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This volume analyses the evolution of humankind by combining approaches from science and the arts. It offers a novel perspective on the evolution of life on Earth, based on a recent reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics in terms of the "maximum entropy production principle. " In essence, the Earth is but one of many "white holes" in the universe, where life functions as a specific arrangement for the rapid dissipation of energy gradients by generating self-organized structures. Evolution of life in the universe is a creative process of increasing complexity as a Bayesian ratchet of knowledge accumulation, advancing in an evolutionary maze characterized by myriad blind alleys. On Earth, the human species has progressed more than any other by creating artefacts that have become both agents and products of in our cumulative cultural evolution. Culture has dramatically enhanced the rate of dissipation of energy gradients. Extrapolating from the acceleration of cultural evolution suggests that humanity will reach the Civilization Singularity in the middle of the 21st century, a point in time at which the rate of changes, and hence their unpredictability and uncontrollability, will converge to infinity. Humankind has now entered the ultimate age, in which the exuberance and splendour of human feats may be metaphorically likened to fireworks. The author highlights a new role of scientists as intellectuals who can create "music for the fireworks" by analysing the consequences of the astounding dynamics in order to make the closing phase of human evolution a sublime one marked by minimal political and social tensions.
This book is one of the first to link company law to the law of succession by concentrating on family businesses. It shows that, to understand the legal framework underlying the daily operations of family businesses, one needs legal analysis, empirical data, psychological and sociological knowledge. The book works on the premise that, since many businesses have been founded by families, practitioners need to develop an understanding of the legal background of such businesses and build up experience to be able to create contracts, trusts, foundations and other legal mechanisms to give shape to systems and procedures for the transfer of shares and control within the family. Comparing the national legal order, techniques, and mechanisms in a range of countries, the book examines parallel developments in these fields of law across the world. Finally, it demonstrates the room for companies, shareholders and the members of a family to develop individual solutions within the legal framework for transferring businesses and shares to the next generation.
This work sets the stage regarding debates about paternalism and health care for years to come. The anthology is organized around four parts: i) The concept of paternalism and theoretical issues regarding the idea of anti-paternalism, ii) strategies for justifying different forms of paternalism, iii) paternalism in psychiatry and psychotherapy, iv) paternalism and public health, and v) paternalism and reproductive medicine. Medical paternalism was arguably one of the main drivers of debates in medical ethics and has led to a wide acknowledgement of the value of patient autonomy. However, more recent developments in health care, such as the increasing significance of public health measures and the commercialization of medical services, have led to new social circumstances and hence to the need to rethink issues regarding paternalism. This work provides an invaluable source for many scholars and practitioners, since it deals in new and original ways with one of the main and oldest issue in health care ethics.
This book addresses an essential gap in the regulatory regime, which provides legislation, statements and guidelines on airlines, airports, air navigation services providers and States in the field of aviation, but is notably lacking when it comes to the rights of the airline passenger, and the average citizen who is threatened by military air strikes. It addresses subjects such as international resolutions on human rights and other human rights conventions related to aviation that impact both air transport consumers and people on the ground who are threatened by air strikes through drone attacks; disabled and obese airline passengers; compensation for delayed carriage and the denial of carriage; noise and air pollution caused by aviation and their effects on human health and wellbeing; prevention of death or injury to passengers and attendant compensatory rights; risk management; relief flights; and racial profiling. These subjects are addressed against the backdrop of real case studies that include but are not limited to instances of drone attacks, and contentious flights in the year 2014 such as MH 370, MH 17 and QZ 8501.
This book explores research on processes that influence family-school partnerships in support of student learning and education. It highlights research related to culture, contexts, and development as families and schools work together to promote smooth transitions and academic achievement. The volume discusses research related to family and community engagement with schools, and describes the various mechanisms by which partnerships may support students' long-term developmental outcomes and success beyond school. Each chapter sets forth a forward-thinking research agenda aimed at further understanding and implementing the processes by which family-school partnerships promote children's healthy adjustment. In addition to examining critical and emerging issues, this unique book also provides robust strategies, data, and rationales across the following areas: Cultural processes and the connections among home, school, and community. Family-school relationships during adolescence. Achievement mediators of family engagement in children's education. Continuities and consistencies across home and school systems. Uncovering processes and pathways in family-school research. Strengthening networks and attachments to promote child development. Processes and Pathways of Family-School Partnerships Across Development is a must-have resource for researchers, scientist-practitioners, and graduate students in child and school psychology, educational policy and politics, family studies, developmental psychology, sociology of education, and other interrelated disciplines.
The ever increasing use of computers, networks and the Internet has led to the need for regulation in the fields of cybercrime, cybersecurity and national security. This SpringerBrief provides insights into the development of self- and co-regulatory approaches to cybercrime and cybersecurity in the multi-stakeholder environment. It highlights the differences concerning the ecosystem of stakeholders involved in each area and covers government supported initiatives to motivate industry to adopt self-regulation. Including a review of the drawbacks of existing forms of public-private collaboration, which can be attributed to a specific area (cybercrime, cybersecurity and national security), it provides some suggestions with regard to the way forward in self- and co-regulation in securing cyberspace.
This practical text provides a clinical overview of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment for fibromyalgia. Current evidence-based treatments and guidelines are emphasized along with lifestyle modification suggestions for the patient. Also included is a review of current literature, research and emerging developments on this prevalent pain syndrome. A range of healthcare specialties, including pain management, rheumatology, neurology, internal medicine and family practice, will find this comprehensive guide to be a valuable resource to their routine treatment of fibromyalgia and improve patient's quality of life.
This book examines the words and discourse as well as their meaning and impact on the everyday culture of a multidisciplinary team at a school for students with mental disabilities. The book examines the organizational, social, professional, and emotional experiences of team members from such disciplines as child and school psychology, special education, therapy (e. g. , occupational, speech), social work, and pediatric medicine within a special education school. It explores the ways in which team members describe and interpret the day-to-day requirements of working effectively in a special education school, using their own language and discourse from a subjective point of view. In addition, the book analyzes and interprets the influence of language and discourse on the outlook, behavior patterns, and the coping of team members working in the school with the students, among themselves as a team, and with the difficulties and dilemmas that concern them as well the solutions that they themselves introduce for all these issues. This book, with its focus on the unique and complex work environment of the multidisciplinary special education team, is essential reading for researchers, professionals, and graduate students in child and school psychology, therapeutic disciplines (e. g. , occupational, speech), social work, pediatric medicine, and allied mental health and medical fields.
In response to the rise in chronic medical conditions--and the growing use of complementary and alternative therapies--among pediatric and adolescent patients, healthcare practitioners are taking a serious look at pediatric integrative medicine (PIM). Although it dovetails with current concepts of preventive medicine, wellness, and patient control, PIM is still an evolving field with its own particular challenges and opportunities. A Guide to Integrative Pediatrics for the Healthcare Professional explores its subject through the more familiar lens of integrative medicine. This concise comprehensive resource synthesizes the knowledge base on a range of therapies commonly associated with PIM, such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, clinical hypnosis, yoga, homeopathy, and therapeutic massage, with findings on their effective use with children. Case examples illustrate uses of PIM modalities with allopathic medicine to treat young patients at various developmental stages, and the authors pinpoint safety and appropriateness concerns, answer licensing questions, and note clinical areas requiring further study. The wide-ranging information contained here will help support interest in PIM at the research, training, and practice levels. Features of the Guide: An introduction to basic concepts in PIM. Trends in IM/PIM education. A survey of complementary and alternative therapies, including biologically-based, body-based, mind-body, energy-based, and alternative whole systems. Current evidence for IM in treating common pediatric conditions. The future of integrative pediatrics. References and links for further information. Offering a front-row seat to the continued expansion of the field, A Guide to Integrative Pediatrics for the Healthcare Professional is a salient text not only for pediatricians but for all healthcare practitioners tasked with improving children's wellbeing.
This anthology examines the practical role of well-being in contemporary society. It discusses developments such as globalization, consumerism and the rapid innovation and use of new and emerging technologies and focuses on the significant impact of these developments on the well-being of people living today. The anthology brings together researchers from various disciplines, including psychology, economics, sociology, philosophy and development studies. It provides concrete insight on the role and importance of well-being in contemporary society, using a mix of empirical grounding, philosophical rigour and an emphasis on real-world applications. It is unique in that it seeks to understand the relation between well-being research and its application towards real problems.
This book presents an analysis of global legal history in Modern times, questioning the effect of political revolutions since the 17th century on the legal field. Readers will discover a non-linear approach to legal history as this work investigates the ways in which law is created. These chapters look at factors in legal revolution such as the role of agents, the policy of applying and publicising legal norms, codification and the orientations of legal writing, and there is a focus on the publicization of law. The author uses Herbert Hart's schemes to conceive law as a human artefact or convention, being the union between primary rules of obligations and secondary rules conferring powers. Here we learn about those secondary rules and the legal construction of the Modern state and we question the extent to which codification and law reporting were likely to revolutionize the legal field. These chapters examine the hypothesis of a legal revolution that could have concerned many countries in modern times. To begin with, the book considers the legal aspect of the construction of Modern States in the 17th and 18th centuries. It goes on to examine the consequences of the codification movement as a legal revolution before looking at the so-called "constitutional" revolution, linked with the extension of judicial review in many countries after World War II. Finally, the book enquires into the construction of an EU legal order and international law. In each of these chapters, the author measures the scope of the change, how the secondary rules are concerned, the role of the professional lawyers and what are the characters of the new configuration of the legal field. This book provokes new debates in legal philosophy about the rule of change and will be of particular interest to researchers in the fields of law, theories of law, legal history, philosophy of law and historians more broadly.
The Yale Swallow Protocol is an evidence-based protocol that is the only screening instrument that both identifies aspiration risk and, when passed, is able to recommend specific oral diets without the need for further instrumental dysphagia testing. Based upon research by Drs. Steven B. Leder and Debra M. Suiter, an easily administered, reliable and validated swallow screening protocol was developed and can be used by speech-language pathologists, nurses, otolaryngologists, oncologists, neurologists, intensivists and physicians assistants. In addition, the protocol can be used in a variety of environments, including acute care, rehabilitation and nursing homes. The Yale Swallow Protocol meets all of the criteria necessary for a successful screening test, including being simple to administer, cross-disciplinary, cost effective, acceptable to patients and able to identify the target attribute by giving a positive finding when aspiration risk is present and a negative finding when aspiration risk is absent. Additionally, early and accurate identification of aspiration risk can significantly reduce health-care costs associated with recognized prandial aspiration.
This book brings a fresh perspective on the emerging field of international food law with the first detailed analysis of the process and implications of domestic compliance with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. It investigates the influence of WTO disciplines on the domestic policy-making process and examines the extent to which international trade law determines European Union (EU) food regulations. Following controversial WTO rulings on genetically-modified foods and growth hormones in beef, awareness and criticism of global rules governing food has grown considerably. Yet the real impact of this international legal meta-framework on domestic regulations has remained obscure to practitioners and largely unexplored by legal commentators. This book examines the emergence of transnational governance practices set in motion by the SPS Agreement and their role in facilitating agricultural trade. In so doing, it complements and challenges conventional accounts of the SPS regime dominated by analysis of WTO disputes. It reviews legal commentary of the SPS Agreement to understand why WTO rules are so commonly characterised as a significant threat to domestic food policy preferences. It then takes on these assumptions through an in-depth review of food policies and decision-making practices in the EU, revealing both the potential and limits of WTO law to shape EU policies. It finally examines two important venues for the generation of global food norms - the WTO SPS Committee and Codex Alimentarius - to evaluate the practice and significance of transnational governance in this domain. Through detailed case studies including novel foods, food additives, vitamin and mineral supplements and transparency and equivalence procedures, this book provides a richer account of compliance and exposes the subtle, but important influence of WTO obligations.
The experts of the International Working Group-Landau Network Centro Volta (IWG-LNCV) discuss aspects of cyber security and present possible methods of deterrence, defense and resilience against cyber attacks. This SpringerBrief covers state-of-the-art documentation on the deterrence power of cyber attacks and argues that nations are entering a new cyber arms race. The brief also provides a technical analysis of possible cyber attacks towards critical infrastructures in the chemical industry and chemical safety industry. The authors also propose modern analyses and a holistic approach to resilience and security of Industrial Control Systems. The combination of contextual overview and future directions in the field makes this brief a useful resource for researchers and professionals studying systems security, data security and data structures. Advanced-level students interested in data security will also find this brief a helpful guide to recent research.
It has been nearly 100 years since the Apollo moon landings, when Jack and Vladimir, two astronauts on a mission to Venus, discover a mysterious void related to indigenous life on the planet. Subsequently more voids are detected on Earth, Mars, Titan, and, quite ominously, inside a planetoid emerging from the Kuiper belt. Jack is sent to investigate the voids in the Solar System and intercept the planetoid - which, as becomes increasingly clear, is inhabited by alien life forms. Jack and his crew will have little time to understand their alien biochemistry, abilities, behavior patterns, resilience, and technology, but also how these life forms relate to the voids. Humankind's first encounter with these exotic life forms couldn't be more fateful, becoming a race against time to save life on Earth and to reveal the true nature of the voids, which seem to be intrinsically related to life and the universe itself. In this novel, the author combines many topics related to state-of-the-art research in the field of astrobiology with fictional elements to produce a thrilling page turner. This new version significantly develops the astrobiological denouement of the plot and features an extensive non-technical appendix where the underlying science is presented and discussed. From the reviews of the first edition (Voids of Eternity: Alien Encounter) Here's a thrilling yarn in the best "hard SF" tradition of Asimov, James Hogan, and Ben Bova, written by a scientist who knows all about the possibilities of life in the solar system and beyond. Dirk Schulze-Makuch weaves into his book all the astrobiological themes he's worked on in recent years -- speculation about creatures in the atmosphere of Venus and on and under the surface of Mars and Titan -- together with some well-informed Eastern philosophy and a cracking good space battle. A great first novel from a rising talent. Highly recommended. David Darling, on amazon. com, 2009 The research interests of Dr. Schulze-Makuch, currently a professor at Washington State University, focus on evolutionary adaptation strategies of organisms in their natural environment, particularly extreme environments such as found on other planetary bodies. Dirk Schulze-Makuch is best known for his publications on extraterrestrial life, being coauthor of three books on the topic: We Are Not Alone: Why We Have Already Found Extraterrestrial Life (2010), Cosmic Biology: How Life could Evolve on Other Worlds (2010), and Life in the Universe: Expectations and Constraints (2004). In 2011 he published with Paul Davies A One Way Mission to Mars: Colonizing the Red Planet and in 2012 with David Darling Megacatastrophes! Nine Strange Ways the World Could End.
As a result of the financial crisis, the weaknesses of the Eurozone, including the public debt crisis, materialized in severe depressions in certain of its country members. In this monograph, the author analyzes structural weaknesses of the Eurozone and argues that they can be traced to (i) institutional differences, (ii) differences in the economic structures, (iii) the fundamental inability of European Bureaucracy to deal with crises, and (iv) the extreme rigidity of markets which prevents a general equilibrium in product and credit markets. He concludes that whether the Eurozone is sustainable, depends on future monetary and credit policies, and discusses the implications of reforming it in the best interest of the international banking and financial system. The recent policies of the ECB of "cheap" credit expansion are examined in detail. The approach of the work is along the lines of von Mises' and Hayek's Austrian tradition; additionally, substantive international empirical evidence supporting this Austrian approach is presented.
This is the first book to present a multidisciplinary approach to cyberterrorism It traces the threat posed by cyberterrorism today, with chapters discussing possible technological vulnerabilities, potential motivations to engage in cyberterrorism, and the challenges of distinguishing this from other cyber threats. The book also addresses the range of potential responses to this threat by exploring policy and legislative frameworks as well as a diversity of techniques for deterring or countering terrorism in cyber environments. The case studies throughout the book are global in scope and include the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. With contributions from distinguished experts with backgrounds including international relations, law, engineering, computer science, public policy and politics, Cyberterrorism: Understanding, Assessment and Response offers a cutting edge analysis of contemporary debate on, and issues surrounding, cyberterrorism. This global scope and diversity of perspectives ensure it is of great interest to academics, students, practitioners, policymakers and other stakeholders with an interest in cyber security.
The ability to harness Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) is increasingly at the heart of national competitiveness and sustainable development. As countries seek a way out of the present period of economic contraction, they are trying to weave ICT into their development strategies, in the same way enterprises have learned to use ICT to transform their business models and strategies. This integration offers a new path to development that is responsive to the challenges of our times. In Seeking Transformation Through Information Technology, Nagy Hanna and Peter Knight provide a framework for assessing the opportunities, challenges, and prospects for "e-transformation." Featuring contributions from country experts, the editors and authors provide in-depth case studies of ICT deployment in Brazil, China, Canada, and Sri Lanka, and asses the progress of such efforts. The result is an essential resource for academic researchers, policy analysts, policymakers, and industry leaders interested in the role of ICT in national development, innovation, and economic growth.
This book discusses current research on identity formation, family and peer influences, risk and resilience factors, and concepts of masculinity and sexuality in African American boys. Sorting out genuine findings from popular misconceptions and misleading headlines, this concise and wide-ranging reference covers the crucial adolescent years, ages 11-16, acknowledging diversity of background and experience in the group, and differences and similarities with African American girls as well as with other boys. In addition, the authors review strengths-based school and community programs that harness evidence and insights to promote pro-social behavior. Featured areas of coverage include: The protective role of ethnic identity and racial socialization. Family management, cohesion, communication, and well-being. Development and importance of peer relationships. Health and well-being. Theoretical perspectives on educational achievement. Factors that contribute to delinquency and victimization. What works: effective programs and practices. African American Boys is an essential resource for a wide range of clinicians and practitioners - as well as researchers and graduate students - in school and clinical child psychology, prevention and public health, social work, mental health therapy and counseling, family therapy, and criminal justice.
In recent history the practice of medicine and mental health has been increasingly eclectic as more and more practitioners harness seemingly disparate therapies and techniques to arrive at clinical breakthroughs. But while social work professionals have been involved in integrative practice informally and intuitively for years, resources to bring structure to this therapeutic concept have been few and far between. In response, Integrative Social Work Practice offers innovative ways of conceptualizing cases, communicating with clients and making better therapeutic use of client individuality. Rich in research, evidence-based and clinical material from a variety of settings, the book begins with the basic organizing principles behind effective integrative practice. Real-world examples flesh out the theoretical rationales and psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral and developmental methods are shown in practical context. The author also demonstrates how to balance flexibility and boundaries and manage diverse and even conflicting theories, while providing clear guidelines on: Integrating key psychotherapeutic approaches into social work. Using somatic knowledge to enhance therapy. Making assessments and choosing interventions. Applying an integrative approach to therapeutic relationships. Creating manageable goals based on small steps. Building and working with an integrative team. An important step forward in both professional development and the larger therapeutic picture, Integrative Social Work Practice benefits researchers and practitioners as well as supervisors and students in social work and counseling.
Decentralizing Health Services A Global Perspective Krishna Regmi, editor Current economic, demographic, and environmental shifts are presenting major challenges to health care systems around the world. In response, decentralization--the transfer of control from central to local authorities--is emerging as a successful means of meeting these challenges and reducing inequities of care. But as with health care itself, one size does not fit all, and care systems must be responsive to global reality as well as local demand. Decentralizing Health Services explores a variety of applications of decentralization to health care delivery in both the developing and developed worlds. Outfitted with principles, blueprints, and examples, this ambitious text clearly sets out the potential role of decentralized care as a major player in public health. Its models of service delivery illustrate care that is effective, inclusive, flexible, and in tune with the current era of preventive and evidence-based healthcare . Contributors point out opportunities, caveats, and controversies as they: Clarify the relationships among decentralization, politics, and policy Differentiate between political, fiscal, and administrative decentralization in health care systems Consider public/private partnerships in health systems Explain how the effects of decentralization can be evaluated. Present the newest data on the health outcomes of decentralization Explore some challenges and global issues of health systems in the 21st century And each chapter features learning goals, discussion questions, activities, and recommendations for further reading Heralding changes poised to revolutionize care, Decentralizing Health Services will broaden the horizons of researchers and administrators in health services, health economics, and health policy
Authored by "a superb clinician and award-winning teacher,"* Near Misses in Pediatric Anesthesiology, Second Edition is a thorough updating and significant expansion of this popular case book in the newest anesthesiology subspecialty to be approved by the American Board of Medical Specialties. The book comprises 87 true-story clinical "near misses," including 40 cases that are brand new. Recommendations, references, and discussion accompany each case. The cases provide an ideal basis for problem-centered learning and also model how to learn from experience and to maintain professionalism during the lifelong development of clinical expertise. Dr. Brock-Utne's latest case book provides a pediatric complement to his bestselling Case Studies of Near Misses in Clinical Anesthesia (Springer, 2012) and Clinical Anesthesia: Near Misses and Lessons Learned (Springer, 2008) . * Jay B. Brodsky, MD, from the Foreword.
In this book, Shannon Rose Riley provides a critically rich investigation of representations of Cuba and Haiti in US culture in order to analyze their significance not only to the emergence of empire but especially to the reconfiguration of US racial structures along increasingly biracial lines. Based on impressive research and with extensive analysis of various textual and performance forms including a largely unique set of skits, plays, songs, cultural performances and other popular amusements, Riley shows that Cuba and Haiti were particularly meaningful to the ways that people in the US re-imagined themselves as black or white and that racial positions were renegotiated through what she calls acts of palimpsest: marking and unmarking, racing and erasing difference. Riley's book demands a reassessment of the importance of the occupations of Cuba and Haiti to US culture, challenging conventional understandings of performance, empire, and race at the turn of the twentieth century.
Sea Narratives: CulturalResponses to the Sea, 1600-Present explores the relationship between the sea and culturefrom the early modern period to the present. The collection uses the concept ofthe 'sea narrative' as a lens through which to consider the multiple ways inwhich the sea has shaped, challenged, and expanded modes of culturalrepresentation to produce varied, contested and provocative chronicles of thesea across a variety of cultural forms within diverse socio-cultural moments. Sea Narratives provides a uniqueperspective on the relationship between the sea and cultural production: itreveals the sea to be more than simply a source of creative inspiration,instead showing how the sea has had a demonstrable effect on new modes andforms of narration across the cultural sphere, and in turn, how these formshave been essential in shaping socio-cultural understandings of the sea. Theresult is an incisive exploration of the sea's force as a cultural presence.
This book presents comparative analyses and accounts of the institutional changes that have occurred to the local level delivery of public utilities and personal social services in countries across Europe. Guided by a common conceptual frame and written by leading country experts, the book pursues a "developmental" approach to consider how the public/municipal sector-centred institutionalization of service delivery (climaxing in the 1970s) developed through its New Public Management-inspired and European Union market liberalization-driven restructuring of the 1980s and early 1990s. The book also discusses the most recent phase since the late 1990s, which has been marked by further marketization and privatization of service delivery on the one hand, and some return to public sector provision ("remunicipalization") on the other. By comprising some 20 European countries, including Central East European "transformation" countries as well as the "sovereign debt"-stricken countries of Southern Europe, the chapters of this volume cover a much broader cross section of countries than other recent publications on the same subject.
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