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Pillsbury is transforming itself from an integrated producer of flour and bakery products to a value-added supplier of premium branded products. After initial successes applying activity-based costing to manufacturing operations, two senior executives decide to collaborate to propose a major reengineering project across the company's entire value chain. The case describes the project's definition and scope to yield projected annual cost savings and margin improvement between $100 and $300 million.
Strategic Implications for Health Care Providers: Moving to Value-Based Competition in the U.S. Health Care Systemby Michael E. Porter Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg
Providers, including hospitals, clinics, physician groups, and individual physicians, are the central actors in the health care system and the place where most value is actually delivered. Ultimately, it is how medicine is practiced, and the way patients are cared for, that will determine the success or failure of the health care system. Unfortunately, the strategies, organizational structures, and operating practices of many health care providers today are misaligned with value. This chapter frames the strategic challenges for providers in clarifying their goals and rethinking the service lines they will offer, and describes eight strategic and organization imperatives to compete on value, showing how several current providers are addressing them.
As this chapter illustrates, the tolerant company survives through fostering the growth of new people and absorbing new ideas.
This case looks at Unilever and its ongoing efforts at regional strategy and organizational change in Europe.
This case was written as the financial accounting portion of the final exam for a first-year MBA course at Harvard Business School. The goal was to test students' ability to apply major concepts taught during the course to an industry which they had not covered, but which shared similarities in terms of economics with issues addressed in the curriculum. The company, Tokyo Auto Fire & Marine (hereafter Tokyo AFM), is a fictitious insurance company based in Japan. The new CEO is revisiting the accounting choices of his predecessors in light of changes in the economic environment of the firm. The case can also be taught as a review session.
Unilever, one of the world's largest food product manufacturers, has achieved impressive growth in Europe, primarily by acquiring local food companies. Initially Unilever allowed each acquired company to manage its own product development in a way that was tailored to local tastes and competition. This case describes the struggles that European managers confronted in trying to establish stronger central direction over Pan-European product development, branding, and marketing.
The founders of Nantucket Nectars are trying to decide whether and how to sell their company.
Strategic Fit: Pulling Opportunities from Strategy--Aligning Innovation Opportunities with Corporate Strategyby Christian Terwiesch Karl T. Ulrich
Innovation does not happen in a strategic vacuum. Competitors attempt to steal market share, technologies that once were cutting edge become obsolete, and markets that once were growing start to mature. This creates a demand for opportunities that address specific strategic needs--opportunities that strengthen competitive advantage, that explore the use of new technologies, or create new markets and revitalize existing markets. This chapter provides a set of tools that will help you pull opportunities from your business strategy. The authors explain how to conduct an innovation strategy audit that identifies areas in your company for future opportunity generation, and discuss how the targets identified in the audit can be used to identify additional opportunities. This chapter was originally published as chapter 5 of "Innovation Tournaments: Creating and Selecting Exceptional Opportunities."
David Thomas takes his first sales management assignment and is faced with a sales rep revolt because of a possible territory reorganization. In addition, his sales division is performing well below the national average. Rewritten version of an earlier case.
This note first documents the facts around the sustainability of competitive advantage. It then observes that the demise of a previously successful strategy, in the first instance, often comes from some change in the external environment. It, therefore, characterizes the types of change that can lead to strategic decline. But external change alone should not mean the end of superior performance since the skilled strategist ought to be able to adapt to such changes. The final part of the note looks inside the firm to examine why managers often fail to respond adequately to external threats and explains why it is valuable to study the causes of strategic decline.
After completing her MBA in 2007, Toby Johnson, a former army pilot with the 18th Airborne Corps Rapid Deployment Force, joined PepsiCo's Leadership Development Program (LDP). For her first assignment with PepsiCo, Johnson accepted a position as a manufacturing-manager at a Frito-Lay plant in Williamsport, PA. The Williamsport plant had 200 employees and 54 million pounds of production per year. The case describes how Johnson took charge of the plant, and her action plan for implementing a new set of changes. During Johnson's tenure at Williamsport, the plant was nominated as a potential site for a company-wide transformative initiative. This initiative would entail major changes in the current team structure and incentive program within Frito-Lay. Johnson needed to think carefully about this change implementation.
Nanosolar is a start-up company in the clean tech sector. It expects to be one of the first manufacturers to produce thin-film solar panels using copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) technology. Although this technology is less efficient in producing electricity than polysilicone, it is much less costly too. As it is about to enter the market, Nanosolar is facing the decision on which market to enter. Should it attempt to go into the European market which has established feed-in tariffs? Or should it enter the nascent, but growing US market?
Supplements the (A) case.
The global consumer goods company Unilever was on pace to hit a number of aggressive targets by 2020 as part of the Unilever Sustainable Living Project, including a goal to halve the waste associated with the disposal of its products. Unilever's Chief Supply Chain Officer Pier Luigi Sigismondi and his team were working towards this goal and had chosen to first focus on three key areas-sugar, tomatoes, and tea-and had analyzed where in the 'farm to fork' value chain product was wasted. This analysis showed that very little was wasted within areas of the value chain directly controlled by Unilever, and most occurred either upstream with its suppliers or downstream with consumers. How could Unilever encourage these actors to change established practices and entrenched behaviors within a short timeframe to help Unilever meet its sustainability targets and also to improve the operations of its partners in the value chain? By encouraging consumers to better manage their food purchases, did Unilever risk harming its own sales or those of its retail customers? Could Unilever encourage industry-wide changes to have a real impact on global environmental sustainability?
Should Novartis drop 20% of its global pharmaceutical product brands that account for only 3% of its pharmaceutical revenues?
Describes a company during the start-up phase and focuses on the founders' decisions regarding splitting the equity and compensation. Also considers establishing policies and practices that will set the tone for the company as it grows. Discusses a number of specific action issues including: splitting equity and compensation among the founding team and follow-on employees, designing compensation and hiring practices for the young firm, deciding what the corporate culture should be and how to institutionalize it, and deciding whether to hire a senior-level employee--the first nonfounder employee--at a salary higher than, and equity allocation similar to, the founders.
A small start-up in 1993, Millennium Pharmaceuticals was a name-brand biotechnology company by the end of 1998, with a market capitalization of $1.4 billion. The Cambridge-based company's growth strategy had relied heavily on building alliances for early-stage drug discovery and licensing its gene-based technology.
Provides a context in which students can explore managerial decision making that is critically informed by data analysis. The setting is a retail bank and the decision making relates to the bank's policy toward online banking. The management team is evaluating whether the bank should charge for access to online banking, provide incentives to use the service, or devise some other policy altogether. With thousands of customers already using the online site, the bank is well positioned to assess the impact of the service on customer profitability and retention before making final policy decisions. Told from the perspective of a recent MBA graduate who was charged with performing the necessary data analysis and ultimately coming up with policy recommendations.
Discusses the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on the United States, Canada, and Mexico, a decade after it came into force in 1994. Keeping in mind NAFTA's effect on jobs, exports, productivity, and economic growth, policy makers had to decide whether to go ahead with the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas being negotiated by 34 countries in the Western hemisphere.
The framework of strategic complements and substitutes can help companies anticipate competitors' responses. It is particularly helpful in deciding on price- or capacity-commitments (or pre-emption), but it can provide more general guidance for analyzing the potential impact of commitments and pre-emption.
XTech, a leading manufacturer of metal parts for the telecommunications industry, is being pushed by its large equipment vendor customers to establish a manufacturing operation in China. CEO Reinhold Hesse is debating several options: establishing a joint venture, contracting with a local partner, or setting up a wholly owned enterprise. Hesse must prepare his recommendation to the management team, which includes owners Jim and Debby Sharpe.
Gauri Nanda, the inventor of Clocky, the alarm clock that rolls off the bed stand and forces its owner to find it, has to make critical decisions regarding the future of her nascent company. As sales of Clocky show signs of declining, she must decide whether to continue her focus on the alarm clock category or to branch out into new categories. If the former, the question is which segments to pursue and what features to develop, and, if the latter, the question is whether the concept of "humanizing technology" is something consumers would value in other domains. In addition, Nanda must decide how to continue marketing Clocky and its successors, given the potential for cannibalization. Clocky's success was largely attributable to the media's intense interest and coverage, and it is not clear such attention would carry over to other new product endeavors. Students are presented with a number of new product concepts and the findings from both qualitative and quantitative market research. This allows for a rich discussion of how managers can think creatively about consumer experiences to inform their innovation strategies.
A local real estate developer has to decide how much to bid for a Boston office building in 2005.
Select your format based upon: 1) how you want to read your book, and 2) compatibility with your reading tool. To learn more about using Bookshare with your device, visit the Help Center.
Here is an overview of the specialized formats that Bookshare offers its members with links that go to the Help Center for more information.
- Bookshare Web Reader - a customized reading tool for Bookshare members offering all the features of DAISY with a single click of the "Read Now" link.
- DAISY (Digital Accessible Information System) - a digital book file format. DAISY books from Bookshare are DAISY 3.0 text files that work with just about every type of access technology that reads text. Books that contain images will have the download option of ‘DAISY Text with Images’.
- BRF (Braille Refreshable Format) - digital Braille for use with refreshable Braille devices and Braille embossers.
- MP3 (Mpeg audio layer 3) - Provides audio only with no text. These books are created with a text-to-speech engine and spoken by Kendra, a high quality synthetic voice from Ivona. Any device that supports MP3 playback is compatible.
- DAISY Audio - Similar to the Daisy 3.0 option above; however, this option uses MP3 files created with our text-to-speech engine that utilizes Ivonas Kendra voice. This format will work with Daisy Audio compatible players such as Victor Reader Stream and Read2Go.