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This book addresses the challenging task of demand forecasting and inventory management in retailing. It analyzes how information from point-of-sale scanner systems can be used to improve inventory decisions, and develops a data-driven approach that integrates demand forecasting and inventory management for perishable products, while taking unobservable lost sales and substitution into account in out-of-stock situations. Using linear programming, a new inventory function that reflects the causal relationship between demand and external factors such as price and weather is proposed. The book subsequently demonstrates the benefits of this new approach in numerical studies that utilize real data collected at a large European retail chain. Furthermore, the book derives an optimal inventory policy for a multi-product setting in which the decision-maker faces an aggregated service level target, and analyzes whether the decision-maker is subject to behavioral biases based on real data for bakery products.
This book looks at health policy through the lens of public versus private: population health versus the somatic, social, or emotional experiences of a patient. Rather than presenting policy/ethics as overly technical, this book takes a novel approach of framing public and private health in terms of political philosophy, ethics, and popular examples. Each chapter ties back to the general ethics or political literature as applicable, which are not customarily parts of the current public health curriculum. The author's work on the Orgcomplexity blog has touched on this subject by systemically exploring public policy issues, and the tone of this book mimics the blog with an extension of the arguments.
The most distinctive feature of the Second Edition is its theoretical orientation coupled with a focus on understanding emerging and young adulthood from multiple perspectives. The updated and expanded book offers readers an opportunity to "listen to the voices" of emerging and young adults, parents, and employers, which is key to understanding this particular developmental period. In addition, the case studies provided throughout the book are diverse and detailed. The issues of emerging adulthood are complicated, nuanced, and defy easy characterizations. This book provides an opportunity to debunk many established pernicious stereotypes about emerging and young adults. The presentation of diverse voices and case material serves as a springboard for discussion and engages readers with material depicting emerging adults in the throes of working through developmental challenges characteristic of this period. In addition, the recent economic downturn has created havoc and further instability in the lives of emerging and young adults. The Second Edition focuses on the effects of - as well as possible solutions to - unemployment on emerging and young adults. A new chapter focuses on career experimentation versus career floundering, which is an important distinction. Additional new chapters address the effects of technology as well as depression and anxiety on emerging and young adults. The Second Edition examines emerging and young adulthood within a larger developmental and ecological context. In addition, it ensures that readers are well positioned to understand how the developmental demands of this period intersect with current economic, social, and political realities. It is a must-have resource for developmental, clinical child and school psychologists, rehabilitation counselors and therapists, I/O psychologists, and sociologists as well as for researchers and graduate-level students across these various disciplines.
Putting forward a unified presentation of the features and possible applications of probabilistic preferences composition, and serving as a methodology for decisions employing multiple criteria, this book maximizes reader insights into the evaluation in probabilistic terms and the development of composition approaches that do not depend on assigning weights to the criteria. With key applications in important areas of management such as failure modes, effects analysis and productivity analysis - together with explanations about the application of the concepts involved -this book makes available numerical examples of probabilistic transformation development and probabilistic composition. Useful not only as a reference source for researchers, but also in teaching classes of graduate courses in Production Engineering and Management Science, the key themes of the book will be of especial interest to researchers in the field of Operational Research.
This book deals with anti-dumping measures (AD) and investigates two questions: First, what country characteristics affect AD use and notably, do domestic political institutions have an effect? Second, (how) is the decision to impose a new AD measure affected by anticipation of trading partners' potential retaliation? This book applies a strategic perspective to AD to address these questions, presenting a game-theoretic model together with an empirical test. The approach sheds light on the dynamics of interaction between trading partners and allows to capture selection processes which underpin the trade restrictions that can actually be observed. The book provides a fresh look on when and how trading powers apply antidumping measures, how this is shaped by strategic interaction and whether institutions do make a difference to the outcome. In a period in which the international trading system has to cope with numerous stresses such as an increased resort to administered protection largely by big emerging economies, this is a timely and important contribution. Dr. Klaus Günter Deutsch, Managing Director, Research, Economic and Industrial Policy, German Federation of Industries This book successfully integrates two research traditions in international politics - the traditional view that looks at domestic factors of anti-dumping policies and the strategic view that conditions the imposition of anti-dumping measures on the likely, retaliatory behavior of the trading partner. The result is an informative and constructive examination of anti-dumping protection and trade wars in the WTO. Prof. Dr. Thomas Bräuninger, Chair of Political Economy, University of Mannheim, Germany "The Political Economy of Anti-Dumping Protection - A Strategic Analysis" is a major contribution to the important and growing field international political economy. Starting with the "traditional" comparative institutional analysis, which focuses on the implications of democratic and non-democratic regimes for using anti-dumping measures in trade politics, the second part applies a strategic perspective on this type of sanctions uncovering the dynamic interactions between a challenging and challenged countries. For all those interested in understanding the logic of sanctions, the role of institutions, and in how to examine the implications of theoretical models for international political economy this book is a "must read". Prof. Dr. Thomas König, Chair of Political Science II, University of Mannheim, Germany.
The volume provides analyses and evaluations of the continuing importance of Europe's autonomy in its access to space as a key driver in the development of European space capabilities. From a detailed historical analysis of some of the pitfalls of dependence in the space industry, experts analyse the full range of current European space capabilities and identify areas where autonomy is both possible and required, even in a situation of severe budgetary constraints. The contributions present a comprehensive overview of European efforts in a broad range of areas including energy, culture, science, and security; access to space, space applications, human spaceflight, security and space situational awareness, and strategic issues. They make a cogent strategic and economic case for policy makers to continue to bear in mind the importance of autonomous space capabilities, even in an interdependent globalised world.
The period immediately following Kenya's 2007 presidential election left a shocking trail of atrocities, with over 1,000 people dead and countless thousands left victimised and displaced. In response, the International Criminal Court began a series of investigations and trials, promising no impunity for even the highest ranking perpetrators. When the country's president and vice-president were implicated in the crimes, the case took on worldwide significance. The International Criminal Court and the End of Impunity in Kenya is a five-year study addressing critical human rights issues with a global reach and is the first detailed account of the ICC's intervention in Kenya. It probes the relationship between the ICC and state institutions, known as positive complementarity, and asks whether the ICC's intervention led to an end to impunity. The author provides comprehensive analysis of the Waki Commission's sealed envelope, the government's attempts to establish a special tribunal and the trials in The Hague. He also provides in depth consideration of any influence the ICC's intervention may have had on the passing of a new constitution, the establishment of a truth commission and important reforms to the judiciary, police and witness protection programme. Documenting the effects of these interventions on the Kenyan people, and on the country's legal and judicial systems, the book provides vital lessons in global justice as it: *Details the ICC's involvement in Kenya in the aftermath of extreme violence and instability *Evaluates the ICC prosecutor's strategy of positive complementarity *Identifies optimal conditions for positive complementarity to be effective *Links cultures of impunity to state-sponsored corruption *Explores the possible impact of the ICC on national and global policy *Discusses implications in responding to future crimes against humanity Replete with official government sources, The International Criminal Court and the End of Impunity in Kenya is necessary reading for researchers and practitioners working in public international law, particularly those specialising in conflict and post-conflict states.
This book explores the perceptions of academic staff and representatives of institutional leadership about the changes in academic careers and academic work experienced in recent years. It emphasizes standardisation and differentiation of academic career paths, impacts of new forms of quality management on academic work, changes in recruitment, employment and working conditions, and academics' perceptions of their professional contexts. The book demonstrates a growing diversity within the academic profession and new professional roles inhabiting a space which is neither located in the core business of teaching and research nor at the top level management and leadership. The new higher education professionals tend to be important change agents within the higher education institutions not only fulfilling service and bridging functions but also streamlining academic work to make a contribution to the reputation and competitiveness of the institution as a whole. Based on interviews with academic staff, this book explores the situation in eight European countries: Austria, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Romania, and Switzerland.
This Brief synthesizes findings from recent experiments on jealousy in infants with insights from pioneering thinkers in developmental science. It discusses attachment issues, status of jealousy as an emotion and as a feature of temperament, underpinnings in social cognition, the development of adaptive versus maladaptive presentations, and facets of jealousy that may be part of a normal repertoire of coping strategies. This unique volume also identifies facial, vocal, and bodily responses associated with jealousy as well as situations of differential treatment by caregivers that may bring them about. This knowledge is as useful in studying children's emotional development as it is in addressing jealousy-based challenges in growing families. Among the featured topics: Jealousy in infants, defended and defined. A theory of jealousy as temperament. Sadness, anger, fear, and love. Individual differences and normativity. Child and contextual influences on individual differences. Implications for clinical intervention: preparing for a sibling's arrival. Jealousy in Infants is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians, and graduate students in developmental psychology, infant mental health, and social psychology.
This book discusses the various antioxidants that are in use to overcome oxidative stress in an assisted reproduction setting. Antioxidant therapies may range from enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, either alone or in combination. While no one antioxidant regime has been identified as effective in improving fertilization and pregnancy rates, antioxidant supplementation has been shown to defend sperm cells from lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and thus improve pregnancy rates. The prevention of oxidative stress and its consequent damage is imperative to ensure a successful outcome of the in vitro fertilization procedure and embryo transfer. Strategies that could be employed to minimize or prevent the detrimental effects of OS during assisted reproduction include supplementation with various types of antioxidants.
Malaria remains an alarming emergency in developing countries. It is thus urgent to identify any parasite or host molecules that can serve as new affordable markers for early diagnosis of disease complications or as new targets for vector control. In this context, human and mosquito lysozymes are good candidate molecules, as their involvement in malaria has been recently reported by several independent groups. This book reviews the grounded knowledge on malaria etiology and physiopathology, as well as the current approaches for diagnosis, therapy, and vector control. In addition, the emerging evidence on the involvement of human and mosquito lysozymes in malaria from available experimental models and clinical studies is thoroughly discussed, as is the potential use of other antimicrobial peptides against malaria. Intriguingly, the contributors propose that old well-known molecules such as lysozymes might be used as new targets for cost-effective strategies to fight malaria.
This volume is an inter-disciplinary scholarly resource bringing together contributions from writers, experienced academics and practitioners working in fields such as human rights, humanitarian law, public policy, psychology, cultural and peace studies, and earth jurisprudence. This collection of essays presents the most up to date knowledge and status of the field of transitional justice, and also highlights the emerging debates in this area, which are often overseen and underdeveloped in the literature. The volume provides a wide coverage of the arguments relating to controversial issues emanating from different regions of the world. The book is divided into four parts which groups different aspects of the problems and issues facing transitional justice as a field, and its processes and mechanisms more specifically. Part I concentrates on the traditional means and methods of dealing with past gross abuses of power and political violence. In this section, the authors also expand and often challenge the ways that these processes and mechanisms are conceptualised and introduced. Part II provides a forum for the contributors to share their first hand experiences of how traditional and customary mechanisms of achieving justice can be effectively utilised. Part III includes a collection of essays which challenges existing transitional justice models and provides new lenses to examine the formal and traditional processes and mechanisms. It aims to expose insufficiencies and some of the inherent practical and jurisprudential problems facing the field. Finally, Part IV, looks to the future by examining what remedies can be available today for abuses of rights of the future generations and those who have no standing to claim their rights, such as the environment.
This book gives an overview of various interactomes involved in dorsal ventral (DV) and anterior posterior (AP) guidance, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localizations, and functional roles. It will provide readers a better understanding of the development of the nervous system, which in turn will help to find cures to various neural and other disorders. In nematodes there are two types of guidance systems, including DV and AP guidance. The signaling process that guides the growth cones along the DV axis has remained intact in both vertebrates and invertebrates. The adaptor protein UNC-53 appears to play a part in migration along the AP axis in both worms and their human homologs. "Neuron Navigators" (NAV) are also involved in nervous system development
This book describes the water sector as it is structured in Italy. The first part describes the legal framework which rules the sector in Italy, its evolution since the last 20 years, and its weaknesses. The second part describes the governance of Italian water utilities, distinguishing full public-owned companies from public-private partnership and private companies. The third part reports insights on water utilities performance to enquire the presence of economies by scope, scale and density in the Italian water sector, and to verify the presence of any differences in terms of efficiency and tariffs among public and private firms. The fourth part describes the investment policies carried out by water utilities, observing the total amount of per capita investments and the actual realization of planned investments. The fifth part describes if and how utilities applied water conservation practices to incentive the sustainable water use.
This book describes in detail the potential role of ICT and electronic systems, together with the application of Web 2. 0 technologies, in telepediatrics and child health. Rather than simply proposing engineering solutions that may soon become outdated, it is designed to address those real needs that telemedicine and developers are asked to meet. The orientation of the book is very much toward primary care and both low and high-income settings as well as extreme or complex scenarios are considered. The first two sections of the book describe different fields of application, such as the community, the hospital and children with chronic illnesses or special needs, and examine technical issues. The use of telemedicine in delivery of care in extreme rural settings and developing countries is then discussed, with attention also to major emergencies and humanitarian crises. The closing chapters consider the role of modern technologies in the education of caregivers who work with children. Child health is a crucial issue in both industrialized and developing countries. Telemedicine for Children's Health will be an excellent guide to the potential value of telemedicine devices in reducing the burden for children and parents and in offering quick and concrete solutions in low-resource scenarios.
This book examines and analyzes issues related to public finance in subnational governments, along with a discussion of case studies on decentralization. Most of the analysis applies to all public goods and services provided by subnational governments, with some placed on the role of subnational governments in the management of environmental resources, notably water and waste Coverage includes optimal arrangements for sharing fiscal responsibilities among different levels of government, the potential impact of decentralization on the quality of public goods delivery, local governments' expenditure and revenue choices, and the effect of decentralization on accountability, governance and policy outcomes. The scope of discussion extends to both public finance theory and applied policy debates. The first chapter, on trends in financing of public services, opens with an explanation of the how and why of government intervention in the economy, the nature and purposes of transfers between and among governments and trends in decentralization. Case studies examine the impact of decentralization in such areas as service delivery, water and sanitation, education and health, and on poverty and income inequality. Chapter 2 examines public budgets: governance structures, norms and organizational practices, building up understanding of budgets, budget cycles, fiscal revenues from fees and taxes, expenses, debt and political economy issues, rules mandating balanced budgets in government and more. Chapter 3 discusses issues of accountability and policy outcomes, offering important lessons from recent international experience, including ways to strengthen political, administrative and financial accountability. The concluding chapter recounts lessons from recent international experience and surveys implications for the nexus approach to management of environmental resources. The information, analysis and expert advice presented here is particularly relevant for developing and emerging countries, where well designed decentralization reforms have a higher potential to improve efficiency in the provision of public services, and to enhance the development of integrated and sustainable strategies for the use of water, soil and waste resources and applications that advance the nexus approach.
This book provides a practically oriented overview of internet-based treatments in psychiatry and mental health care, which represent a relatively new research area and offer a novel clinical approach. The principal focus is on internet-based cognitive behavior therapy, as this is currently the best example of evidence-based internet interventions in the field. Applications are described in a wide range of conditions, including, for example, depression, panic disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, eating disorders and addictions. Research background, clinical trials and evidence for efficacy and effectiveness are discussed and helpful case descriptions, provided. Information is also included on cost-effectiveness and other relevant aspects of health economics and on new technologies and future challenges. Guided Internet-Based Treatments in Psychiatry will be of great interest for practitioners and researchers alike.
This research examines the role of prosecutors within the United States and in Switzerland and is completed by an overview of the prosecution institutions in France and Germany. The research recognizes that despite seemingly very different legal traditions and structures, prosecutors in these systems are similar enough that each system might learn from the others. Drawing upon the experiences of other nations, this research proposes solutions to the problems identified in connection with the position and powers of public prosecutors in the United States. Furthermore, it outlines the problems related to the increase of prosecutorial power and the lessons the European criminal justice systems surveyed can draw from the experience in the US. In terms of methodology, this research not only considers formal legal provisions but also systematic structural factors, academic literature and statistics revealing how the law and governing principles actually work in practice.
The number of megacities worldwide is rapidly increasing and contemporary cities are also expanding fast. As a result, cities and their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of catastrophic natural events such as extreme weather events (recently more frequent and intense as a result of the ongoing climate changes), earthquakes, tsunamis or man-induced events such as terrorist attacks or accidents. Furthermore, due to increasing technological complexity of urban areas, along with increasing population density, cities are becoming more and more risk attractors. The resilience of cities against catastrophic events is a major challenge of today. It requires city transformation processes to be rethought, to mitigate the effects of extreme events on the vital functions of cities and communities. Redundancy and robustness of the components of the urban fabric are essential to restore the full efficiency of the city's vital functions after an extreme event has taken place. These items were addressed by an interdisciplinary and international selection of scientists during the 6th UN-World Urban Forum that was held in Naples, Italy in September 2012. This volume represents in six chapters the views from sociologists, economists and scientists working on natural risk and physical vulnerability on resilience and sustainability for future cities in relation to natural disasters.
This book reports on important nonlinear aspects or deterministic chaos issues in the systems of multi-phase reactors. The reactors treated in the book include gas-liquid bubble columns, gas-liquid-solid fluidized beds and gas-liquid-solid magnetized fluidized beds. The authors take pressure fluctuations in the bubble columns as time series for nonlinear analysis, modeling and forecasting. They present qualitative and quantitative non-linear analysis tools which include attractor phase plane plot, correlation dimension, Kolmogorov entropy and largest Lyapunov exponent calculations and local non-linear short-term prediction.
This volume considers the dynamic relations between the contemporary practices of international criminal tribunals and the ways in which competing histories, politics and discourses are re-imagined and re-constructed in the former Yugoslavia and beyond. There are two innovative aspects of the book - one is the focus on narratives of justice and their production, another is in its comparative perspective. While legal scholars have tended to analyze transitional justice and the international war tribunals in terms of their success or failure in establishing the facts of war crimes, this volume goes beyond mere facts and investigates how the courts create a symbolic space within which competing narratives of crimes, perpetrators and victims are produced, circulated and contested. It analyzes how international criminal law and the courts gather, and in turn produce, knowledge about societies in war, their histories and identities, and their relations to the wider world. Moreover, the volume situates narratives of transitional justice in former Yugoslavia both within specific national spaces - such as Serbia, and Bosnia - and beyond the Yugoslav. In this way it also considers experiences from other countries and other times (post-World War II) to offer a sounding board for re-thinking the meanings of transitional justice and institutions within former Yugoslavia. Included in the volume's coverage is a look at the Rwandan tribunals, the trials of Charles Taylor, Radovan Karadzic, the Srebrenica genocide, and other war crimes and criminals in the Yugoslav. Finally, it frames all of those narratives and experiences within the global dynamics of legal, social and geo-political transformations, making it an excellent resource for social science researchers, human rights activists, those interested in the former Yugoslavia and international relations, and legal scholars.
This brief discusses factors associated with group formation, group maintenance, group population structure, and other events and processes (e. g. , physiology, behavior) related to mammalian social evolution. Within- and between-lineages, features of prehistoric and extant social mammals, patterns and linkages are discussed as components of a possible social "tool-kit". "Top-down" (predators to nutrients), as well as "bottom-up" (nutrients to predators) effects are assessed. The present synthesis also emphasizes outcomes of Hebbian (synaptic) decisions on Malthusian parameters (growth rates of populations) and their consequences for (shifting) mean fitnesses of populations. Ecology and evolution (EcoEvo) are connected via the organism's "norms of reaction" (genotype x environment interactions; life-history tradeoffs of reproduction, survival, and growth) exposed to selection, with the success of genotypes influenced by intensities of selection as well as neutral (e. g. mutation rates) and stochastic effects. At every turn, life history trajectories are assumed to arise from "decisions" made by types responding to competition for limiting resources constrained by Hamilton's rule (inclusive fitness operations).
Welcome to Westmorland. Perhaps the most scenic county in England! Home of the poets! Land of the great artists! District of the Great Lakes! And the scene of a mysterious crime . . . Swanton Morley, the People's Professor, once again sets off in his Lagonda to continue his history of England, The County Guides.Stranded in the market town of Appleby after a tragic rail crash, Morley, his daughter Miriam and his assistant, Stephen Sefton, find themselves drawn into a world of country fairs, gypsy lore and Cumberland and Westmorland wrestling. When a woman's body is discovered at an archaeological dig, for Morley there's only one possible question: could it be murder?Join Morley, Miriam and Sefton as they journey along the Great North road and the Settle-Carlisle Line into the dark heart of 1930s England.
This book introduces a process-oriented dynamic capability framework to study both, service innovation and Business Process Management (BPM). Results from applications in several case studies and surveys are reported. They reflect, e. g. , capability development and maturity models. Based on these findings, a method to support service innovation is introduced. This method can help organizations in developing new service business models in a more effective and efficient way. In today's networked service society, service innovation becomes increasingly important. Reasons for this development can be found in the transformation of economies and in the growing importance of product-service systems. The concept of service innovation is related to Business Process Management (BPM) and shares several important traits. They both are process-oriented dynamic capabilities to adapt (service) processes to changing environments.
Public spending on infrastructure plays an important role in promoting economic growth and poverty alleviation. Empirical studies unequivocally show that under-investment in infrastructure limit economic growth. At the same time, numerous other studies have shown that investment in infrastructure can be a highly effective tool in fighting poverty reduction1. In that context, the financing of infrastructure has been a critical element of most economic growth and poverty reduction strategies in developing countries, since the start of this millennium. This book provides a comparative analysis of the aggregate and sectoral implications of higher spending on infrastructure in three very different Asian countries: China, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Particular attention is paid to the role of alternative financing mechanisms for increasing public infrastructure investment, namely distortionary and non-distortionary means of financing. The book will be of interest to scholars and policy-makers concerned with economic growth in developing countries.
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