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The major emphasis of this book is on physical mechanisms and sources of the ULF/ELF natural electromagnetic fields noises. In the course of this text, some of these mechanisms of magnetospheric origin will be treated in detail and others in a more sketchy fashion, while the global electromagnetic resonances excited by lightning activity and other sources are the priority. The interested reader is referred to the books cited in the text for details about the ULF/ELF fields of magnetospheric origin. Much emphasis is put on studies of electromagnetic phenomena caused by rock deformation/fracture including the ULF/ELF effects possibly associated with tectonic activity, earthquakes and other natural disasters. One of the challenges of this research is to fully understand electromagnetic effects and physical processes in the rocks deep in the Earth's crust.
The idea of the Gröbner basis first appeared in a 1927 paper by F. S. Macaulay, who succeeded in creating a combinatorial characterization of the Hilbert functions of homogeneous ideals of the polynomial ring. Later, the modern definition of the Gröbner basis was independently introduced by Heisuke Hironaka in 1964 and Bruno Buchberger in 1965. However, after the discovery of the notion of the Gröbner basis by Hironaka and Buchberger, it was not actively pursued for 20 years. A breakthrough was made in the mid-1980s by David Bayer and Michael Stillman, who created the Macaulay computer algebra system with the help of the Gröbner basis. Since then, rapid development on the Gröbner basis has been achieved by many researchers, including Bernd Sturmfels. This book serves as a standard bible of the Gröbner basis, for which the harmony of theory, application, and computation are indispensable. It provides all the fundamentals for graduate students to learn the ABC's of the Gröbner basis, requiring no special knowledge to understand those basic points. Starting from the introductory performance of the Gröbner basis (Chapter 1), a trip around mathematical software follows (Chapter 2). Then comes a deep discussion of how to compute the Gröbner basis (Chapter 3). These three chapters may be regarded as the first act of a mathematical play. The second act opens with topics on algebraic statistics (Chapter 4), a fascinating research area where the Gröbner basis of a toric ideal is a fundamental tool of the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. Moreover, the Gröbner basis of a toric ideal has had a great influence on the study of convex polytopes (Chapter 5). In addition, the Gröbner basis of the ring of differential operators gives effective algorithms on holonomic functions (Chapter 6). The third act (Chapter 7) is a collection of concrete examples and problems for Chapters 4, 5 and 6 emphasizing computation by using various software systems.
Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume A describes how human cognitive functions can be replicated in artificial systems such as robots, and investigates how artificial systems could acquire intelligent behaviors through interaction with others and their environment.
This book provides a review of cyclometalation reactions and organometallic intramolecular-coordination five-membered ring products, the most active type of reactions in synthetic organic reactions and their products. Included is the discovery of intramolecular-coordination bonds in cyclometalation reactions and the characteristics of those reactions, as well as the reasons that their five-membered ring compounds are very easily synthesized through such reactions. In addition, the applications of cyclometalation reactions and five-membered ring products, synthetic applications, catalysts, and other products are described. These topics are of special interest for industrial researchers.
During the last decade, modern technologies have made a revolutionary change in developmental biology. The molecular and cellular processes in live embryos can now be visualized thanks to technologies using fluorescent proteins. The whole genome information of a wide range of animal species has now become available, confirming the common principles that operate in every species. These and other advances in our understanding of the developmental processes during embryogenesis and tissue regeneration have put forward new principles. Those new principles will also be important in the stem cell biology, branched from developmental biology, in order to generate a particular tissue by manipulating stem cells. This book is planned to introduce these new principles to readers who are working in developmental biology and/or stem cell biology fields, with an emphasis on genetic and cellular processes.
The science of forensics and the crime investigation lab have become an increasingly important aspect of police work. This brand-new Easy Way title introduces criminology students and law enforcement candidates to forensics in four major sections: Introduction to Forensic Science, The Physical Sciences, Physical Evidence, and The Future of Forensic Science. Among the topics explored are applications of the sciences of physics and chemistry to forensics, physical evidence, body fluids, explosives and incendiaries, firearms, fingerprints, DNA evidence, and many more. Discussion of future trends includes retinal scans and other ID systems, computer databases and searches, and more. Review questions with answers appear at the end of each chapter. Barron's Easy Way books introduce a variety of academic and practical subjects to students and general readers in clear, understandable language. Ideal as self-teaching manuals for readers interested in learning a new career-related skill, these books have also found widespread classroom use as supplementary texts and brush-up test-preparation guides. Subject heads and key phrases that need to be learned are set in a second color.
This major study of Hobbes' political philosophy draws on recent developments in game and decision theory to explore whether the thrust of the argument in Leviathan, that it is in the interests of the people to create a ruler with absolute power, can be shown to be cogent. Professor Hampton has written a book of vital importance to political philosophers, political and social scientists, and intellectual historians.
A Life Science Textbook for Middle School
This book provides a unified and complete theory for semiconductor lasers, covering topics ranging from the principles of classical and quantum mechanics to highly advanced levels for readers who need to analyze the complicated operating characteristics generated in the real application of semiconductor lasers. The author conducts a theoretical analysis especially on the instabilities involved in the operation of semiconductor lasers. A density matrix into the theory for semiconductor lasers is introduced and the formulation of an improved rate equation to help understand the mode competition phenomena which cause the optical external feedback noise is thoroughly described from the basic quantum mechanics. The derivation of the improved rate equation will allow readers to extend the analysis for the different types of semiconductor materials and laser structures they deal with. This book is intended not only for students and academic researchers but also for engineers who develop lasers for the market, as the advanced topics covered are dedicated to real problems in implementing semiconductor lasers for practical use.
This book is a valuable resource on the subject of off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery, which has recently been developed as a promising technique for reducing surgical damage to patients. Because of the increasing number of older patients who are candidates for a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) operation, less-invasive surgeries are becoming a priority all over the world. Despite some challenges, such as its technical difficulties, emerging questions, and controversies involved, OPCAB surgery in CABG is now the gold standard in Japan. This book, written by OPCAB experts, examines the procedure established and its chief benefits. Its coverage ranges from a careful evaluation of the evidence for and against OPCAB surgery to preoperative and intraoperative management of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. It also contains a description of advanced techniques for every aspect of the procedure. The authors[share essential insights into the latest trends in cardiovascular surgery for professionals and residents, presenting detailed descriptions of the exposure of the heart, stabilization of each coronary artery target, construction of distal anastomoses, and other important factors. The book offers an invaluable reference guide for cardiac surgeons, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and other medical staff in operating rooms around the world.
The impaired brain has often been difficult to rehabilitate owing to limited knowledge of the brain system. Recently, advanced imaging techniques such as fMRI and MEG have allowed researchers to investigate spatiotemporal dynamics in the living human brain. Consequently, knowledge in systems neuroscience is now rapidly growing. Advanced techniques have found practical application by providing new prosthetics, such as brain-machine interfaces, expanding the range of activities of persons with disabilities, or the elderly. The book's chapters are authored by researchers from various research fields such as systems neuroscience, rehabilitation, neurology, psychology and engineering. The book explores the latest advancements in neurorehabilitation, plasticity and brain-machine interfaces among others and constitutes a solid foundation for researchers who aim to contribute to the science of brain function disabilities and ultimately to the well-being of patients and the elderly worldwide.
This book focuses on two of the most rapidly developing areas in wireless technology (WT) applications, namely, wireless sensors networks (WSNs) and wireless body area networks (WBANs). These networks can be considered smart applications of the recent WT revolutions. The book presents various security tools and scenarios for the proposed enhanced-security of WSNs, which are supplemented with numerous computer simulations. In the computer simulation section, WSN modeling is addressed using MATLAB programming language.
This book covers essential aspects of transmutation technologies, highlighting especially the advances in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) has caused us to focus attention on a large amount of spent nuclear fuels stored in NPPs. In addition, public anxiety regarding the treatment and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes that require long-term control is growing. The Japanese policy on the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle is still unpredictable in the aftermath of the accident. Therefore, research and development for enhancing the safety of various processes involved in nuclear energy production are being actively pursued worldwide. In particular, nuclear transmutation technology has been drawing significant attention after the accident. This publication is timely with the following highlights: 1) Development of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs), which is a brand-new reactor concept for transmutation of highly radioactive wastes; 2) Nuclear reactor systems from the point of view of the nuclear fuel cycle. How to reduce nuclear wastes or how to treat them including the debris from TEPCO's Fukushima nuclear power stations is discussed; and 3) Environmental radioactivity, radioactive waste treatment and geological disposal policy. State-of-the-art technologies for overall back-end issues of the nuclear fuel cycle as well as the technologies of transmutation are presented here. The chapter authors are actively involved in the development of ADSs and transmutation-related technologies. The future of the back-end issues in Japan is very uncertain after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP and this book provides an opportunity for readers to consider the future direction of those issues.
This book provides a comprehensive review of established, cutting-edge, and future trends in the exponentially growing field of nanomaterials and their applications in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part I focuses on the key principles and transduction approaches, reviewing the timeline featuring the important historical milestones in the development and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part II reviews various architectures used in nanobiosensing designs focusing on nanowires, one- and two-dimensional nanostructures, and plasmonic nanobiosensors with interferometric reflectance imaging. Commonly used nanomaterials, functionalization of the nanomaterials, and development of nanobioelectronics are discussed in detail in Part III with examples from screen-printed electrodes, nanocarbon films, and semiconductor quantum dots. Part IV reviews the current applications of carbon nanotubes, nanoneedles, plasmonic sensors, electrochemical scanning microscopes, and field-effect transistors with the future outlook for emerging technologies. Attention is also given to potential challenges, in particular, of taking these technologies at the point-of-need. The book concludes by providing a condensed summary of the contents, with emphasis on future directions. Nanomaterials have become an essential part of biosensors and bioanalyses in the detection and monitoring of medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental conditions, from cancer to chemical warfare agents. This book, with its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, will be an essential guide for all those involved in the research, design, development, and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses.
In this compelling history of the men and ideas that radically changed the course of world history, Lawrence James investigates and analyses how, within a hundred years, Europeans persuaded and coerced Africa into becoming a subordinate part of the modern world. His narrative is laced with the experiences of participants and onlookers and introduces the men and women who, for better or worse, stamped their wills on Africa. The continent was a magnet for the high-minded, the philanthropic, the unscrupulous and the insane. Visionary pro-consuls rubbed shoulders with missionaries, explorers, soldiers, adventurers, engineers, big-game hunters, entrepreneurs and physicians. Between 1830 and 1945, Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Portugal, Italy and the United States exported their languages, laws, culture, religions, scientific and technical knowledge and economic systems to Africa. The colonial powers imposed administrations designed to bring stability and peace to a continent that seemed to lack both. The justification for occupation was emancipation from slavery - and the common assumption that late nineteenth-century Europe was the summit of civilisation. By 1945 a transformed continent was preparing to take charge of its own affairs, a process of decolonisation that took a mere twenty or so years. Yet there remained areas where European influence was limited (Liberia, Abyssinia). Through inertia and a desire for a quiet time, Africa's new masters left much undisturbed, and so this magnificent history also pauses to ask: what did not happen and why?
This book is a collection of papers presented at the conference "Forum Math-for-Industry 2014" for which the unifying theme was "Applications + Practical Conceptualization + Mathematics = fruitful Innovation" in October 2014. This epigram encapsulates the dynamics of the process that takes an application through to an innovation. Industrial mathematics can be viewed as the causal engine that implements the epigram by taking an Application such as input and convolving it with a mixture of Practical Conceptualization and Mathematics to generate a fruitful Innovation as output. The book illustrates various aspects of the two-way interaction between applications and their association highlighting how practical conceptualization assists with the linking of the question that encapsulates the current application to the relevant mathematics. The contents of this volume address productive and successful interaction between industry and mathematicians, as well as the cross-fertilization and collaboration that result when mathematics is involved with the advancement of science and technology.
This book is based on the author's work at the Double Chooz Experiment, from 2010 to 2013, the goal of which was to search for electronic anti-neutrino disappearance close to nuclear power plant facilities as a result of neutrino oscillation. Starting with a brief review of neutrino oscillation and the most important past experimental findings in this field, the author subsequently provides a full and detailed description of a neutrino detector, from simulation aspects to detection principles, as well as the data analysis procedure used to extract the oscillation parameters. The main results in this book are 1) an improvement on the mixing angle, θ13, uncertainty by combining two data-sets from neutrino event selection: neutron capture on gadolinium and on hydrogen; and 2) the first measurement of the effective squared mass difference by combining the current reactor neutrino experimental data from Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO and taking advantage of their different reactor-to-detector distances. The author explains how these methods of combining data can be used to estimate these two values. Each method results in the best possible sensitivity for the oscillation parameters with regard to reactor neutrinos. They can be used as a standard method on the latest data releases from the current experiments.
The subject of optogenetics is comprehensively covered in this book, including physical, chemical, and biological topics of light-sensing proteins and their application in biological systems, particularly in neuroscience and medicine and the related opto-electronics. Optogenetics is a new technology that combines genetics and optics. It enables one to manipulate or measure the function of identified cells or neurons in a tissue by light with an accuracy in the range of milliseconds, even in a freely moving animal. Optogenetics has already become a powerful tool for revealing the neural mechanisms underlying behavior and analyzing various physiological phenomena. It is also expected to become useful for treating neural dysfunctions such as Parkinson disease and for the development of a brain-machine interface. This book should be read by any scientist or student performing research in any way related to optogenetics. As a milestone publication on optogenetics, this book will serve as a compass for any researcher, from beginners to experts, to explore this uncharted world.
This volume includes 28 chapters by authors who are leading researchers of the world describing many of the up-to-date aspects in the field of several complex variables (SCV). These contributions are based upon their presentations at the 10th Korean Conference on Several Complex Variables (KSCV10), held as a satellite conference to the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) 2014 in Seoul, Korea. SCV has been the term for multidimensional complex analysis, one of the central research areas in mathematics. Studies over time have revealed a variety of rich, intriguing, new knowledge in complex analysis and geometry of analytic spaces and holomorphic functions which were "hidden" in the case of complex dimension one. These new theories have significant intersections with algebraic geometry, differential geometry, partial differential equations, dynamics, functional analysis and operator theory, and sheaves and cohomology, as well as the traditional analysis of holomorphic functions in all dimensions. This book is suitable for a broad audience of mathematicians at and above the beginning graduate-student level. Many chapters pose open-ended problems for further research, and one in particular is devoted to problems for future investigations.
The book embodies the detailed account about unique symbionts i.e. LICHENS in ecosystem monitoring. The first chapter deals with unique characteristics features of lichens which facilitate their survival in extreme climates and makes them an ideal organism for ecosystem monitoring. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are known to protect lichens against increasing environmental stresses therefore second chapter provides insight into various chromatographic and modern spectroscopic techniques involved in separation and characterization of lichen substances. The third chapter elaborates the criteria for selection of biomonitoring species and characters of host plant that influences lichen diversity and details about different lichen species utilized for biomonitoring. One can retrieve preliminary information about the air quality based on the lichen community structure and distribution of bioindicator species as lichen communities/indicator species provides valuable information about the natural/anthropogenic induced changes in the microclimate and land-use changes due to human activity. Therefore, for identification of species, a key to genera and species provides concise information to identify the lichen species based on their morphological and anatomical characters and chemicals present. Keys provided in Chapter 4 will help the beginners to identify some common lichen species based on the distribution in different climatic zones of India. The section also provides comprehensive information about the bioindicator communities and bioindicator species from India. Chapter 5 provides the details of factors affecting the ecosystem (natural as well as anthropogenic disturbances) and role of lichens in ecosystem monitoring in India has been discussed in detail. Chapter 6 discusses the need and utility of indicator species especially lichen biomonitoring data in sustainable forest management and conservation. The content about lichens in biomonitoring will be a valuable resource for researchers from different fields and will provide an essential reference for people interested in lichens and its role in ecosystem monitoring. The book will also hopefully popularize lichenological studies in India and will generate more active participation of lichen biomonitoring studies in management and conservation of natural resources in India.
The book summarizes the occurrence, geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology and phase-equilibria studies in air and under high pressures related to the most intriguing group of potassium-rich mafic and ultramafic rocks, often including host of exotic mineral assemblages including feldspathoids. Mantle-derived K-rich melts had intrigued most of the founders of Geology and many of the later experts in the field of Igneous Petrology, because they are sometimes associated with carbonatites and even diamond. They tend to contain anomalous concentration of many such elements as K, Rb, Sr, U, F, P, etc. , along with Ni, Co and Cr indicating a mixture of crust and mantle materials. Although these rocks occur rarely in ancient geologic time, they have been erupting mostly in modern geological history (less than last 120 Ma or so). Are the old age data real or the result of a sampling problem? Modern observations leave no doubt that sediments must be subducted on a large scale. There is now evidence that the upper mantle (and perhaps even the lower mantle) is not homogeneous but rather like a fruit cake, and that there are thermal anomalies in the mantle resulting from deep mantle plumes or subduction. Is this related to release of these unusual rocks clearing the mantle of left over subduction materials? This volume, written for those interested in the geochemistry of K-rich melts from the deep Earth, reviews the present state of knowledge of these unique igneous rocks. The author is an expert in the field of Igneous Petrology and the book will serve as a valuable reference book for researchers and academicians in the discipline.
This book on recent advances in uveitis provides readers with up-to-date and clinically-relevant information on 18 topics that are indispensable for everyday practice. This book is meant for bridging the gap between recent developments and their incorporation into clinical use. Written by global experts, the topics cover advances in diagnosis and treatment of distinct clinical varieties of uveitis. Additionally, the chapter on imaging describes the various imaging modalities that aid clinching the diagnosis with greater accuracy. Role of corticosteroids, their mechanism of action and various routes of drug delivery too have been discussed in detail. Optimal use of various immunomodulators, their role, dose, mechanism of action, side effects, and monitoring during patient follow-up have been elucidated in easy-to-understand tables. There are two chapters on complications in uveitis, one on glaucoma and other on choroidal neovascularization. A chapter on pediatric uveitis highlights the challenges and provides guidance to manage this special population.
This book is intended to serve as a textbook for engineering courses on earthquake resistant design. The book covers important attributes for seismic design such as material properties, damping, ductility, stiffness and strength. The subject coverage commences with simple concepts and proceeds right up to nonlinear analysis and push-over method for checking building adequacy. The book also provides an insight into the design of base isolators highlighting their merits and demerits. Apart from the theoretical approach to design of multi-storey buildings, the book highlights the care required in practical design and construction of various building components. It covers modal analysis in depth including the important missing mass method of analysis and tension shift in shear walls and beams. These have important bearing on reinforcement detailing. Detailed design and construction features are covered for earthquake resistant design of reinforced concrete as well as confined and reinforced masonry structures. The book also provides the methodology for assessment of seismic forces on basement walls and pile foundations. It provides a practical approach to design and detailing of soft storeys, short columns, vulnerable staircases and many other components. The book bridges the gap between design and construction. Plenty of worked illustrative examples are provided to aid learning. This book will be of value to upper undergraduate and graduate students taking courses on seismic design of structures.
This book uses resource economics costing approaches incorporating externalities to estimate the returns for the country's irrigation and demonstrates how underestimating the cost of water leads farmers to overestimate profits. The importance of the subject can be judged in light of the fact that India is the largest user of groundwater both for irrigation and for drinking purposes, pumping twice as much as the United States and six times as much as Europe. Despite water's vital role in ensuring economic security for the nation and farmers alike by supporting more than 70% of food production, water resource economists are yet to impress upon farmers and policymakers the true value of water and the urgent need for its sustainable extraction, recharge and use. In an endeavor to promote more awareness, the book further delineates the roles of the demand side and supply side in the economics of irrigation, and explains how the cost of water varies with the efforts to recharge it, crop patterns, degrees of initial and premature well failure and degrees of externalities. It also discusses the importance of micro-irrigation in the economics of saving water for irrigation, estimating the marginal productivity of water and how it improves with drip irrigation, the economics of water sharing and water markets, optimal control theory in sustainable extraction of water, payment of ecosystem services for water and how India can effectively recover. In closing, the book highlights the role of socioeconomic and hydrogeological factors in the economics of irrigation, which vary considerably across hard rock areas and the resulting limitations on generalizing.
This book focuses on the meaning of statistical inference and estimation. Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. Primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of statistics, the book is also useful to professionals and researchers in statistical, medical, social and other disciplines. It discusses current methodological techniques used in statistics and related interdisciplinary areas. Every concept is supported with relevant research examples to help readers to find the most suitable application. Statistical tools have been presented by using real-life examples, removing the "fear factor" usually associated with this complex subject. The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. Keeping in mind the needs of readers, as well as constantly changing scenarios, the material is presented in an easy-to-understand form.
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