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Scaling Program Investments for Young Children Globally: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Institute of Medicine, the National Research Council, and Fundacao Maria Cecilia Souto Vidigal, Sao Paoloby Deepali M. Patel
This report summarizes a joint workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council with Fundacao Maria Cecilia Souto Vidigal in November 2014 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. <P><P> The workshop presentations and discussions highlighted efforts made to scale program investments across health, education, nutrition, and social protection that aim to improve children's developmental potential. Speakers explored four topics around scaling up program investments: impact, scalability, sustainability, and governance. Participants shared their experiences scaling up programs and implementing early childhood services into a comprehensive national policy. "Scaling Program Investments for Young Children Globally" synthesizes up-to-date evidence on effective programs and interventions in Latin America and other regions, including an account of their strengths and challenges. This report highlights the presentations and discussions of the event.
With her financial situation so precarious, Paige Tennant has walked right into Nikolas Petronides' hands. It's obvious that he's not forgiven her for walking out on him years ago. But what else could she have done after he'd shockingly-and unfairly-accused her of using her youthful beauty and innocence to extract money from him! Once a welcome guest in his Greek island home, now Paige is to return as a lowly paid employee. What, exactly, is Nikolas expecting for his money...?
Five years ago, Jane's marriage to Demetri Souvakis ended. Devastated and betrayed, she left him and started a new life.Now Demetri needs an heir and demands a divorce. But they have one last night together-for old times' sake....However, that one last loving has dramatic results. How can Jane tell her soon-to-be-ex-husband that she's pregnant with his child?
Tempting...Oliver Ferreira desired Grace more than any woman he'd ever known. However, he couldn't take what wasn't his....Teasing...Grace worked for Oliver's brother,Tom; in fact, rumor had it that she was Tom's mistress. Common sense and experience told Oliver to stay away....Forbidden...!But passion was stronger than reason-and Oliver knew it was only a matter of time before he made this forbidden mistress his...
Isobel has never forgotten the night Brazilian millionaire Alejandro Cabral took her innocence. The image of Alejandro's sexy body has left a lifelong impression on her-as did his seed. He will never know he has a daughter....Until three years later, when Isobel is led right back to Alejandro-and she's shocked. He's a changed man. He's still utterly sexy, but a terrible car accident has left him scarred, brooding and bitter. What's more, he's deliberately lured Isobel to Brazil because he knows all about his child.
Would a lie keep them apart?<P> Expecting sun and relaxation from her stay with a friend in Italy, Grace Horton actually found herself walking into an emotional minefield. Her friend was clearly set on marrying Matteo di Falco. He was wealthy, gorgeous and equally determined--to see a lot more of Grace!<P> Grace wondered what she could do to prevent her friend from getting hurt--and stop herself from falling into Matteo's arms. Then some shocking news was revealed, which threatened to keep Matteo by her friend's side forever.
Helen Shaw's relaxing vacation on the stunning island of Santos is ruined when she steps off the ferry and sees Greek tycoon Milos Stephanides. Years before they had a scorching affair, until, discovering Milos had been untruthful, Helen left him. Now Helen has a secret that she is desperate to keep from Milos. She tries to keep her distance, but the powerful attraction between them continues to steadily build under the heat of the Greek sun. . . .
What possible novelty could there be in seducing his wife? Jake McCabe separated from his wife, Isobel, convinced that the daughter she gave birth to was not his. Insistent that Emily was Jake's child, Isobel struggled on as a single mother.But now Jake finds himself in Isobel's life once more-and caught up again by the same heated desire that held him tight when they were first married. Seducing Isobel can only add to the list of their sins, and it won't change the truth of her betrayal...or will it?
Falling for a younger man... Megan Cross has returned after sixteen years to the Caribbean island of San Felipe. Much has altered since her parents' ugly divorce and her mother's second marriage-not least her stepsister's son, Remy. When they last met, Remy was a nine-year-old to Megan's superior fifteen, with a mystery surrounding his parentage. Now he is an incredibly attractive grown man whose teasing makes her shamefully aware of him-an intimacy she knows she should do nothing to encourage....
Some secrets just won't stay hidden. Why had Jaime Harris left a perfectly good job to come work for his stepmother, Catriona? Dominic Redding was curious-and intrigued. Jaime had come to Bermuda with a purpose-to find out more about Catriona-and her attentive good-looking stepson could jeopardize all that. Catriona was very possessive of Dominic, so much so that Jaime began to suspect the true nature of the relationship between stepmother and stepson. It was a family already full of dark secrets, and Jaime was there to reveal some secrets of her own....
For two long years, news reporter Matthew Quinn was held captive by rebel forces. His dramatic escape made headlines. But Matt has returned scarred, believing that he can never love another woman. . . . Matt isn't prepared for Felicity Taylor and the sexual chemistry between them is instant. Matt wants her--but can he take her? Or, must he first reveal the secrets that are haunting him--and holding him back. . .
"Collective Behavior" is the summary of the 2014 National Academies Keck Futures Initiative Conference on Collective Behavior. Participants were divided into fourteen interdisciplinary research teams. The teams spent nine hours over two days exploring diverse challenges at the interface of science, engineering, and medicine. The composition of the teams was intentionally diverse, to encourage the generation of new approaches by combining a range of different types of contributions. The teams included researchers from science, engineering, and medicine, as well as representatives from private and public funding agencies, universities, businesses, journals, and the science media. Researchers represented a wide range of experience - from postdoc to those well established in their careers - from a variety of disciplines that included science and engineering, medicine, physics, biology, economics, and behavioral science. The teams needed to address the challenge of communicating and working together from a diversity of expertise and perspectives as they attempted to solve a complicated, interdisciplinary problem in a relatively short time. This report highlights the presentations of the event and includes the team reports and pre-meeting materials.
Diplomacy for the 21st Century: Embedding a Culture of Science and Technology Throughout the Department of Stateby Committee on Science Technology Capabilities at the Department of State
"Diplomacy for the 21st Century" recommends steps that the Department of State should embrace to take full advantage of the leading science and technology (S&T) capabilities of the United States. These capabilities provide the department with many opportunities to promote a variety of the interests of the United States and its allies in a rapidly changing world wherein S&T are important drivers of economic development at home and abroad and help ensure international security. This report assesses and makes recommendations concerning the changing environment for the conduct of diplomacy in the years ahead, with a focus on the role of S&T in the development and implementation of U. S. policies and programs. According to this report, prompt steps by the department's leadership are essential to ensure adequate comprehension of the importance of S&T-related developments throughout the world and to incorporate this understanding within the nation's foreign policy for the 21st century. This report also urges the adoption by the department of a broader whole-of-society approach in carrying out its responsibilities at home and abroad - extending beyond traditional interagency coordination and the narrow band of current external partners to include foundations, universities, research centers, and other groups who are extending their international reach.
In the past few years, interest in plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has grown. Advances in battery and other technologies, new federal standards for carbon-dioxide emissions and fuel economy, state zero-emission-vehicle requirements, and the current administration's goal of putting millions of alternative-fuel vehicles on the road have all highlighted PEVs as a transportation alternative. Consumers are also beginning to recognize the advantages of PEVs over conventional vehicles, such as lower operating costs, smoother operation, and better acceleration; the ability to fuel up at home; and zero tailpipe emissions when the vehicle operates solely on its battery. There are, however, barriers to PEV deployment, including the vehicle cost, the short all-electric driving range, the long battery charging time, uncertainties about battery life, the few choices of vehicle models, and the need for a charging infrastructure to support PEVs. What should industry do to improve the performance of PEVs and make them more attractive to consumers? At the request of Congress, "Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles" identifies barriers to the introduction of electric vehicles and recommends ways to mitigate these barriers. This report examines the characteristics and capabilities of electric vehicle technologies, such as cost, performance, range, safety, and durability, and assesses how these factors might create barriers to widespread deployment. "Overcoming Barriers to Deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles" provides an overview of the current status of PEVs and makes recommendations to spur the industry and increase the attractiveness of this promising technology for consumers. Through consideration of consumer behaviors, tax incentives, business models, incentive programs, and infrastructure needs, this book studies the state of the industry and makes recommendations to further its development and acceptance.
New astronomical facilities, such as the under-construction Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and planned 30-meter-class telescopes, and new instrumentation on existing optical and infrared (OIR) telescopes, hold the promise of groundbreaking research and discovery. How can we extract the best science from these and other astronomical facilities in an era of potentially flat federal budgets for both the facilities and the research grants? "Optimizing the U. S. Ground-Based Optical and Infrared Astronomy System" provides guidance for these new programs that align with the scientific priorities and the conclusions and recommendations of two National Research Council (NRC) decadal surveys, "New Worlds, New Horizons for Astronomy and Astrophysics" and "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Sciences in the Decade 2013-2022," as well as other NRC reports. This report describes a vision for a U. S. OIR System that includes a telescope time exchange designed to enhance science return by broadening access to capabilities for a diverse community, an ongoing planning process to identify and construct next generation capabilities to realize decadal science priorities, and near-term critical coordination, planning, and instrumentation needed to usher in the era of LSST and giant telescopes.
A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architectureby David E. Liddle
The Next Generation Air Transportation System's (NextGen) goal is the transformation of the U. S. national airspace system through programs and initiatives that could make it possible to shorten routes, navigate better around weather, save time and fuel, reduce delays, and improve capabilities for monitoring and managing of aircraft. "A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation" provides an overview of NextGen and examines the technical activities, including human-system design and testing, organizational design, and other safety and human factor aspects of the system, that will be necessary to successfully transition current and planned modernization programs to the future system. This report assesses technical, cost, and schedule risk for the software development that will be necessary to achieve the expected benefits from a highly automated air traffic management system and the implications for ongoing modernization projects. The recommendations of this report will help the Federal Aviation Administration anticipate and respond to the challenges of implementing NextGen.
Obesity affects 17 percent of children and adolescents and almost 36 percent of adults in the United States. Conservative estimates suggest that obesity now accounts for almost 20 percent of national health care spending. Until the obesity epidemic is reversed, obesity will continue to drive rates of chronic diseases such as heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer. "Cross-Sector Responses to Obesity" is a summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Obesity Solutions in September 2014 to explore models of cross-sector work that may reduce the prevalence and consequences of obesity. This report identifies case studies of cross-sector initiatives that engage partners from diverse fields, and lessons learned from and barriers to established cross-sector initiatives.
Climate change poses risks to human health and well-being through shifting weather patterns, increases in frequency and intensity of heat waves and other extreme weather events, rising sea levels, ocean acidification, and other environmental effects. Those risks occur against a backdrop of changing socioeconomic conditions, medical technology, population demographics, environmental conditions, and other factors that are important in determining health. Models of health risks that reflect how health determinants and climate changes vary in time and space are needed so that we can inform adaptation efforts and reduce or prevent adverse health effects. Robust health risk models could also help to inform national and international discussions about climate policies and the economic consequences of action and inaction. Interest in resolving some of the challenges facing health effects modelers and health scientists led the National Research Council's Standing Committee on Emerging Science for Environmental Health Decisions to hold a workshop on November 3-4, 2014, in Washington, DC, to explore new approaches to modeling the human health risks of climate change. Throughout the workshop, the discussions highlighted examples of current application of models, research gaps, lessons learned, and potential next steps to improve modeling of health risks associated with climate change. "Modeling the Health Risks of Climate Change" summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.
The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) administers two disability programs: Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), for disabled individuals, and their dependent family members, who have worked and contributed to the Social Security trust funds, and Supplemental Security Income (SSSI), which is a means-tested program based on income and financial assets for adults aged 65 years or older and disabled adults and children. Both programs require that claimants have a disability and meet specific medical criteria in order to qualify for benefits. SSA establishes the presence of a medically-determined impairment in individuals with mental disorders other than intellectual disability through the use of standard diagnostic criteria, which include symptoms and signs. These impairments are established largely on reports of signs and symptoms of impairment and functional limitation. "Psychological Testing in the Service of Disability Determination" considers the use of psychological tests in evaluating disability claims submitted to the SSA. This report critically reviews selected psychological tests, including symptom validity tests, that could contribute to SSA disability determinations. The report discusses the possible uses of such tests and their contribution to disability determinations. "Psychological Testing in the Service of Disability Determination" discusses testing norms, qualifications for administration of tests, administration of tests, and reporting results. The recommendations of this report will help SSA improve the consistency and accuracy of disability determination in certain cases.
For most Americans, staying "mentally sharp" as they age is a very high priority. Declines in memory and decision-making abilities may trigger fears of Alzheimer's disease or other neurodegenerative diseases. However, cognitive aging is a natural process that can have both positive and negative effects on cognitive function in older adults - effects that vary widely among individuals. At this point in time, when the older population is rapidly growing in the United States and across the globe, it is important to examine what is known about cognitive aging and to identify and promote actions that individuals, organizations, communities, and society can take to help older adults maintain and improve their cognitive health. "Cognitive Aging" assesses the public health dimensions of cognitive aging with an emphasis on definitions and terminology, epidemiology and surveillance, prevention and intervention, education of health professionals, and public awareness and education. This report makes specific recommendations for individuals to reduce the risks of cognitive decline with aging. Aging is inevitable, but there are actions that can be taken by individuals, families, communities, and society that may help to prevent or ameliorate the impact of aging on the brain, understand more about its impact, and help older adults live more fully and independent lives. Cognitive aging is not just an individual or a family or a health care system challenge. It is an issue that affects the fabric of society and requires actions by many and varied stakeholders. "Cognitive Aging" offers clear steps that individuals, families, communities, health care providers and systems, financial organizations, community groups, public health agencies, and others can take to promote cognitive health and to help older adults live fuller and more independent lives. Ultimately, this report calls for a societal commitment to cognitive aging as a public health issue that requires prompt action across many sectors.
Whose baby? Sara Reed has a secret. Returning to her husband's family home after his death isn't easy for Sara. Her mother-in-law clearly despises her, but the person she most dreads seeing again is Alex.Her husband's brother, he has always held a strong attraction for her and now it's impossible for her to keep avoiding him. Her small son, Ben, obviously adores him and the feeling would appear to be mutual. But what are Alex's motives? Could he have guessed her deepest secret?
Olivia had mixed feelings about going to stay in Los Angeles to write up film star Diane Haran's rags-to-riches life story. This was the woman, after all, who had seduced Olivia's husband away from her. What if she turned the tables by making a play for Diane's latest lover? She knew she hadn't the other woman's glossy, superficial beauty, but Joe Castellano certainly seemed attracted enough to Olivia! The only problem was, the more she got close to Joe, the more she wanted him totally for herself.
After four long years, during which Felicity has believed her husband to be dead, a miracle has happened -- Morgan is alive! Fliss's love for him had consumed her, but life has had to move on. She is now on the verge of becoming engaged to another man ...
He wants her as his mistress...but as his wife? Before meeting Joe Mendez, Rachel was a single mom coping with a difficult daughter and an irresponsible ex-husband. After meeting Joe Mendez, Rachel's life has been turned upside down! Joe's irresistible charisma, dark good looks and searing, raw sexuality have brought her out of her shell--and into a world of exquisite pleasure! She's his very willing mistress...but will she ever be his wife?
He could still make her want him...Maggie would never have made the journey to Northumberland to see her ex-husband if it hadn't been for their rebellious teenage daughter. Lindsey had formed a disastrous relationship and Neil was the only person who could help.Clearly, Maggie's treacherous betrayal some years ago still rankled with Neil because why else would he so provoke and humiliate her? She was ashamed of the fact that he could still make her want him while seemingly remaining detached himself. Surely he must be involved enough to want to help Lindsey--even if he suspected she might be another man's child?
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