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Childlessness in Europe: Contexts, Causes, and Consequences

by Dirk Konietzka Michaela Kreyenfeld

This book is published open access under a CC BY 4. 0 license. This open access book provides an overview of childlessness throughout Europe. It offers a collection of papers written by leading demographers and sociologists that examine contexts, causes, and consequences of childlessness in countries throughout the region. The book features data from all over Europe. It specifically highlights patterns of childlessness in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland. An additional chapter on childlessness in the United States puts the European experience in perspective. The book offers readers such insights as the determinants of lifelong childlessness, whether governments can and should counteract increasing childlessness, how the phenomenon differs across social strata and the role economic uncertainties play. In addition, the book also examines life course dynamics and biographical patterns, assisted reproduction as well as the consequences of childlessness. Childlessness has been increasing rapidly in most European countries in recent decades. This book offers readers expert analysis into this issue from leading experts in the field of family behavior. From causes to consequences, it explores the many facets of childlessness throughout Europe to present a comprehensive portrait of this important demographic and sociological trend.

Psychiatric Diagnosis Revisited

by Stijn Vanheule

This book explores the purpose of clinical psychological and psychiatric diagnosis, and provides a persuasive case for moving away from the traditional practice of psychiatric classification. It discusses the validity and reliability of classification-based approaches to clinical diagnosis, and frames them in their broader historical and societal context. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is used across the world in research and a range of mental health settings; here, Stijn Vanheule argues that the diagnostic reliability of the DSM is overrated, built on a limited biomedical approach to mental disorders that neglects context, and ultimately breeds stigma. The book subsequently makes a passionate plea for a more detailed approach to the study of mental suffering by means of case formulation. Starting from literature on qualitative research the author makes clear how to guarantee the quality of clinical case formulations.

Building Sustainable Health Ecosystems

by Ming Zhan Gunilla Widén Nilmini Wickramasinghe Reima Suomi Pirkko Nykänen Hongxiu Li

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Well-Being in the Information Society, WIS 2016, held in Tampere, Finland, in September 2016. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 42 submissions. With the core topic "Building Sustainable Health Ecosystems" WIS 2016 focused on innovations and fresh ideas in the cross-section of urban living, information society and health as understood in a wide sense. The papers presented in this volume are organized along the following seven broad topics: 1. Macro level considerations of e-health and welfare, 2. Welfare issues of children, youth, young elderly and seniors, 3. Analytics issues of eHealth and welfare, 4. National/regional initiatives in eHealth and welfare, and 5. Specific topics of eHealth. The papers in these topics span qualitative and quantitative analysis, empirical surveys, case studies as well as conceptual work.

Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric and Adult Patients

by Lorraine Lubin Antonio Hernandez Conte Ali Dabbagh

Congenital Heart Disease in Pediatric and Adult Patients: Anesthetic and Perioperative Management provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of care of the pediatric patient undergoing cardiac surgery and anesthesia. After introductory chapters that encompass pediatric cardiovascular embryology, physiology and pharmacology, diagnostic approaches and preoperative considerations are explained. The intraoperative management of a wide range of specific lesions is then discussed, with full descriptions of anesthesia plans added with descriptions on diagnostic methods and surgical interventions. Postoperative care is also addressed, and a concluding section considers anesthesia outside the cardiac operating room. In the twenty-first century, advances in minimally invasive technology have led to the introduction of a wide array of pediatric cardiac procedures. More traditional surgical procedures have also been transformed by new devices and surgical approaches. The cardiac anesthesiologist is faced with an ever-increasing role in the perioperative care of pediatric patients undergoing cardiologic procedures in operating rooms, as well as less conventional locations. In this book, accomplished experts from around the world in the fields of pediatric anesthesia, cardiology, and cardiac surgery describe the multiple facets of caring for this very unique patient population.

Who Will Be the Next President?

by Alexander S. Belenky

This book addresses the peculiarities of the current presidential election system not yet addressed in other publications. It argues that any rules for electing a President that may have a chance to replace the current ones should provide an equal representation of states as equal members of the Union, and of the nation as a whole. This book analyzes the National Popular Vote plan and shows that this plan may violate the Supreme Court decisions on the equality of votes cast in statewide popular elections held to choose state electors. Thus, the National Popular Vote plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The book proposes a new election system in which the will of the states and the will of the nation as a whole are determined by direct popular elections for President and Vice President in the 50 states and in D. C. This system a) would elect President a candidate who is the choice of both the nation as a whole and of the states as equal members of the Union, b) would let the current system elect a President only if no such candidate exists, and c) would encourage the candidates to campaign nationwide. From the contents: The initial design of the Electoral College: basic ideas, logical mistakes, and overlooked problems. - The Electoral College today. - Curbing contingent elections. - Inconvenient facts about the Electoral College. - The Electoral College and campaign strategies. - The National Popular Vote plan: a brilliant idea or a dead-on-arrival delusion?. - Equalizing the will of the states and the will of the nation. - Conclusion.

Handbook of Integrated CSR Communication

by Franzisca Weder Ralf Terlutter Barbara Mueller Matthias Karmasin Sandra Diehl

This handbook pursues an integrated communication approach. Drawing on the various fields of organizational communication and their relevance for CSR, it addresses innovative topics such as big data, social media, and the convergence of communication channels, as well as the roles they play in a successfully integrated CSR communication program. Further aspects covered include the analysis of sector-specific, cross-cultural, and ethical challenges related to the effective communication of CSR. This handbook is unique in its consistent focus on integrated communication. It is of interest not only for the scientific discourse, but will also benefit those corporations that not only seek to operate in a socially responsible manner, but also to communicate their efforts to their various stakeholders. Besides its significant value for researchers and professionals, the book can also be used as a reference for undergraduate and graduate students interested in successful CSR communication.

Ageing: Lessons from C. elegans

by Matthew S. Gill Anders Olsen

This book brings together in one volume the current state of ageing research in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The authors are leading researchers in the field, placing this topic in the context of human ageing, describing how and why basic discoveries in this simple organism have impacted our prospects for intervention in the ageing process. The authors cover a broad range of topics with regards to organismal and reproductive ageing including anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes, as well as genetic and environmental interventions that promote longevity and ameliorate age-related disease. Ageing is the single most important factor determining the onset of human disease in developed countries. With current worldwide demographic trends indicating that the number of individuals over the age of 65 will continue to rise, it is clear that an understanding of the processes that underpin ageing and age-related disease represents a key challenge in the biomedical sciences. In recent years there have been huge advances in our understanding of the ageing process and many of these have stemmed from genetic analysis of C. elegans. With no analogous book in this subject area this work will be of interest to a wide audience, ranging from academic researchers to the general public.

Advances and New Trends in Environmental Informatics

by Jochen Wittmann Frank Fuchs-Kittowski Volker Wohlgemuth

This book presents the latest findings and ongoing research in the field of green information systems as well as green information and communication technology (ICT). It provides insights into a whole range of cross-cutting concerns in ICT and environmental sciences and showcases how information and communication technologies allow environmental and energy efficiency issues to be handled effectively. Offering a selection of extended and reworked contributions to the 30th International Conference EnviroInfo 2016, it is essential reading for anyone wanting to extend their expertise in the area.

Legal Insanity: Explorations in Psychiatry, Law, and Ethics

by Gerben Meynen

This book examines core issues related to legal insanity, integrating perspectives from psychiatry, law, and ethics. Various criteria for insanity are analyzed and recommendations for forensic psychiatric and legal practice are offered. Many legal systems have an insanity defense, in one form or another. Still, it remains unclear exactly when and why mental disorders affect a person's moral or criminal responsibility. Questions addressed in this book include: Why should insanity be a component of our legal system? What should be the criteria for an insanity defense? What would be the reasons for abolishing it? Who should bear the burden of proof? Furthermore, the book discusses the impact neurosciences may have on psychiatric and psychological evaluations of defendants as well as on legal decisions about insanity.

Measuring, Interpreting and Translating Electron Quasiparticle - Phonon Interactions on the Surfaces of the Topological Insulators Bismuth Selenide and Bismuth Telluride

by Colin Howard

The thesis presents experimental and theoretical results about the surface dynamics and the surface Dirac fermion (DF) spectral function of the strong topological insulators Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3. The experimental results reveal the presence of a strong Kohn anomaly in the measured surface phonon dispersion of a low-lying optical mode, and the absence of surface Rayleigh acoustic phonons. Fitting the experimental data to theoretical models employing phonon Matsubara functions allowed the extraction of the matrix elements of the coupling Hamiltonian and the modifications to the surface phonon propagator that are encoded in the phonon self-energy. This allowed, for the first time, calculation of phonon mode-specific DF coupling λν(q) from experimental data, with average coupling significantly higher than typical values for metals, underscoring the strong coupling between optical surface phonons and surface DFs in topological insulators. Finally, to connect to experimental results obtained from photoemission spectroscopies, an electronic (DF) Matsubara function was constructed using the determined electron-phonon matrix elements and the optical phonon dispersion. This allowed calculation of the DF spectral function and density of states, allowing for comparison with photoemission and scanning tunneling spectroscopies. The results set the necessary energy resolution and extraction methodology for calculating λ from the DF perspective.

Lithosphere Dynamics and Sedimentary Basins of the Arabian Plate and Surrounding Areas

by Mansour A. M. Al Garni Sami Khomsi Ammar A. Amin François Roure

Presenting selected papers from the International Lithosphere Program (ILP) Task Force, this book highlights the links between deep Earth (mantle) and shallow processes in areas of active tectonics in the Arabian Plate and surrounding areas. It also provides key information on energy resources in these areas. It comprises a collection of research studies from the Middle East, North Africa and the Mediterranean domain, focusing on (1) the lithospheric architecture of the Arabian Plate, (2) tectonics and sedimentation in the Gulf of Corinth, (3) Triassic carbonate breccias and seismic imagery in Iraq, (4) reservoirs, aquifers and fluid transfers in Saudi Basins, (5) salt tectonics in Yemen, and (6) Cretaceous-Eocene foreland inversions in Saudi Arabia.

High Energy Astrophysical Techniques

by Rosa Poggiani

This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

Optical, Infrared and Radio Astronomy

by Rosa Poggiani

This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

Designing with Computational Intelligence

by Luiza de Macedo Mourelle Heitor Silvério Lopes Nadia Nedjah

This book discusses a number of real-world applications of computational intelligence approaches. Using various examples, it demonstrates that computational intelligence has become a consolidated methodology for automatically creating new competitive solutions to complex real-world problems. It also presents a concise and efficient synthesis of different systems using computationally intelligent techniques.

Fundamentals of Biomechanics

by Margareta Nordin David Goldsheyder Dawn Leger Nihat Özkaya

This textbook integrates the classic fields of mechanics--statics, dynamics, and strength of materials--using examples from biology and medicine. The book is excellent for teaching either undergraduates in biomedical engineering programs or health care professionals studying biomechanics at the graduate level. Extensively revised from a successful third edition, Fundamentals of Biomechanics features a wealth of clear illustrations, numerous worked examples, and many problem sets. The book provides the quantitative perspective missing from more descriptive texts, without requiring an advanced background in mathematics. It will be welcomed for use in courses such as biomechanics and orthopedics, rehabilitation and industrial engineering, and occupational or sports medicine. This book: Introduces the fundamental concepts, principles, and methods that must be understood to begin the study of biomechanics Reinforces basic principles of biomechanics with repetitive exercises in class and homework assignments given throughout the textbook Includes over 100 new problem sets with solutions and illustrations

Prognostics and Health Management of Engineering Systems

by Joo-Ho Choi Dawn An Nam-Ho Kim

This book introduces the methods for predicting the future behavior of a system's health and the remaining useful life to determine an appropriate maintenance schedule. The authors introduce the history, industrial applications, algorithms, and benefits and challenges of PHM (Prognostics and Health Management) to help readers understand this highly interdisciplinary engineering approach that incorporates sensing technologies, physics of failure, machine learning, modern statistics, and reliability engineering. It is ideal for beginners because it introduces various prognostics algorithms and explains their attributes, pros and cons in terms of model definition, model parameter estimation, and ability to handle noise and bias in data, allowing readers to select the appropriate methods for their fields of application. Among the many topics discussed in-depth are: * Prognostics tutorials using least-squares * Bayesian inference and parameter estimation * Physics-based prognostics algorithms including nonlinear least squares, Bayesian method, and particle filter * Data-driven prognostics algorithms including Gaussian process regression and neural network * Comparison of different prognostics algorithms The authors also present several applications of prognostics in practical engineering systems, including wear in a revolute joint, fatigue crack growth in a panel, prognostics using accelerated life test data, fatigue damage in bearings, and more. Prognostics tutorials with a Matlab code using simple examples are provided, along with a companion website that presents Matlab programs for different algorithms as well as measurement data. Each chapter contains a comprehensive set of exercise problems, some of which require Matlab programs, making this an ideal book for graduate students in mechanical, civil, aerospace, electrical, and industrial engineering and engineering mechanics, as well as researchers and maintenance engineers in the above fields.

Laicidad and Religious Diversity in Latin America

by José Manuel Morán Faúndes Juan Marco Vaggione

This book presents revealing reflections on historical, socio-political, and legal aspects, as well as their contexts, in Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, and Peru. Further, it includes theoretical and empirical analyses that identify the connections between religion and politics that characterize Latin American countries in general. The individual chapters are based on a dialogue between regional and international approaches, renewing them and taking them to their limits by incorporating the Latin American experience. The book reflects the current intensification of research on religion in Latin America, the resulting reassessment of previous approaches, and the strengthening of empirical studies. It provides vital insight into the ways in which politics regulates the religious sphere, as well as how religion modulates and intervenes in politics in Latin America. In doing so it builds a bridge between the findings of researchers in the region on the one hand and the English-speaking academic public on the other, contributing to a dialogue that enriches comparative perspectives.

Housing for Older People in Singapore: An Annotated Bibliography

by Emily Soh Belinda Yuen

This bibliography offers valuable annotated references on housing for older population for those interested in these initiatives and discussions. It begins with an overview piece on the state of policy, practice and research on housing for the older population in Singapore. This is followed by an annotated bibliography featuring published and unpublished work, spanning recent decades, pertaining to housing for the older population with emphasis on Singapore. It encompasses theoretical and empirical research reported in journal articles and book chapters as well as grey literature, like dissertations and theses, conference proceedings, working papers and newspaper articles. The bibliography also contains additional citations covering global studies, in particular, in Asia, North America and UK. It is hoped that this bibliographic material will serve as a useful starting reference point for discussions on housing of older people in Singapore and also for key developments in other parts of the world. The goal is to encourage additional scholarship.

Privacy Technologies and Policy

by Kai Rannenberg Demosthenes Ikonomou Jetzabel Serna Stefan Schiffner

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Annual Privacy Forum, APF 2014, held in Athens, Greece, in May 2014. The 12 revised papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 21 submissions. The topics include: the concept and implementation of "privacy by design", with applications to encrypted databases; the study of video surveillance architectures and new networking concepts and innovative solutions for identity management. The papers address the technical, legal, and economic aspects of these problems.

Phenomenology and Intercultural Understanding

by Kwok-Ying Lau

This book approaches the topic of intercultural understanding in philosophy from a phenomenological perspective. It provides a bridge between Western and Eastern philosophy through in-depth discussion of concepts and doctrines of phenomenology and ancient and contemporary Chinese philosophy. Phenomenological readings of Daoist and Buddhist philosophies are provided: the reader will find a study of theoretical and methodological issues and innovative readings of traditional Chinese and Indian philosophies from the phenomenological perspective. The author uses a descriptive rigor to avoid cultural prejudices and provides a non-Eurocentric conception and practice of philosophy. Through this East-West comparative study, a compelling criticism of a Eurocentric conception of philosophy emerges. New concepts and methods in intercultural philosophy are proposed through these chapters. Researchers, teachers, post-graduates and students of philosophy will all find this work intriguing, and those with an interest in non-Western philosophy or phenomenology will find it particularly engaging.

Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Applications 2016

by Gereon Meyer Beate Müller Tim Schulze

This edited volume presents the proceedings of the AMAA 2015 conference, Berlin, Germany. The topical focus of the 2015 conference lies on smart systems for green and automated driving. The automobile of the future has to respond to two major trends, the electrification of the drivetrain, and the automation of the transportation system. These trends will not only lead to greener and safer driving but re-define the concept of the car completely, particularly if they interact with each other in a synergetic way as for autonomous parking and charging, self-driving shuttles or mobile robots. Key functionalities like environment perception are enabled by electronic components and systems, sensors and actuators, communication nodes, cognitive systems and smart systems integration. The book will be a valuable read for research experts and professionals in the automotive industry but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

The Cosmic Microwave Background

by Winfried Zimdahl Hermano E.S. Velten Davi C. Rodrigues Oliver F. Piattella Júlio C. Fabris

The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II Jos#65533; Pl#65533;nio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Esp#65533;rito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important informations regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.

Cognitive Screening Instruments

by A. J. Larner

Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Practical Approach provides a practical and structured overview of some of the most commonly used and easily available cognitive screening instruments applicable in the outpatient clinic and bedside setting. Dementia and cognitive disorders are now recognised as an increasing public health problem, both in terms of patient numbers and cost, as populations age throughout the world. Despite this, many patients with dementia never receive a formal diagnosis, with implications for their appropriate care and management. Diagnostic tests which identify cases of dementia therefore have an important role. Expert authors from around the world equip the reader of Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Practical Approach with clear instructions on the usage of each screening instrument, its strengths and weaknesses, the time required for administration, and rules on scoring, such as how to correct for variations in the patient's age or education, and suggested cut-off scores. Cognitive Screening Instruments: A Practical Approach is a handy, illustrated guide and a valuable diagnostic aid for practitioners working closely with patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment. This volume will be of use both to clinicians and to professionals in disciplines allied to medicine who are called upon to assess patients with possible cognitive disorders, including neurologists, old age psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, primary care physicians, dementia support workers, and members of memory assessment teams.

Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2016

by Antonio Javier Pons Rivero Paolo Masulli Alessandro E.P. Villa

The two volume set, LNCS 9886 + 9887, constitutes the proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, ICANN 2016, held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2016. The 121 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 227 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: from neurons to networks; networks and dynamics; higher nervous functions; neuronal hardware; learning foundations; deep learning; classifications and forecasting; and recognition and navigation. There are 47 short paper abstracts that are included in the back matter of the volume.

Artificial Neural Networks and Machine Learning – ICANN 2016

by Antonio Javier Pons Rivero Paolo Masulli Alessandro E.P. Villa

The two volume set, LNCS 9886 + 9887, constitutes the proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, ICANN 2016, held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2016. The 121 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 227 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: from neurons to networks; networks and dynamics; higher nervous functions; neuronal hardware; learning foundations; deep learning; classifications and forecasting; and recognition and navigation. There are 47 short paper abstracts that are included in the back matter of the volume.

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