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The general manager of a local gasoline/distillate sales and distribution business unit must communicate a new strategy to the unit's 300 employees. An initial strategic planning exercise identified a high-priority list of opportunities that blended the parent division's national strategy with a customized, local strategy. But for the new strategy to be effective, the old measurement system, which stressed only sales volume and cost reduction, had to be replaced. The manager led the development of a local Balanced Scorecard (BSC), derived from the division scorecard (described in the (A) case). To communicate the critical features of the local BSC, the unit's senior managers established a Super Bowl competition in which all employees were challenged to achieve stretch targets on five BSC measures. This case describes the communication and management processes for the Super Bowl measures.
This chapter provides a detailed examination of management innovation, which, compared to other kinds of innovation, has an unmatched power to create dramatic and enduring shifts in competitive advantage. This chapter was originally published as chapter 2 of "The Future of Management."
Stella McCartney launched her own fashion house under her name in a partnership with the luxury conglomerate Kering as a 50/50 joint venture in 2001. A lifelong vegetarian, Stella McCartney does not use any leather or fur in her collections, which include women's ready-to-wear, handbags, shoes, lingerie, eyewear, fragrance, and a kids line. Stella McCartney's achievement in fashion and social awareness has been recognized on many occasions, and her commitment to sustainability is present throughout all her collections and numerous environmental and charitable initiatives. As climate change is becoming a more pressing issue, companies are pressured to embrace a more sustainable approach to their business. With fashion and luxury industries progressively rising to this challenge, what does it mean for Stella McCartney's brand's ethos to be a responsible, honest, and modern company? Is it possible that Stella McCartney's environmentally friendly positioning will not be as differentiating as before as more fashion and luxury brands are becoming environmentally conscious and starting to develop sustainable initiatives? Similarly, how are Stella McCartney's partnerships to develop ethical fashion items impacting the brand's luxury positioning and appeal?
This case concerns the selection and scheduling of orders by a small industrial titanium fabricator that recently has been plagued by poor deliveries and a lack of capacity. At the time of the case, Ti-Tech must decide which of four orders to accept, with capacity making it impossible to accept all four. Each order represents a different mix of labor, revenues, and potential future work. The case forces the student to choose among the four orders, given limited capacity available, other business likely to come along, and the requirements of each order. The case is an updated version of Fabtek (A).
The case describes Pfizer's efforts to build and run an innovation center in Cambridge, Massachusetts. As the center goes through different periods of leadership and strategic models, its relationship with the corporation and other research sites is explored. The case study describes in detail the challenges of building an innovation center within a large corporation, including organization, incentives, and scientific issues.
It is 1995 and Steinway & Sons has just been purchased by two young entrepreneurs. For 140 years, Steinway has held the reputation for making the finest quality grand pianos in the world. The past 25 years have proven to be a challenge, however. First, the company has changed hands several times and product quality has become a concern. Second, the worldwide market for pianos has been in a steady decline, and competition for high-end grand pianos has increased. Finally in 1992, Steinway took the questionable steps of introducing a mid-priced line of grand pianos under the brand name "Boston." Designed by Steinway, but manufactured by a Japanese piano maker, the Boston line represented a major shift in strategy for the company. Within this context, what do two young entrepreneurs (with little or no experience in the piano industry) hope to accomplish in buying Steinway? In particular, what value do they bring to the company and what decisions should they make?
Presents the problem facing a newly appointed high-school principal. Raises issues about interpersonal and group behavior including lack of open conflict resolution and the need to intervene in an interpersonal conflict. Also raises the issue of intergroup conflict between headmasters and department chairmen, as well as value questions concerning the need for discipline and innovation. Discusses several structural questions concerning the existing "house system" organization. A rewritten version of an earlier case.
Top officials at Pfizer are assessing their strategy for improving protection of Pfizer's patents around the world. The outcome of the Uruguay Round of the GATT negotiations is uncertain, and it is not clear whether an acceptable intellectual property protection agreement will emerge. The case describes how Pfizer helped transform intellectual property from a lawyer's specialty to an international trade issue of concern around the world through close cooperation with the U.S. government, leadership in forming a tripartite coalition among U.S., Japanese, and European industry, and mobilization of the Pfizer organization. Shows how far a company may go to protect its intellectual property in a world where the concept of intellectual property is not universally recognized or accepted. May also be used to discuss the effectiveness and legitimacy of Pfizer's strategy, the conflicts between industrialized country and developing country perspectives on international trade and national sovereignty, and the question of appropriate norms of intellectual property protection.
Considers whether Steinway should reintroduce a long-discontinued product line to meet competition from the Japanese. Raises the issue of just how quality is defined in this market. Looks closely at a production process relying on craft skills. Students have the opportunity to consider issues of quality.
A start-up video rental business is described to provide a basis for a bookkeeping and financial reporting exercise for an accounting course. Both start-up and operating transactions are included along with situations requiring judgments about depreciation policies and end-of-period adjustments.
Since its opening in Beijing in November 2007 as the first non-profit art center in China, UCCA had been operating with the mission to "promote the continued development of the Chinese art scene, foster international exchange, and showcase the latest in art and culture to hundreds of thousands of visitors each year." For the past six years, UCCA had worked with more than 100 artists and designers to present 87 art exhibitions and 1,826 public programs to over 1.8 million visitors, including many important leaders from all over the world. Given the context of the economic and political environment in the rapidly changing Chinese art market, the founders and senior management of UCCA wondered what they could do to achieve growth and financial viability while continuing to realize their mission.
Second of a two-part case on the development and use of a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at Mobil's US Marketing and Refining Division. This case describes the completed BSC, and how this was linked to the BSCs of the independent business units and the internal service organizations. Also describes the linkage of the BSC to managers' compensation through a new variable-pay plan. Concludes with the senior executives reflecting on how they are using the BSC in their management reviews. Focuses on the management processes surrounding the use of BSC. May be taught with Mobil USM&R (B): New England Sales and Distribution, (C): Lubricants Business Unit, and (D): Gasoline Marketing, which describe the development and use of BSCs in two independent business units and one staff department.
This (B) case provides a brief description of the outcome of the (A) case.
In the fall of 2013, the people of Ukraine disagreed passionately whether their country should intensify ties with the European Union or Russia. After President Yanukovych rejected the free trade agreement with the EU in November, thousands of Ukrainians peacefully protested. But the protest movement morphed into a violent, deadly confrontation in January, culminating in February in mass slaughter, an overthrow of government, foreign invasion, and international crisis. The four months that shook Ukraine is a case study on the interrelated problems of geopolitical struggle, politics of economic pacts and clash of regional economic blocks, post-imperial disintegration and trade, and identity and interdependence.
In early April 2008, economic conditions in Europe appeared to be deteriorating on almost all fronts: sales figures were falling, business and consumer confidence were slumping, forecasts for European growth were being revised downward, and inflation was rising. In fact, figures for the month of March revealed that inflation had reached an annualized rate of 3.5%, Europe's highest level since 1992. On top of these broad economic problems, the European financial sector-indeed, the financial sector worldwide-was in turmoil. By April 2008, global financial institutions had written down the value of their mortgage-related investments and other assets by at least $230 billion, and businesses around the world were complaining that it was ever more difficult to secure credit. In America, meanwhile, consumer confidence was falling, consumer spending had slowed to a near halt, and inflation had crept above 4%. In reaction to these dismal economic conditions, the Federal Reserve had steadily cut interest rates over a seven-month period, most recently lowering its key rate to 2.25% on March18. In sharp contrast to the Fed, the European Central Bank (ECB) had long held its key rate at 4%, where it stood when the ECB's Governing Council reconvened on April 10, 2008. Given both the market turmoil and the evident inflationary pressure, members of the ECB's Governing Council would have to weigh the available data extremely carefully as they decided whether to raise, lower, or maintain their benchmark interest rate. The significance of this decision could hardly be overstated, since it had the potential to send a strong signal about the nature of European monetary policy and the priorities of the ECB going forward.
Through Your Daily Work: Bring the 3 Imperatives into Your Everyday Activities-How a Great Boss Achieves the 3 Imperatives Every Dayby Kent Lineback Linda A. Hill
How do you spend your time as a manager? Do you carefully plan what you'll do and do what you planned? Or do you find that much of your time is taken up with unplanned events that send you spiraling off in unexpected directions? The reality of management is that it's inherently fragmented and reactive. So how do you cope? How can you apply the 3 Imperatives-manage yourself, manage your network, and manage your team-in such a chaotic, unpredictable landscape? In this chapter, authors Linda Hill and Kent Lineback explain that great bosses don't wrest time from necessary but mundane activities to do what they "should" be doing. Instead, they use unplanned daily events, problems, and obligations as vehicles for doing managerial work. Moment by moment, they think about each daily task in the context of the 3 Imperatives. The chapter also introduces the "prep-do-review" approach, which allows you to convert everyday activities into management tools for moving your team forward while focusing on the 3 Imperatives. The chapter concludes with suggestions for using prep-do-review as a management tool with your own people-giving you more ways to interact with them and help them learn-as you continue on your journey toward becoming a great boss. This chapter was originally published as Chapter 11 of "Being the Boss: The 3 Imperatives for Becoming a Great Leader."
The case involves repositioning an old 6-story warehouse in Pittsburgh and many of the issues of rehabilitation and selecting and managing the development team especially in a world of capital market uncertainty. The case also demonstrates the alignment of interests of the players, the construction process and the various methods available to contract with the general contractor including lump sum, cost-plus and guaranteed maximum price.
A couple has to decide whether to continue renting a townhouse or buy the one next door. Allows for a discussion of net present value, internal rate of return, and the costs and benefits of homeownership.
Under the direction of President Museveni, much of the world has heaped praise on Uganda for transforming its economy from devastation to growth and managing the ethnic and racial strife that has divided the country in the past. Following a decade of reforms, Uganda is finally reaping some of the benefits brought by economic austerity. Indeed, Uganda presents a textbook case of IMF structural adjustment. President Museveni must now decide the best way in which to govern his country into the next century. Chief challenges include: how to diversify the export base and attract foreign investment; how to manage the burden imposed by external debt; and how to distribute scarce resources (balancing competing demands for investment in human capital, spending on social and economic infrastructure and health services, along with a whole host of other demands).
Dale Chihuly is a prototypical iconoclast: he has single-handedly torn down conventional notions of glass art and created something entirely new in its place. He has been able to do so partly because an accident that left him blind in his left eye forced his brain to reinterpret visual stimuli in a new way. In this chapter, neuroscientist Gregory Berns explains how the iconoclast perceives things differently than most people in order to illustrate the importance of new perspectives in creating new ideas.
UFO Moviez is an Indian technology services provider that enables low-cost, digital delivery of films to cinemas. UFO's satellite-based technology enables a significantly wider release of films compared to traditional analog prints and standard, higher-resolution digital prints that must be transported physically. By 2015, 54% of all cinemas in India were using UFO's digital cinema system. UFO has achieved this without upsetting the industry's value chain of producer-traditional distributor-cinema-owner. The company earns revenue through three main streams: fees charged to the producer/distributor for converting films to digital format and distributing them over satellite, fees charged to the cinema owner for leasing the projection systems, and advertising revenue from ads shown during the screening of films. With cinemas in India mostly digitized, however, UFO faces challenges for continual growth. Should UFO focus on increasing its advertising revenue, leveraging UFO's core technology in other areas, or entering the business of film distribution?
First of a two-part case on the development and use of a Balanced Scorecard (BSC) at Mobil's US Marketing and Refining Division. Split from the original (A) case to give students an opportunity to suggest objectives and measures for the division's initial BSC, without seeing the actual choices made by Mobil's managers. Describes how the CEO of the marketing and refining division of a major oil company is in the midst of implementing a profit turnaround. He has transformed a strongly centralized, functionally-organized division into 17 independent business units and 14 internal service companies. The division has also launched a new, market-segmented strategy aimed at high-end buyers. The CEO recognizes, however, that the new organization and strategy require a new measurement system. He turns to the BSC because of its ability to link measurement to strategy, and to help the new profit-center managers develop customized strategies for their local responsibilities. This case describes the development process of the initial divisional BSC, and the formulation of objectives and measures for the financial and learning and growth perspectives.
In 2014, Pfizer proposed a friendly acquisition of AstraZeneca, but the AstraZeneca board resisted over price and strategy concerns. Was this good for pharmaceutical consumers? Pfizer, like pharmaceutical companies in general, faced difficulties in growing sales due to the challenges of developing new drugs. Over the previous decade or more, Pfizer had pursued acquisitions as a way to acquire new drugs, increase sales, and to reduce costs by combining operations and cutting staff. Pfizer, a U.S. company, was also interested in AstraZeneca, a U.K. company, as a way to reduce its corporate taxes. In recent years, AstraZeneca had significantly strengthened its pipeline of potential new drugs and its board felt it was in a strong position to go it alone. The company's CEO also indicated that an acquisition would be disruptive to its drug development efforts and delay new drugs coming to market. U.K. politicians expressed concerns over downsizing and job losses in the economically important pharmaceutical sector. The case allows readers to explore who benefits from a potential acquisition (shareholders, employees, drug consumers) and which of these stakeholders should be considered when deciding on an acquisition.