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Anatomy of Global Stock Market Crashes: An Empirical Analysis

by Chitrakalpa Sen Gagari Chakrabarti

This work is an exploration of the global market dynamics, their intrinsic natures, common trends and dynamic interlinkages during the stock market crises over the last twelve years. The study isolates different phases of crisis and differentiates between any crisis that remains confined to the region and those that take up a global dimension. The latent structure of the global stock market, the inter-regional and intra-regional stock market dynamics around the crises are analyzed to get a complete picture of the structure of the global stock market. The study further probing into the inherent nature of the global stock market in generating crisis finds the global market to be chaotic thus making the system intrinsically unstable or at best to follow knife-edge stability. The findings have significant bearing at theoretical level and on policy decisions.

Hematologic Problems in the Critically Ill

by Giorgio Berlot Gabriele Pozzato

This book covers a wide array of hematologic problems commonly encountered in the daily practice of critical care and emergency medicine. Unfortunately, the symptoms and signs associated with underlying hematologic disorders are frequently rather unspecific and confounding; furthermore, the clinical course of patients admitted to intensive care units with such disorders can be fulminant, warranting prompt diagnosis. This book recognizes the importance of accurate and speedy interpretation of symptoms in that the text is symptom oriented rather than disease oriented. Put another way, the reader confronted with a particular clinical problem or symptom will be guided step by step to the possible underlying disorder(s). The scenarios considered include critical illness in patients with anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, abnormal platelet count, and severe transfusion reactions. For each circumstance, factors relevant to symptom interpretation are fully discussed. In addition, helpful diagnostic algorithms are presented in the form of flow charts that will assist in decision making regarding the need for further investigations. The closing chapter is devoted to the drug-induced hematologic disorders. Although the book is intended mainly for intensivists, other specialists will find much information of value for their daily practice.

Single Subject Designs in Biomedicine

by Janine E. Janosky Michael P. Hoerger Shelley L. Leininger Terry M. Libkuman

Single Subject Designs in Biomedicine draws upon the rich history of single case research within the educational and behavioral research settings and extends the application to the field of biomedicine. Biomedical illustrations are used to demonstrate the processes of designing, implementing, and evaluating a single subject design. Strengths and limitations of various methodologies are presented, along with specific clinical areas of application in which these applications would be appropriate. Statistical and visual techniques for data analysis are also discussed. The breadth and depth of information provided is suitable for medical students in research oriented courses, primary care practitioners and medical specialists seeking to apply methods of evidence practice to improve patient care, and medical researchers who are expanding their methodological expertise to include single subject designs. Increasing awareness of the utility in the single subject design could enhance treatment approach and evaluation both in biomedical research and medical care settings.

From Reasons to Norms

by Torbjörn Tännsjö

This book originated from a discussion between the author, Derek Parfit and Wlodek Rabinowicz, and further developed in correspondence and intense discussions with Wlodek Rabinowics and John Broome. The author disputes the recent trend in metaethics that focuses on reasons rather than norms. The reader is invited to take a new look at the traditional metaethical questions of moral semantics, ontology, and epistemology. The author mainly concerns himself with particular aspects of these problems: Which are the problems of morality? Are there many different moral questions, or, do they all, in the final analysis, reduce to one? The bold claim made in this book is that there is just one: What ought to be done? Moreover, there is just one source of normativity, just one kind of 'ought'-question, which lends itself to an objectively correct and authoritative answer.

Infinite Regress Arguments

by Claude Gratton

Infinite regress arguments are part of a philosopher's tool kit of argumentation. But how sharp or strong is this tool? How effectively is it used? The typical presentation of infinite regress arguments throughout history is so succinct and has so many gaps that it is often unclear how an infinite regress is derived, and why an infinite regress is logically problematic, and as a result, it is often difficult to evaluate infinite regress arguments. These consequences of our customary way of using this tool indicate that there is a need for a theory to re-orient our practice. My general approach to contribute to such a theory, consists of collecting and evaluating as many infinite regress arguments as possible, comparing and contrasting many of the formal and non-formal properties, looking for recurring patterns, and identifying the properties that appeared essential to those patterns. Two very general questions guided this work: (1) How are infinite regresses generated in infinite regress arguments? (2) How do infinite regresses logically function as premises in an argument? In answering these questions I clarify the notion of an infinite regress; identify different logical forms of infinite regresses; describe different kinds of infinite regress arguments; distinguish the rhetoric from the logic in infinite regress arguments; and suggest ways of improving our discussion and our practice of constructing and evaluating these arguments.

Schooling in Disadvantaged Communities

by Carmen Mills Trevor Gale

Based on a study of one secondary school located in a disadvantaged community in Australia, this book provides a different perspective on what it means to 'play the game' of schooling. Drawing on the perspectives of teachers, parents and students, this book is a window through which to explore the possibilities of schooling in disadvantaged communities. The authors contend that teachers, parents and students themselves are all involved in the game of reproducing disadvantage in schooling, but similarly, they can play a part in opening up opportunities for change to enhance learning for marginalised students. Rather than only attempting to transform students, teachers should be also be concerned to transform schooling; to provide educational opportunities that transform the life experiences of and open up opportunities for all young people, especially those disadvantaged by poverty and marginalised by difference. The book is also designed to stimulate understanding of the work of Bourdieu as well as of a Bourdieuian approach to research. Seeing transformative potential in his theoretical constructs, it airs the possibility that schools can be more than mere reproducers of society.

The European Union and Member State Territories: A New Legal Framework Under the EU Treaties

by Fiona Murray

The book reviews the EU Treaties provisions governing relations between the EU and Member State territories, such as the Netherlands Antilles, the UK Channel Islands and the French Overseas Departments. The book includes an overview of each of the relevant territories, including their present constitutional relations with their Member State and their legal relations with the EU. Prior to the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, the over-arching Treaty provision for this relationship was Article 299 of the EC Treaty. Having traced the development of Article 299 from 1957 to the present Lisbon framework, the book identifies many inconsistencies and issues with this current framework and proposes a new model framework, one that is more concise and up-to-date and which is adaptable to possible future developments. Useful for EU Law departments and Research Centres, EU Think Tanks, EU Institutions Libraries, Permanent Representatives to the EU and law firms specializing in EU law.

Towards Global Justice: Sovereignty in an Interdependent World

by Simona Ţuţuianu

With Forewords by Geoffrey Robertson QC, Doughty Street Chambers, London, UK and Professor Mihail E. Ionescu, Bucharest, Romania Simona Ţuţuianu describes a new model of sovereignty which is fast replacing the traditional Westphalian model embodied in Article 2 of the UN Charter and rigorously followed throughout the Cold War. The scholarly basis for this new model draws upon developments in international criminal law which first emerged from the Nuremberg trials and upon more recent interstate economic cooperation which has turned sovereign independence into interdependence across a range of state functions. Does this mean that traditional Westphalian concepts of sovereignty should be abandoned in constructing a new theory of world governance for the twenty-first century? Not at all. A new model, which can be called the pattern of interdependence-based sovereignty, serves to explain contemporary events that puzzle traditional theorists, such as the war over Kosovo, the invasions of Iraq and Libya, the emergence of a "Responsibility to protect" doctrine and its recent validation in Security Council Resolutions 1970 and 1973. We are witnessing the emergence of a new philosophy of action, which is in the process of producing a 21st century system of international relations. The Book will appeal to academics, students and postgraduates studying international affairs, politics, international law, diplomatic history, or war and/or peace studies. It is particularly of interest for NATO establishments and national military schools, while experts and scholars will value its theory of what sovereignty means today. The Book offers a multidisciplinary approach which underpins a new theory of how human rights can be better protected in a better world. There is a unique case study of cooperative security in the Greater Black Sea Area, by one of the few experts on the politics of this region. It will be read and appreciated by those who need to understand how modern international law and diplomacy really work. Journalists, media commentators, human rights NGOs, aid agencies, diplomats and government officials need the information in this Book.

Continental Philosophy and Philosophy of Religion

by Morny Joy

This is the first book that provides access to twelve Continental philosophers and the consequences of their thinking for the philosophy of religion. Basically, in the second half of the twentieth century, it has been treated from within the Anglo- American school of philosophy, which deals mainly with proofs and truths, and questions of faith. This approach is more concerned with human experience, and pays more attention to historical context and cultural influences. As such, it provides challenging questions about the way forward for philosophy of religion in the twenty-first century.

Labour-Market Flexibility and Individual Careers

by Simone R. Kirpal

With labour markets across the world and even in social democratic Europe in a state of unprecedented flux, this exhaustive study addresses the problem of how to balance job market demands, personal career interests and private life becomes a central issue for millions of employees. So how do modern work and employment arrangements restructure individual careers and what is required of individuals in order to manage career transitions successfully over time? This is one of very few in-depth empirical studies to analyze how labour market trends, organisational change and the subjective work orientations of individuals interact. The author's detailed assessment is based on a comparison of the structural contexts, work orientations and employment histories of nurses and ICT technicians in Germany and the UK. These two core service occupations, as well as the national contexts of the two European nations, have quite different working environments and vocational traditions. Nursing is an institutionalized semi-profession with clear criteria of qualification and career continuity, while information and communication technology (ICT) is a new, evolving field with varied skill backgrounds and high job mobility. To arrive at an understanding of how individual career trajectories are changing, this book closely examines the interplay of labour market demands, employees' work and career orientations and the development of their skills. It records the ways in which employees adapt to increased labour market flexibility, which, on the one hand, induces discontinuities of careers, employment and work, and on the other, generates new skill requirements and learning expectations, as well as unforeseen opportunities.

Spirituality and Ethics in Management

by Laszlo Zsolnai

The book - which was originally published by Kluwer in 2004 - is a collection of scholarly papers focusing on the role of spirituality and ethics in renewing the contemporary management praxis. The basic argument is that a more inclusive, holistic and peaceful approach to management is needed if business and political leaders are to uplift the environmentally degrading and socially disintegrating world of our age. The book uses diverse value-perspectives (Hindu, Catholic, Buddhist, and Humanist) and a variety of disciplines (philosophy, ethics, management studies, psychology, and organizational sciences) to extend traditional reflections on corporate purpose and focuses on a self-referential organizational-existential search for meaning, identity and success.

The Growing Gap Between Emerging Technologies and Legal-Ethical Oversight

by Braden R. Allenby Gary E. Marchant Joseph R. Herkert

At the same time that the pace of science and technology has greatly accelerated in recent decades, our legal and ethical oversight mechanisms have become bogged down and slower. This book addresses the growing gap between the pace of science and technology and the lagging responsiveness of legal and ethical oversight society relies on to govern emerging technologies. Whether it be biotechnology, genetic testing, nanotechnology, synthetic biology, computer privacy, autonomous robotics, or any of the other many emerging technologies, new approaches are needed to ensure appropriate and timely regulatory responses. This book documents the problem and offers a toolbox of potential regulatory and governance approaches that might be used to ensure more responsive oversight.

Free Markets and the Culture of Common Good

by Juan Andrés Mercado Martin Schlag

Recent economic development and the financial and economic crisis require a change in our approach to business and finance. This book combines theology, economy and philosophy in order to examine in detail the idea that the functioning of a free market economy depends upon sound cultural and ethical foundations. The free market is a cultural achievement, not only an economic phenomenon subject to technical rules of trade and exchange. It is an achievement which lives by and depends upon the values and virtues shared by the majority of those who engage in economic activity. It is these values and virtues that we refer to as culture. Trust, credibility, loyalty, diligence, and entrepreneurship are the values inherent in commercial rules and law. But beyond law, there is also the need for ethical convictions and for global solidarity with developing countries. This book offers new ideas for future sustainable development and responds to an increasing need for a new sense of responsibility for the common good in societal institutions and good leadership.

Global Perspectives on Migration and Development: GFMD Puerto Vallarta and Beyond

by Irena Omelaniuk

This volume is the first in a new Springer series to examine one of humanity's most pressing concerns: global migration and its implications for development. As population mobility grows in an ever more crowded world, the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) has emerged as the most important global mechanism to deal with the urgent challenges it presents. This book explores fresh strategies proposed by the GFMD in its fourth year of operation in Mexico and beyond. Interrogating the relationship between migration and development, the papers advance the Global Forum's aims of reducing poverty and empowering low-income families everywhere. In 2010, there were 214 million international migrants worldwide, nearly two and a half times the number in 1965. By 2050, international migration is likely to expand sharply in scale, reach and complexity, due to growing demographic disparities, environmental change, shifting global political and economic dynamics, technological innovations and social networks. Migration can bring substantial gains to families in less-developed countries, and mobile labor is an axiomatic feature of the global economy. Yet outward migration of skilled workers can seriously retard development at home, and exert pressure on wages in host nations. Balancing these and other conflicting concerns requires the substantive and expert discourse offered in this book. Contributors discuss, and propose concrete solutions to, vital issues such as the debilitating costs of cross-border labor recruitment and the provision of social and income protection for foreign contract workers. With suggestions on how to facilitate connections between transnational families, and gender- and family-sensitive immigration regimes, this book aims to foster collaborative intergovernmental links as well as partnerships between governments, civil society and international organizations. It shows how the GFMD can positively influence policy and institutional behavior while addressing wider systemic factors in protecting mobile workers.

Clark Kerr's World of Higher Education Reaches the 21st Century

by Sheldon Rothblatt

This volume consists of original essays by academic leaders and scholars connected to Clark Kerr's life and work. He was arguably America's most significant higher education thinker and public policy analyst in the last 50 years of the 20th century and renowned globally. However, little thoughtful attention has been devoted to assessing the whole of his work. Some commentators misunderstand the man as well as his ideas. The California Master Plan for Higher Education of 1960 was one of his famous undertakings, as was his part in shaping the multi-campus University of California towards global eminence. He coined the word "multiversity" to describe what he called the "uses" of the university, but began to think it had become much too "multi". Some of his most important work was as director of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education and the Carnegie Council on Policy Studies in Higher Education, which laid the foundation for sophisticated policy-making. The contributors honor the achievements of a remarkable man and provide portraits of him, but of equal importance are their critical discussions of the sources of his thinking, his attempts to balance access and merit in mass higher education circumstances, the policy issues that he confronted and the success of their resolution. For many of the contributors, Kerr's work is the starting point for understanding policy issues in varying regional and national contexts. Often thought to be a social scientist eager to keep abreast of trends, Kerr was actually au fond a moralist and surprisingly old-fashioned in his personal values.

Autonomy and the Self

by Nadja Jelinek Michael Kühler

This volume addresses the complex interplay between the conditions of an agent's personal autonomy and the constitution of her self in light of two influential background assumptions: a libertarian thesis according to which it is essential for personal autonomy to be able to choose freely how one's self is shaped, on the one hand, and a line of thought following especially the seminal work of Harry Frankfurt according to which personal autonomy necessarily rests on an already sufficiently shaped self, on the other hand. Given this conceptual framework, a number of influential aspects within current debate can be addressed in a new and illuminating light: accordingly, the volume's contributions range from 1) discussing fundamental conceptual interconnections between personal autonomy and freedom of the will, 2) addressing the exact role and understanding of different personal traits, e.g. Frankfurt's notion of volitional necessities, commitments to norms and ideals, emotions, the phenomenon of weakness of will, and psychocorporeal aspects, 3) and finally taking into account social influences, which are discussed in terms of their ability to buttress, to weaken, or even to serve as necessary preconditions of personal autonomy and the forming of one's self. The volume thus provides readers with an extensive and most up-to-date discussion of various influential strands of current philosophical debate on the topic. It is of equal interest to all those already engaged in the debate as well as to readers trying to get an up-to-date overview or looking for a textbook to use in courses.

The Aristotelian Tradition and the Rise of British Empiricism

by Marco Sgarbi

Offers an extremely bold, far-reaching, and unsuspected thesis in the history of philosophy: Aristotelianism was a dominant movement of the British philosophical landscape, especially in the field of logic, and it had a long survival. British Aristotelian doctrines were strongly empiricist in nature, both in the theory of knowledge and in scientific method; this character marked and influenced further developments in British philosophy at the end of the century, and eventually gave rise to what we now call British empiricism, which is represented by philosophers such as John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume. Beyond the apparent and explicit criticism of the old Scholastic and Aristotelian philosophy, which has been very well recognized by the scholarship in the twentieth century and which has contributed to the false notion that early modern philosophy emerged as a reaction to Aristotelianism, the present research examines the continuity, the original developments and the impact of Aristotelian doctrines and terminology in logic and epistemology as the background for the rise of empiricism.Without the Aristotelian tradition, without its doctrines, and without its conceptual elaborations, British empiricism would never have been born. The book emphasizes that philosophy is not defined only by the 'great names', but also by minor authors, who determine the intellectual milieu from which the canonical names emerge. It considers every single published work of logic between the middle of the sixteenth and the end of the seventeenth century, being acquainted with a number of surviving manuscripts and being well-informed about the best existing scholarship in the field.

Paradoxes in Probability Theory

by William Eckhardt

Paradoxes provide a vehicle for exposing misinterpretations and misapplications of accepted principles. This book discusses seven paradoxes surrounding probability theory. Some remain the focus of controversy; others have allegedly been solved, however the accepted solutions are demonstrably incorrect. Each paradox is shown to rest on one or more fallacies. Instead of the esoteric, idiosyncratic, and untested methods that have been brought to bear on these problems, the book invokes uncontroversial probability principles, acceptable both to frequentists and subjectivists. The philosophical disputation inspired by these paradoxes is shown to be misguided and unnecessary; for instance, startling claims concerning human destiny and the nature of reality are directly related to fallacious reasoning in a betting paradox, and a problem analyzed in philosophy journals is resolved by means of a computer program.

The Web of Violence

by John Grych Sherry Hamby

There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals' experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice's Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Jacques Ellul and the Technological Society in the 21st Century

by Carl Mitcham Helena M. Jerónimo José Luís Garcia

This volume rethinks the work of Jacques Ellul (1912-1994) on the centenary of his birth, by presenting an overview of the current debates based on Ellul's insights. As one of the most significant twentieth-century thinkers about technology, Ellul was among the first thinkers to realize the importance of topics such as globalization, terrorism, communication technologies and ecology, and study them from a technological perspective. The book is divided into three sections. The first discusses Ellul's diagnosis of modern society, and addresses the reception of his work on the technological society, the notion of efficiency, the process of symbolization/de-symbolization, and ecology. The second analyzes communicational and cultural problems, as well as threats and trends in early twenty-first century societies. Many of the issues Ellul saw as crucial - such as energy, propaganda, applied life sciences and communication - continue to be so. In fact they have grown exponentially, on a global scale, producing new forms of risk. Essays in the final section examine the duality of reason and revelation. They pursue an understanding of Ellul in terms of the depth of experience and the traditions of human knowledge, which is to say, on the one hand, the experience of the human being as contained in the rationalist, sociological and philosophical traditions. On the other hand there are the transcendent roots of human existence, as well as "revealed knowledge," in the mystical and religious traditions. The meeting of these two traditions enables us to look at Ellul's work as a whole, but above all it opens up a space for examining religious life in the technological society.

Jerome Bruner

by Keiichi Takaya

Jerome S. Bruner (1915- ) is one of the best known and most influential psychologists of the twentieth century. He has made significant contributions to cognitive psychology and educational theory. This book presents a brief introduction to Jerome Bruner's educational ideas and details their influences on our educational discourse and practice. It examines Bruner's ideas in the context of some key educational issues in the United States since the early twentieth century. Jerome Bruner: Developing a Sense of the Possible will be an inspiration, and vital call to action, to readers looking to better understand today's instructional and curriculum theories. It will help readers gain invaluable insight into the ways teaching and schools can be improved in the future.

Financial Crimes and Existential Philosophy

by Michel Dion

The aim of this book is to deepen our understanding of financial crimes as phenomena. It uses concepts of existential philosophies that are relevant to dissecting the phenomenon of financial crimes. With the help of these concepts, the book makes clear what the impact of financial crimes is on the way a human being defines himself or the way he focuses on a given notion of humankind. The book unveils how the growth of financial crimes has contributed to the increase of the anthropological gap, and how the phenomenon of financial crimes now distorts the way we understand humankind. Using the existential philosophies of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Jaspers, Buber, Heidegger, and Marcel, the book sheds light on how these philosophies can help to better perceive and describe financial crimes. Next it looks at prevention strategies from an organizational perspective, using concepts of Sartre, Gadamer and Tillich. The book provides readers with existential principles that will help them be more efficient when they have to design and implement prevention strategies against corporate crime.

Karl Marx

by Robin Small

This book is an introduction to Karl Marx (1818-1883) as a radical educational thinker. Marx's own schooling and education are examined and we see how his interest in educational issues was informed by his own experience. Educational themes in Marx's thinking are identified: the role of education within capitalist society, the contribution of education to human development and the character of education in a future society. These are placed in a historical setting by the author and related to public debates over educational policy. Throughout his career, Marx identified education as key to the prospects of the working class. The story of this engagement adds a new dimension to the picture of his work as a philosopher, political economist and socialist revolutionary. The aspects of education that concerned Marx matched prominent features of his theoretical and political activity, and educational themes provided him with a critical application for many of his most important ideas. The author explores Marx's work on the British factory school system, his use of evidence from the reports of school inspectors, and the contemporary movement that led to the establishment of modern systems of public schooling. The final chapter relates Marx's thinking to questions about the place of education in today's society, showing how relevant it is for the twenty-first century. These discussions contain new scholarship, draw on original sources and are written in a clear and readable style. Students in education courses at universities and colleges, educational researchers and teachers will find this examination of Karl Marx's ideas concerning education both engaging and enlightening.

Art's Teachings, Teaching's Art

by Tyson Lewis Megan Laverty

This volume examines the interface between the teachings of art and the art of teaching, and asserts the centrality of aesthetics for rethinking education. Many of the essays in this collection claim a direct connection between critical thinking, democratic dissensus, and anti-racist pedagogy with aesthetic experiences. They argue that aesthetics should be reconceptualized less as mere art appreciation or the cultivation of aesthetic judgment of taste, and more with the affective disruptions, phenomenological experiences, and the democratic politics of learning, thinking, and teaching. The first set of essays in the volume examines the unique pedagogies of the various arts including literature, poetry, film, and music. The second set addresses questions concerning the art of pedagogy and the relationship between aesthetic experience and teaching and learning. Demonstrating the flexibility and diversity of aesthetic expressions and experiences in education, the book deals with issues such as the connections between racism and affect, curatorship and teaching, aesthetic experience and the common, and studying and poetics. The book explores these topics through a variety of theoretical and philosophical lenses including contemporary post-structuralism, psychoanalysis, phenomenology, critical theory, and pragmatism.

Managing Digital Enterprise

by Jun Xu

This book describes the setup of digital enterprises and how to manage them, focusing primarily on the important knowledge and essential understanding of digital enterprise management required by managers and decision makers in organizations. It covers ten essential knowledge areas of this field: * Foundation of Digital Enterprise * Technology Foundation and Talent Management for Digital Enterprise * Digital Enterprise Strategy Planning and Implementation * B2C Digital Enterprise: E-tailing * B2C Digital Enterprise: E-Services * B2B Digital Enterprise and Supply Chain * Digital Platforms * Digital Marketing and Advertising * Digital Payment Systems * Mobile Enterprise Overall, this text provides the reader with the basics to understand the rapid development of digitization, facilitated by the dramatic advancements in digital technologies, extensively connected networks, and wider adoption of computing devices (especially mobile devices), as more and more organizations are realizing the strategic importance of digitization (e. g. , sustainable growth of the organization, competitive advantage development and enhancement) and are embarking on digital enterprise.

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