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In this PhD thesis, Yue Yanan addresses a long-overlooked and critical question in the development of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. The author determines that those uncomplexed and cationic polymer chains free in the solution mixture of polymer and DNA facilitate and promote gene transfection. Furthermore, by using a combination of synthetic chemistry, polymer physics and molecular biology, Yue confirms that it is those cationic polymer chains free in the solution mixture, rather than those bound to DNA chains, that play a decisive role in intracellular trafficking. Instead of the previously proposed and widely accepted "proton sponge" model, the author's group propose a new hypothesis based on the results of several well-designed and decisive experiments. These results show that free polycationic chains with a length of more than ~10 nm are able to partially block the fusion between different endocytic vesicles, including the endocytic-vesicle-to-endolysosome pathway. This thesis is highly original and its results greatly deepen our understanding of polymer-mediated gene transfection. More importantly, it provides new insights into the rational design of next-generation superior polymeric gene-delivery vectors.
With the proliferation of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) offerings, it is becoming increasingly important for individual SaaS providers to operate their services at a low cost. This book investigates SaaS from the perspective of the provider and shows how operational costs can be reduced by using "multi tenancy," a technique for consolidating a large number of customers onto a small number of servers. Specifically, the book addresses multi tenancy on the database level, focusing on in-memory column databases, which are the backbone of many important new enterprise applications. For efficiently implementing multi tenancy in a farm of databases, two fundamental challenges must be addressed, (i) workload modeling and (ii) data placement. The first involves estimating the (shared) resource consumption for multi tenancy on a single in-memory database server. The second consists in assigning tenants to servers in a way that minimizes the number of required servers (and thus costs) based on the assumed workload model. This step also entails replicating tenants for performance and high availability. This book presents novel solutions to both problems.
This book is about the pragmatics of language and it illustrates how pragmatics transcends the boundaries of linguistics. This volume covers Gricean pragmatics as well as topics including: conversation and collective belief, the norm of assertion, speech acts, what a context is, the distinction between semantics and pragmatics and implicature and explicature, pragmatics and epistemology, the pragmatics of belief, quotation, negation, implicature and argumentation theory, Habermas' Universal Pragmatics, Dascal's theory of the dialectical self, theories and theoretical discussions on the nature of pragmatics from a philosophical point of view. Conversational implicatures are generally meaning augmentations on top of explicatures, whilst explicatures figure prominently in what is said. Discussions in this work reveal their characteristics and tensions within current theories relating to explicatures and implicatures. Authors show that explicatures and implicatures are calculable and not (directly) tied to conventional meaning. Pragmatics has a role to play in dealing with philosophical problems and this volume presents research that defines boundaries and gives a stable picture of pragmatics and philosophy. World renowned academic experts in philosophy and pragmalinguistics ask important theoretical questions and interact in a way that can be easily grasped by those from disciplines other than philosophy, such as anthropology, literary theory and law. A second volume in this series is also available, which covers the perspective of linguists who have been influenced by philosophy.
This book describes the design and implementation of a discipline-specific model of professional development: the disciplinary Teaching and Learning Center (TLC). TLC was born from a strong commitment to improving undergraduate science education through supporting the front-line educators who play an essential role in this mission. The TLC's comprehensive approach encompasses consultation, seminars and workshops, acculturation activities for new faculty members, and teaching preparatory courses as well as a certificate program for graduate students. At the University of Maryland, TLC serves biology and chemistry faculty members, postdoctoral associates, and graduate students. The Center is deeply integrated into the departmental culture, and its emphasis on pedagogical content knowledge makes its activities highly relevant to the community that it serves. The book reflects ten years of intensive work on the design and implementation of the model. Beginning with a needs assessment and continuing with ongoing evaluation, the book presents a wealth of information about how to design and implement effective professional development. In addition, it discusses the theory underlying each of the program components and provides an implementation guide for adopting or adapting the TLC model and its constituent activities at other institutions. In this book, the authors describe how they created the highly successful discipline-based Teaching and Learning Center at the University of Maryland. This is a must read for anyone interested in improving higher education. Charles Henderson, Co-Director, Center for Research on Instructional Change in Postsecondary Education, Western Michigan University This book will provide a much-needed resource for helping campus leaders and faculty development professionals create robust programs that meet the needs of science faculty. Susan Elrod, Dean, College of Science and Mathematics, Fresno State The authors provide a road map and guidance for higher education professional development in the natural science for educators at all levels. While the examples are from the sciences, the approaches are readily adaptable to all disciplines. Spencer A. Benson, Director of the Centre for Teaching and Learning Enhancement, University of Macau
This book takes a fresh look at biometrics and identity management, extending the dialogue beyond technical considerations, and exploring some of the broader societal and philosophical aspects surrounding the use of biometric applications. Features: presents a brief history of the development of biometrics, and describes some of the popularly held misconceptions surrounding the technology; investigates the challenges and possibilities of biometrics across third party infrastructures and on mobile computing devices; provides guidance on biometric systems design; explores the mechanisms necessary to enable identity intelligence, including logging mechanisms, data communications and data formats; discusses such usage issues as collaboration frameworks, and messaging and data translation; examines the impact of biometric technologies on society, covering issues of privacy and user factors; reviews the current situation in identity management, and predicts where these trends may take us in the future.
This book presents Ulrich Beck, one of the world's leading sociologists and social thinkers, as a Pioneer in Cosmopolitan Sociology and Risk Society. His world risk society theory has been confirmed by recent disasters - events that have shaken modern society to the core, signaling the end of an era in which comprehensive insurance could keep us safe. Due to its own successes, modern society now faces failure: while in the past experiments were conducted in a lab, now the whole world is a test bed. Whether nuclear plants, genetically modified organisms, nanotechnology - if any of these experiments went wrong, the consequences would have a global impact and would be irreversible. Beck recommends ignoring the mathematical morality of expert opinions, which seek to identify the level of a given risk by calculating the probability of its occurrence. Instead, man's fear of collapse should offer an opportunity for international cooperation and a cosmopolitan turn in the social sciences.
This book presents a research focus on diversity and inclusivity in mathematics education. The challenge of diversity, largely in terms of student profiles or contextual features, is endemic in mathematics education, and is often argued to require differentiation as a response. Typically different curricula, text materials, task structures or pedagogies are favoured responses, but huge differences in achievement still result. If we in mathematics education seek to challenge that status quo, more research must be focussed not just on diversity but also on the inclusivity, of practices in mathematics education. The book is written by a group of experienced collaborating researchers who share this focus. It is written for researchers, research students, teachers and in-service professionals, who recognise both the challenges but also the opportunities of creating and evaluating new inclusive approaches to curriculum and pedagogy - ones that take for granted the positive values of diversity. Several chapters report new research in this direction. The authors are part of, or have visited with, the mathematics education staff of the Faculty of Education at Monash University, in Melbourne, Australia. The chapters all focus on the ideas of development in both research and practice, recognising that the current need is for new inclusive approaches. The studies presented are set in different contexts, including Australia, China, the United States, and Singapore.
This SpringerBrief presents the concept of the smart grid architecture and investigates the security issues of the smart grid and the existing encrypted data query techniques. Unique characteristics of smart grid impose distinguished challenges on this investigation, such as multidimensional attributes in metering data and finer grained query on each dimension. Three kinds of queries are introduced, namely, equality query, conjunctive query and range query. For the equality query over encrypted metering data, an efficient searchable encryption scheme is introduced and can be applied for auction in emerging smart grid marketing. Later chapters examine the conjunctive query and range query over encrypted data. Different techniques are used, including the Public key Encryption with Keyword Search (PEKS) and Hidden Vector Encryption (HVE), to construct the comparison predicate and range query predicate. Their correctness is demonstrated in the book. Concise and practical, Encrypted Data Querying in Smart Grids is valuable for professionals and researchers involved in data privacy or encryption. It is also useful for graduate students interested in smart grid and related technologies.
To fully understand photography, it is essential to study both the theoretical and the technical. This book combines theory and practice in one text, exploring photographic ideas alongside processes.
In recent years, the aim of research on aging has shifted from prolonging life to fostering healthy and cognitively robust old age. In order to improve the quality of life of older people, we need to better understand cognitive aging as well as bodily aging. Health and Cognition in Old Age assembles the cream of research across varied medical, mental health, and social disciplines, and demonstrates how this knowledge can lead to improved outcomes for older people. The first half of this expert volume discusses biomedical and life course factors in aging, particularly as they affect cognition and well-being in later life. From there, effective solutions are the focus: interventions and care programs to improve mental functioning and general quality of life, and current policy and practice ideas in promoting healthy, active, and cognitively robust aging. Together, these diverse chapters offer a multi-faceted approach to understanding and modifying what was formerly the inevitable course of growing old. A sampling of the coverage: How the aging process affects the immune system. Occupational gerontology - work-related determinants of old age health and functioning. Social, behavioral, and contextual influences on cognitive function and decline. Lifestyle factors in the prevention of dementia. Understanding long-term care outcomes: conventional and behavioral economics. Social capital, mental well-being, and loneliness in older people. For gerontologists, sociologists, social workers, health psychologists, and others working to improve older people's lives, Health and Cognition in Old Age brings expertise, versatility, and confidence to the table.
In the 25th Century, the effects of overpopulation and global warming on Earth have led to the formation of human colonies on the Moon, Mars and elsewhere in the Solar System, yet the limited number of viable places forces humanity to look to the stars. A crash program has been developed to send Protos 1, a giant multigenerational star ship, to a newly discovered Earth-like planet orbiting a nearby star. The plan is for awake crewmembers to run the ship and for people in suspended animation to be roused before planet fall to use their skills in exploration and colony formation. To fulfill the goals of the mission and ensure that the in-flight population does not deplete the limited resources, the Protos Mandate is set up to govern a tightly controlled social system for the duration of the journey, which will take several generations. But problems threaten to sabotage the mission during its launch and transit and what finally awaits the crewmembers shocks them in an unpredictable way. This novel chronicles the trials and tribulations of this epic first interstellar mission. The scientific appendix at the end of the book discusses the challenges of such an interstellar mission based on an extensive literature review and it links these challenges to specific episodes in the novel. Issues that are considered include interstellar propulsion systems, economic considerations of interstellar flight, psychological and sociological factors inherent in a multigenerational space mission, problems with suspended animation, current knowledge of exoplanets and issues related to colonizing a distant planet and the possible discovery of extraterrestrial life. A history of interstellar missions in science fiction is also reviewed. Nick Kanas is an Emeritus Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco, where he directed the group therapy training program. For over 20 years he conducted research in group therapy and for nearly 20 years after that he was the Principal Investigator of NASA-funded research on astronauts and cosmonauts. He is the co-author of Space Psychology and Psychiatry, which won the 2004 International Academy of Astronautics Life Science Book Award. Dr. Kanas has presented talks on space psychology and on celestial mapping at several regional and World Con science fiction conventions. He has been an amateur astronomer for over 50 years and is an avid reader of science fiction. He is also the author of Star Maps: History, Artistry and Cartography, Solar System Maps: From Antiquity to the Space Age, and the science fiction novel The New Martians, all published by Springer.
A global synthesis of the impacts of wildfires and controlled burning on insects, bringing together much hitherto scattered information to provide a guide to improved conservation management practice. The great variety of responses by insect species and assemblages demonstrates the often subtle balance between fire being a severe threat and a vital management component. Examples from many parts of the world and from diverse biotopes and production systems display the increasingly detailed appreciation of fire impacts on insects in terrestrial and freshwater environments and the ways in which prescribed burning may be tailored to reduce harmful ecological impacts and incorporated into protocols for threatened species and wider insect conservation benefits.
The media industry is undergoing an accelerated pace of change, driven in large part by the proliferation of digital platforms. In many cases, the speed of adoption has exceeded our ability to process the impact of these changes on individuals and society at large. This book provides a "behind-the-scenes" look at the media industry's transition into the digital era and examines its impact on marketing, advertising, innovation and other economic and social activities. The impact of digital technologies on traditional media sectors, such as advertising, video games, film and television is well-documented. Less understood is its effect on our perceptions, thought processes and inter-personal relationships. Social media, for example, represents a fundamental change in the ways we interact with media, communicate with each other and even present ourselves to the world. This has shaped the way we communicate with institutions and brands. Similar to the first "Transitioned Media" book, Transitioned Media: A Turning Point into the Digital Realm, this book combines media industry leaders and academics to explore various transformative trends and issues. Themes include measuring cross-platform behaviour, artificial intelligence in journalism, the evolution of video games, digital media and physical space, the mobile use trends, social media and the corporate world, the changes in the television and newspaper business and the evolving relationship between advertisers and target audiences. The varied backgrounds of contributors and array of topics make for a unique and insightful point of view.
This book synthesizes the literature on emotional development and cognition across the lifespan. The book proposes a core language by which to describe positive and problematic developmental changes by recourse to a parsimonious set of core principles, such as elevations or declines in tension thresholds and their relation to the waxing and waning of the cognitive system over the life course. It integrates, similarly, the lifelong consequences of the positive or damaging aspects of the social milieu in fostering increases in tension thresholds with their advanced capacity for maintaining equilibrium and warding off stress versus a lowering of tension thresholds with disturbances of equilibrium maintenance and heightened susceptibility to stress and deregulation.
This book provides the most complete formal specification of the semantics of the Business Process Model and Notation 2. 0 standard (BPMN) available to date, in a style that is easily understandable for a wide range of readers - not only for experts in formal methods, but e. g. also for developers of modeling tools, software architects, or graduate students specializing in business process management. BPMN - issued by the Object Management Group - is a widely used standard for business process modeling. However, major drawbacks of BPMN include its limited support for organizational modeling, its only implicit expression of modalities, and its lack of integrated user interaction and data modeling. Further, in many cases the syntactical and, in particular, semantic definitions of BPMN are inaccurate, incomplete or inconsistent. The book addresses concrete issues concerning the execution semantics of business processes and provides a formal definition of BPMN process diagrams, which can serve as a sound basis for further extensions, i. e. , in the form of horizontal refinements of the core language. To this end, the Abstract State Machine (ASMs) method is used to formalize the semantics of BPMN. ASMs have demonstrated their value in various domains, e. g. specifying the semantics of programming or modeling languages, verifying the specification of the Java Virtual Machine, or formalizing the ITIL change management process. This kind of improvement promotes more consistency in the interpretation of comprehensive models, as well as real exchangeability of models between different tools. In the outlook at the end of the book, the authors conclude with proposing extensions that address actor modeling (including an intuitive way to denote permissions and obligations), integration of user-centric views, a refined communication concept, and data integration.
This fully updated 4th Edition of provides an integrated symptom- and issue-based approach with easy access to high yield clinical information. For each topic, carefully organized sections on different diagnoses, investigations, and treatments are designed to facilitate patient care and examination preparation. Numerous clinical pearls and comparison tables are provided to help enhance learning, and international units (US and metric) are used to facilitate application in everyday clinical practice. The book covers many highly important, rarely discussed topics in medicine (e. g. , smoking cessation, obesity, transfusion reactions, needle stick injuries, code status discussion, interpretation of gram stain, palliative care), and new chapters on end-of-life care and depression have been added. The fourth edition includes many reader-friendly improvements such as better formatting, intuitive ordering of chapters, and incorporation of the most recent guidelines for each topic. Approach to Internal Medicine continues to serve as an essential reference for every medical student, resident, fellow, practicing physician, nurse, and physician assistant.
Metastasis is the primary cause of mortality associated with cancer, and tumor genomic heterogeneity is a likely source for the cells that support cancer progression, resistance to therapy, and disease relapse. This book connects cancer metastasis with genomic instability in a comprehensive manner. Section 1youtlines the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these cellular and tissue phenotypes. Section 2 discusses in silico, in vitro, and in vivo models used for the experimental study of these processes. Section 3 reviews emerging themes (ex. , microenvironment, mechanotransduction, and immunomodulation), and Section 4 highlights new therapeutic approaches to overcome the unique challenges presented by the heterogeneous and metastatic tumor. This book is intended for undergraduates and postgraduates with an interest in the areas of medicine, oncology, and cancer biology as well as for the content expert searching for thorough reviews of current knowledge in these areas. "
This book aims to promote the understanding of some of the basic mathematical and scientific issues in the subjects relating to climate dynamics, chaos and quantum mechanics. It is based on substantial research work in atmospheric science carried out over twenty years. Atmospheric flows exhibit self similar fractal fluctuations, a signature of long-range correlations on all space-time scales. Realistic simulation and prediction of atmospheric flows requires the incorporation of the physics of observed fractal fluctuation characteristics in traditional meteorological theory. A general systems theory model for fractal space-time fluctuations in turbulent atmospheric flows is presented and applied to the formation of rain in warm clouds. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud drop-size distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30 minutes as observed in practice under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment. Traditional cloud physical concepts for rain development requires over an hour for a full-sized raindrop to form. The book provides background reading for postgraduate students of Meteorology, Atmospheric Sciences/Physics, Environmental Sciences, and scientists working in the field of the topic of the book as well as the multidisciplinary field of Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos.
This book presents innovative research on various aspects of sustainability in the field of operations management and illustrates the potential of sustainability thinking and practice to improve operations performance and thereby meet customer needs. Particular attention is devoted to corporate social responsibility and marketing strategy, knowledge management for sustainability, the role of culture in a sustainable built environment, sustainable manufacturing through the application of lean and green concepts, advancing sustainability through ISO standards, and the sustainable supply chain. The present decade is proving to be a time of change in terms of business strategies and operations management. Many of the trends are still subject to uncertainty, but an understanding of the need for, and benefits of, sustainability can give a clear indication of their trajectory. Consumers and markets in general believe that while implementing their business strategies, companies should also try to improve society and the environment and to exercise social responsibility toward their employees. This book provides insights into how this may be achieved, and it is recommended for researchers as well as all practitioners and managers dedicated to enhancing sustainability in operations.
This book focuses on the three most important aspects of ageing research: nutrition, physical exercise and epigenetics. The contributors discuss ways that age-related epigenetic imprints such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation are modified by these two interventions. The emphasis on epigenetics helps to illuminate the underlying mechanisms of anti-ageing interventions, as ageing and disease are predominately epigenetic phenomena. Among the highlights are chapter-length discussion of such topics as: how anti-inflammatory action of calorie restriction underlies the retardation of ageing and age-related diseases (Chapter 3); epigenetic modification of gene expression by exercise (Chapter 5); the role of functional foods and their bioactive components in bone health (Chapter 8); and an account of the first decade of a study of calorie restriction in nonhuman primates, conducted by the National Institute on Ageing.
This book is the first comprehensive, full-scale treatment of the politics, law, and economics with regard to the policies and policy instruments for budget stabilization at the local level. It examines budget stabilization in the United States from the 1910s to 2010 (from adoption of public budgeting in this country through the Great Recession). In addition, it provides details on the methods and results of empirical tests of the effects of budget stabilization instruments on government operations, key/basic services provision, and some other aspects of social and economic life at the local level, including full-purpose governments (county, metro city, municipality, township, and village) as well as special (single-) purpose governments (like school districts and transportation districts). This book dissects an important and pressing issue in public financial administration, analyzes a lesson that has been in the learning process, especially in the United States, and identifies theoretical threads for scholarly refinement, which will be put into specific contexts of policy design and implementation. This book will be of interest to scholars in political science, economics, public choice and in public administration, where it will also appeal to policy-makers.
This SpringerBrief presents adaptive resource allocation schemes for secondary users for dynamic spectrum access (DSA) in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) by considering Quality-of-Service requirements, admission control, power/rate control, interference constraints, and the impact of spectrum sensing or primary user interruptions. It presents the challenges, motivations, and applications of the different schemes. The authors discuss cloud-assisted geolocation-aware adaptive resource allocation in CRNs by outsourcing computationally intensive processing to the cloud. Game theoretic approaches are presented to solve resource allocation problems in CRNs. Numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Adaptive Resource Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks is designed for professionals and researchers working in the area of wireless networks. Advanced-level students in electrical engineering and computer science, especially those focused on wireless networks, will find this information helpful.
This book interconnects two essential disciplines to study the perception of speech: Neuroscience and Quality of Experience, which to date have rarely been used together for the purposes of research on speech quality perception. In five key experiments, the book demonstrates the application of standard clinical methods in neurophysiology on the one hand and of methods used in fields of research concerned with speech quality perception on the other. Using this combination, the book shows that speech stimuli with different lengths and different quality impairments are accompanied by physiological reactions related to quality variations, e. g. , a positive peak in an event-related potential. Furthermore, it demonstrates that - in most cases - quality impairment intensity has an impact on the intensity of physiological reactions.
This book presents state of art research in speech emotion recognition. Readers are first presented with basic research and applications - gradually more advance information is provided, giving readers comprehensive guidance for classify emotions through speech. Simulated databases are used and results extensively compared, with the features and the algorithms implemented using MATLAB. Various emotion recognition models like Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Regularized Discriminant Analysis (RDA), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and K-Nearest neighbor (KNN) and are explored in detail using prosody and spectral features, and feature fusion techniques.
This book focuses on the changes in academic careers and their implications for job attachment and the management of academic work. Against the background of an ageing profession, with different demands on academic staff, increasing insecurity, accountability and internationalisation, it discusses important, common themes in detail. This book examines such aspects as the nature of academic careers and recent changes in careers, changing biographies, rewards of academic work such as income and job satisfaction, internationalisation of the academy, and the organisation and management of academic work sites. This book is the second of two books highlighting findings from research on the academic profession, notably, the Changing Academic Profession Study and the European project supported by the European Science Foundation on changes in the academic profession in Europe (EUROAC). An adapted version of the CAP questionnaire has been used to carry out the survey in those countries that had not been involved before in the CAP survey. Altogether 19 countries are covered by the CAP project and an additional seven European countries are covered by EUROAC.
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