations of prescriptive rules, ensuring corporate commitment, and enhance the self-regulatory capacity of companies. This book describes various meta-regulation strategies for laws to link social values to economic incentives and disincentives, and to indirectly influence companies to incorporate CSR principles at the core of their self-regulation strategies. It investigates this phenomenon using Bangladesh as a case study.
Non-suicidal self-injury and eating disorders represent significant problems among today's youth and pose unique challenges for clinicians, particularly when they co-occur. This book is a rare resource in that it provides cutting-edge information on the interactions between self-injury and disordered eating, empirically informed treatments for the co-occurrence of these behaviors, and specific topics relevant to understanding nuances in the risk factors, treatment, and prevention of both self-injury and eating disorders. Practitioners, graduate students, and researchers working within this specialized area will find this text to be instrumental in advancing their knowledge and improving the treatment of self-injury in those with eating disorders.
This is the first ever anthology of key articles by Johan Galtung, widely regarded as the founder of the academic discipline of peace studies. It covers such concepts as direct, structural and cultural violence; theories of conflict, development, civilization and peace; peaceful conflict transformation; peace education; mediation; reconciliation; a life-sustaining economy; macro-history; deep culture and deep structure; and social science methodology. Galtung has contributed original research, concepts and theories to more than 20 social science disciplines, including sociology, international relations and future studies, and has also applied his new insights in practice. The book is a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners, and can serve as a supplemental textbook for graduate and upper undergraduate courses in peace studies and related fields.
The monograph constitutes an attempt to demonstrate that trilinguals should be considered as learners and speakers in their own right as opposed to L2 learners with a view to enumerating consequences this would bring to third or additional language teaching. Its theoretical part offers an insight into the structure of the multilingual mental lexicon which is a product of the interplay of a whole array of cross-linguistic factors in the minds of multilingual speakers. The empirical part reports the findings of an empirical study which aimed to investigate connections which are formed between multiple languages in a multilingual mind. All the aspects, analyzed in the experiments are part of a broader question of how multilinguals make their lexical decisions and, more specifically, how they recognize words from different languages. The book closes with the discussion of the role of the obtained results for multilingual didactics as well as some possible areas for future research.
Interest in regional anaesthesia has been flourishing for a number of reasons, including in particular the feasibility of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks. This trend is reflected in the growing popularity of fellowships in regional anaesthesia. The syllabus for such fellowship examinations is vast, and the current book aims to provide suitable guidance by presenting typical multiple choice questions with accompanying answers, in detail when necessary. The entire syllabus is covered in four sections that address basic principles and equipment, peripheral nerve blocks, central neuraxial blocks, and regional anaesthesia and acute pain. This book will be especially useful for those preparing for European Society of Regional Anaesthesia diploma examinations or for the regional anaesthesia component of FRCA examinations. It is also highly relevant to equivalent U.S. and Canadian examinations and will be helpful to all who require a self-assessment tool in the subject.
The rapid population growth and the increase in the per capita income, especially in the group of emerging countries referred to as BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) has created huge pressure for the expansion of the agricultural growing area and the crop yields to meet the rising demand. As a result, many areas that have been considered marginal for growing crops, due to their low fertility, drought, salinity, and many other abiotic stresses, have now been incorporated in the production system. Additionally, climate change has brought new challenges to agriculture to produce food, feed, fiber and biofuels. To cope with these new challenges, many plant breeding programs have reoriented their breeding scope to stress tolerance in the last years. The authors of this book have collected the most recent advances and discoveries applied to breeding for abiotic stresses in this book, starting with new physiological concepts and breeding methods, and moving on to discuss modern molecular biological approaches geared to the development of improved cultivars tolerant to most sorts of abiotic stress. Written in an easy to understand style, this book is an excellent reference work for students, scientists and farmers interested in learning how to breed for abiotic stresses scenarios, presenting the state-of-the-art in plant stresses and allowing the reader to develop a greater understanding of the basic mechanisms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and how to breed for them.
The studies described in this volume serve as a starting point to familiarize one self with the multifarious differences in epigenetic designs that orchestrate the progression of developing blood cells. They also may serve as a general paradigm for the mechanisms that underpin the control of eukaryotic gene expression.
This book describes the processes through which rates for energy consumption are derived, ranging from initial analyses of the supply and demand parameters to the final forms and levels of end-use consumer prices. The author argues against aggressive accounting procedures, and suggests criteria for choosing firm's position on pending public policy issues. A handbook on energy formulae for non-professionals is included in the book. The author is adjunct professor at the University of Portland.
The emphasis of this book is on engineering aspects of fluid turbulence. The book explains for example how to tackle turbulence in industrial applications. It is useful to several disciplines, such as, mechanical, civil, chemical, aerospace engineers and also to professors, researchers, beginners, under graduates and post graduates. The following issues are emphasized in the book: - Modeling and computations of engineering flows: The author discusses in detail the quantities of interest for engineering turbulent flows and how to select an appropriate turbulence model; Also, a treatment of the selection of appropriate boundary conditions for the CFD simulations is given. - Modeling of turbulent convective heat transfer: This is encountered in several practical situations. It basically needs discussion on issues of treatment of walls and turbulent heat fluxes. - Modeling of buoyancy driven flows, for example, smoke issuing from chimney, pollutant discharge into water bodies, etc
Political and economic institutions are typically governed by committees that face the challenge to reconcile the preferences of their members. How should decision rules be designed to generate fair and sustainable agreements, for example if committee members represent groups of different sizes? This book uses game-theoretic concepts and models to address the issue of political decision-making processes. In addition to providing a survey on basic game-theoretic tools in the analysis of political decisions, the author looks at specific issues such as two-tiered voting systems or the influence of lobbyists on legislative committees, and shows how the models can be applied to real-world contexts such as the EU decision-making institutions.
This book contains an edited selection of the papers accepted for presentation and discussion at the first International Symposium on Qualitative Research (ISQR2016), held in Porto, Portugal, July 12th-14th, 2016. The book and the symposium features the four main application fields Education, Health, Social Sciences and Engineering and Technology and seven main subjects: Rationale and Paradigms of Qualitative Research (theoretical studies, critical reflection about epistemological dimensions, ontological and axiological); Systematization of approaches with Qualitative Studies (literature review, integrating results, aggregation studies, meta -analysis, meta- analysis of qualitative meta- synthesis, meta- ethnography); Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (emphasis in research processes that build on mixed methodologies but with priority to qualitative approaches); Data Analysis Types (content analysis, discourse analysis, thematic analysis, narrative analysis, etc. ); Innovative processes of Qualitative Data Analysis (design analysis, articulation and triangulation of different sources of data images, audio, video); Qualitative Research in Web Context (eResearch, virtual ethnography, interaction analysis, latent corpus on the internet, etc. ); Qualitative Analysis with Support of Specific Software (usability studies, user experience, the impact of software on the quality of research. "
The present work aims to cover the perspectives of biosurfactants, which can be of interest in food-related industries and biomedical applications. Biosurfactants are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules extensively produced by bacteria, yeast and fungi. Despite having significant potential associated with emulsion formation, anti-adhesive and antimicrobial activities, considerably few applications have been reported regarding applications of biosurfactants in food formulations and processing. The utilization of biosurfactants, which are highly functional in food and biomedical applications, has become more and more significant. Along with providing an overview of biosurfactant properties, the book suggests how these properties could be applicable in the food industry.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the IFIP WG 11. 4 International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, iNetSec 2015, held in Zurich, Switzerland, in October 2015. iNetSec is the main workshop of the IFIP working group WG 11. 4; its objective is to present and discuss open problems and new research directions on all aspects related to network security. The 9 revised full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 13 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: network security; intrusion detection; anonymous communication; and cryptography.
This timely volume explores the use of CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing, presenting cutting-edge techniques and their applications in treatment of disease. The chapters describe latest methods such as use of targetable nucleases, investigation of the non-coding genome, mouse genome editing, increasing of knock-in efficiency in mouse zygotes, and generation of reporter stem cells; the text contextualizes these methods in treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, retinitis pigmentosa, and others. The final chapters round out the book with a discussion of controversies and future directions. Genome Editing is an essential, of-the-moment contribution to this rapidly growing field. Drawing from a wealth of international perspectives, it presents novel techniques and applications for the engineering of the human genome. This book is essential reading for all clinicians and researchers in stem cells, regenerative medicine, genomics, biochemical and biomedical engineering- especially those interested in learning more about genome editing and applying it in a targeted, specific way.