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This text presents a basic guide of the principles and applications of ultrasound in the critical care setting. The text also addresses the basic and clinical uses of ultrasound, including clinical cases at the end of each of the 7 sections of the clinical subdivisions. The final chapters focus on the issues of training, certification, credentialing and billing. These discussions make the text unique, as literature regarding monetary and training issues for ultrasound in the ICU is sparse. Each chapter is written by experts in the field, and supplemented with illustrations and links to videos of actual ultrasound examinations in patients. Ultrasonography in the ICU: Practical Applications will be of great utility to critical care specialists in the disciplines of surgery, medicine, anesthesiology and emergency medicine. In addition this book can be used as a teaching tool for critical care fellows and residents interested in further training in ultrasound for the critically ill patient.
The volume investigates the visualization of both ritual and decorative aspects of auspiciousness and protection in the form of celestial characters in art and architecture. In doing so, it covers more than two and a half millennia and a broad geographical area, documenting a practice found in nearly every corner of the world. Its transcultural approach aims at gaining insights into cultural dynamics and consistent networks and defining new historical mindmaps; it examines reciprocal effects and aspects of interwovenness in art and architecture with a view to reconceptualizing their established realms. The collection opens a window on a phenomenon in the history of art and architecture that has never before been considered from this perspective. The book focuses on a transcultural iconography of aerial spirits, goddesses and gods in art history, pursuing a methodologically innovative approach in order to redefine and develop the practice of identification and classification of motifs as a means to understanding meaning, and attempting to challenge the categories defined by academic disciplines.
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find this book very useful, and the diversity of topics will appeal to people from mathematical finance, probability theory and differential geometry.
This book presents various examples of how advanced fluorescence and spectroscopic analytical methods can be used in combination with computer data processing to address different biochemical questions. The main focus is on evolutionary biochemistry and the description of biochemical and metabolic issues; specifically, the use of pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence (PAM) for the functional analysis of the cellular state, as well as results obtained by means of the derivative spectroscopy method characterizing structural reorganization of a cell under the influence of external factors, are discussed. The topics presented here will be of interest to biologists, geneticists, biophysicists and biochemists, as well as experts in analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry and radio chemistry and radio activation studies with protonen and alpha-particles. It also offers a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in biological, physical and chemical disciplines whose work involves derivative spectrophotometry and PAM-fluorescence.
This book aims to promote the synergistic usage of advanced computational methodologies in close relationship to geospatial information across cities of different scales. A rich collection of chapters subsumes current research frontiers originating from disciplines such as geography, urban planning, computer science, statistics, geographic information science and remote sensing. The topics covered in the book are of interest to researchers, postgraduates, practitioners and professionals. The editors hope that the scientific outcome of this book will stimulate future urban-related international and interdisciplinary research, bringing us closer to the vision of a "new science of cities. "
This monograph solely investigates the Einstein's Photoemission(EP) from Heavily Doped(HD) Quantized Structures on the basis of newly formulated electron dispersion laws. The materials considered are quantized structures of HD non-linear optical, III-V, II-VI, Ge, Te, Platinum Antimonide, stressed materials, GaP, Gallium Antimonide, II-V, Bismuth Telluride together with various types of HD superlattices and their Quantized counterparts respectively. The EP in HD opto-electronic materials and their nanostructures is studied in the presence of strong light waves and intense electric fields that control the studies of such quantum effect devices. The suggestions for the experimental determinations of different important physical quantities in HD 2D and 3D materials and the importance of measurement of band gap in HD optoelectronic materials under intense built-in electric field in nano devices and strong external photo excitation (for measuring physical properties in the presence of intense light waves which alter the electron energy spectra) have also been discussed in this context. The influence quantizing magnetic field, on the EP of the different HD quantized structures (quantum wells, quantum well HD superlattices and nipi structures) under different physical conditions has been investigated. This monograph contains 100 open research problems which form the integral part of the text and are useful for both Ph. D aspirants and researchers in the fields of materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state sciences, nano-science and technology and allied fields in addition to the graduate courses in modern semiconductor nanostructures offered in different Universities and Institutes.
This book describes the specific surgical techniques currently employed in patients with intractable epilepsy; it also covers the relevant technical aspects of general neurosurgery. All of the approaches associated with the various foci of epilepsy within the cerebral hemispheres are considered, including temporal and frontal lobectomies and corticectomies, parietal and occipital lobe resections, corpus callosotomy, hemispherectomy, and multiple subpial incisions. In addition, an individual chapter is devoted to electrocortical stimulation and functional localization of the so-called eloquent cortex. The more general topics on which guidance is provided include bipolar coagulation (with coverage of the physical principles, strength of the coagulating current, use of coagulation forceps, the advantages of correct irrigation, and use of cottonoid patties) and all of the measures required during the performance of operations under local anesthesia. The book is designed to meet the need for a practically oriented source of precise information on the operative procedures employed in epilepsy patients and will be of special value for neurosurgical residents and fellows.
The present book includes a set of selected papers from the tenth "International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics" (ICINCO 2013), held in Reykjavík, Iceland, from 29 to 31 July 2013. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: "Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization", "Robotics and Automation", "Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control" and "Industrial Engineering, Production and Management". The book is based on the same structure. ICINCO 2013 received 255 paper submissions from 50 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 30% were published and presented orally. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of ICINCO 2013.
This book explores critical principles and new concepts in bioengineering, integrating the biological, physical and chemical laws and principles that provide a foundation for the field. Both biological and engineering perspectives are included, with key topics such as the physical-chemical properties of cells, tissues and organs; principles of molecules; composition and interplay in physiological scenarios; and the complex physiological functions of heart, neuronal cells, muscle cells and tissues. Chapters evaluate the emerging fields of nanotechnology, drug delivery concepts, biomaterials, and regenerative therapy. The leading individuals and events are introduced along with their critical research. Bioengineering: A Conceptual Approach is a valuable resource for professionals or researchers interested in understanding the central elements of bioengineering. Advanced-level students in biomedical engineering and computer science will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.
This volume presents the latest research results on solar prominences, including new developments on e. g. chirality, fine structure, magnetism, diagnostic tools and relevant solar plasma physics. In 1875 solar prominences, as seen out of the solar limb, were described by P. A. Secchi in his book Le Soleil as "gigantic pink or peach-flower coloured flames". The development of spectroscopy, coronagraphy and polarimetry brought tremendous observational advances in the twentieth century. The authors present and discuss exciting new challenges (resulting from observations made by space and ground-based telescopes in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century) concerning the diagnostics of prominences, their formation, their life time and their eruption along with their impact in the heliosphere (including the Earth). The book starts with a general introduction of the prominence "object" with some historical background on observations and instrumentation. In the next chapter, the various forms of prominences are described with a thorough attempt of classification. Their thermodynamic (and velocity) properties are then derived with emphasis on the methods (and their limits) used. This goes from the simplest optically thin case to the heavy radiative treatment of plasmas out of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The following chapters are devoted to the magnetic field measurements and indirect derivation. A new branch of diagnostic tools, the seismology, is presented along with some MHD basics. This allows to better understand the propagation of waves, the energy and force equilibria. Both small-scale and large-scale studies and their relationship are presented. The importance of the newly discovered cavities is stressed in the context of prominence destabilization. The issues of prominence formation and eruption, their connection with flares and Coronal Mass Ejections and their impact on the Earth are addressed on the basis of the latest results. Finally, an exciting new area of research is unveiled with the newly discovered evidence of similar manifestations in the Universe and their possible impact on the habitability of exoplanets. References to the basic physics (where necessary) are provided and the proposed web sites addresses will allow the reader to load exciting movies. The book is aimed at advanced students in astrophysics, post-graduates, solar physicists and more generally astrophysicists. Amateurs will enjoy the many new images which go with the text.
This monograph presents theoretical methods involving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman formalism in conjunction with set-valued techniques of nonlinear analysis to solve significant problems in dynamics and control. The emphasis is on issues of reachability, feedback control synthesis under complex state constraints, hard or double bounds on controls, and performance in finite time. Guaranteed state estimation, output feedback control, and hybrid dynamics are also discussed. Although the focus is on systems with linear structure, the authors indicate how to apply each approach to nonlinear and nonconvex systems. The main theoretical results lead to computational schemes based on extensions of ellipsoidal calculus that provide complete solutions to the problems. These computational schemes in turn yield software tools that can be applied effectively to high-dimensional systems. Ellipsoidal Techniques for Problems of Dynamics and Control: Theory and Computation will interest graduate and senior undergraduate students, as well as researchers and practitioners interested in control theory, its applications, and its computational realizations.
This book introduces the essential concepts of algorithm analysis required by core undergraduate and graduate computer science courses, in addition to providing a review of the fundamental mathematical notions necessary to understand these concepts. Features: includes numerous fully-worked examples and step-by-step proofs, assuming no strong mathematical background; describes the foundation of the analysis of algorithms theory in terms of the big-Oh, Omega, and Theta notations; examines recurrence relations; discusses the concepts of basic operation, traditional loop counting, and best case and worst case complexities; reviews various algorithms of a probabilistic nature, and uses elements of probability theory to compute the average complexity of algorithms such as Quicksort; introduces a variety of classical finite graph algorithms, together with an analysis of their complexity; provides an appendix on probability theory, reviewing the major definitions and theorems used in the book.
This book presents a history of roundabouts, an introduction to their design, calculations of their capacity and traffic-safety features. It describes the key features of standard roundabouts and their limitations. Alternative types of roundabouts are a fairly recent development and have only been implemented in a few countries to date. The book illustrates a broad variety of these recent alternative types of roundabouts, as well as proposed types still in the development phase, explaining for each the specific needs it meets, its advantages and drawbacks. In closing, the book offers an outlook on the role of roundabouts in future street traffic.
Unlike many other texts on differential geometry, this textbook also offers interesting applications to geometric mechanics and general relativity. The first part is a concise and self-contained introduction to the basics of manifolds, differential forms, metrics and curvature. The second part studies applications to mechanics and relativity including the proofs of the Hawking and Penrose singularity theorems. It can be independently used for one-semester courses in either of these subjects. The main ideas are illustrated and further developed by numerous examples and over 300 exercises. Detailed solutions are provided for many of these exercises, making An Introduction to Riemannian Geometry ideal for self-study.
Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software. Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, computer tools for modeling and simulation, and advances the current state-of-the-art on wind turbine monitoring and fault diagnosis; power converter systems; and cooperative & fault-tolerant control systems for maximizing the wind power generation and reducing the maintenance cost. This book is primarily intended for researchers in the field of wind turbines, control, mechatronics and energy; postgraduates in the field of mechanical and electrical engineering; and graduate and senior undergraduate students in engineering wishing to expand their knowledge of wind energy systems. The book will also interest practicing engineers dealing with wind technology who will benefit from the comprehensive coverage of the theoretic control topics, the simplicity of the models and the use of commonly available control algorithms and monitoring techniques.
The book is a collection of contributions devoted to analytical, numerical and experimental techniques of dynamical systems, presented at the International Conference on Dynamical Systems: Theory and Applications, held in Å ódÅº, Poland on December 2-5, 2013. The studies give deep insight into both the theory and applications of non-linear dynamical systems, emphasizing directions for future research. Topics covered include: constrained motion of mechanical systems and tracking control; diversities in the inverse dynamics; singularly perturbed ODEs with periodic coefficients; asymptotic solutions to the problem of vortex structure around a cylinder; investigation of the regular and chaotic dynamics; rare phenomena and chaos in power converters; non-holonomic constraints in wheeled robots; exotic bifurcations in non-smooth systems; micro-chaos; energy exchange of coupled oscillators; HIV dynamics; homogenous transformations with applications to off-shore slender structures; novel approaches to a qualitative study of a dissipative system; chaos of postural sway in humans; oscillators with fractional derivatives; controlling chaos via bifurcation diagrams; theories relating to optical choppers with rotating wheels; dynamics in expert systems; shooting methods for non-standard boundary value problems; automatic sleep scoring governed by delay differential equations; isochronous oscillations; the aerodynamics pendulum and its limit cycles; constrained N-body problems; nano-fractal oscillators and dynamically-coupled dry friction.
Milton Taylor, Indiana University, offers an easy-to-read and fascinating text describing the impact of viruses on human society. The book starts with an analysis of the profound effect that viral epidemics had on world history resulting in demographic upheavals by destroying total populations. It also provides a brief history of virology and immunology. Furthermore, the use of viruses for the treatment of cancer (viral oncolysis or virotherapy) and bacterial diseases (phage therapy) and as vectors in gene therapy is discussed in detail. Several chapters focus on viral diseases such as smallpox, influenza, polio, hepatitis and their control, as well as on HIV and AIDS and on some emerging viruses with an interesting story attached to their discovery or vaccine development. The book closes with a chapter on biological weapons. It will serve as an invaluable source of information for beginners in the field of virology as well as for experienced virologists, other academics, students, and readers without prior knowledge of virology or molecular biology.
The analysis of recurrences in dynamical systems by using recurrence plots and their quantification is still an emerging field. Over the past decades recurrence plots have proven to be valuable data visualization and analysis tools in the theoretical study of complex, time-varying dynamical systems as well as in various applications in biology, neuroscience, kinesiology, psychology, physiology, engineering, physics, geosciences, linguistics, finance, economics, and other disciplines. This multi-authored book intends to comprehensively introduce and showcase recent advances as well as established best practices concerning both theoretical and practical aspects of recurrence plot based analysis. Edited and authored by leading researcher in the field, the various chapters address an interdisciplinary readership, ranging from theoretical physicists to application-oriented scientists in all data-providing disciplines.
These proceedings comprise 60 refereed papers of the Seventh World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM) that was held in Deajeon City, Korea from 8-9 October 2012. The material is a compilation of state-of-the-art papers in the field covering a comprehensive range of subjects that are equally relevant to business managers and engineering professionals alike. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2012): Towards Integration and Interoperability in EAM covers a wide range of topics in the discipline of engineering asset management, including: · strategic asset management · condition monitoring and diagnostics · integrated intelligent maintenance · sensors and devices · information quality & management; · sustainability in asset management · asset performance and knowledge management · data mining and AI techniques in asset management · engineering standards and · education in engineering asset management. The breadth and depth of these proceedings will make them an excellent resource for asset management practitioners, researchers and academics, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students in tertiary institutions and in industry.
This book is designed to meet the needs of all orthodontists interested in treating children, adolescents, and/or adults with brackets placed on the palatal and lingual surfaces of the teeth. It explains how to achieve excellent results, comparable to those obtained with labial brackets, by means of techniques performed entirely within the dental office and avoiding use of expensive outside laboratories. The book is divided into three parts. The first is devoted to biomechanics, considering each type of malocclusion and describing how to prepare the arches optimally. This is not a theoretical section; rather it covers aspects acknowledged to be of prime practical importance by students and doctors. The second part explains how to treat the most common malocclusions, with step-by-step descriptions of techniques used in everyday clinical practice. The concluding part of the book describes finishing procedures to enhance aesthetics and discusses long-term results.
Scala is a new programming language developed by Martin Odersky and his team at the EPFL. The name Scala is derived from Sca(lable) La(nguage). Scala is a multi-paradigm language, incorporating object oriented approaches with functional programming. Although some familiarity with standard computing concepts is assumed (such as the idea of compiling a program and executing this compiled form, etc. ) and with basic procedural language concepts (such as variables and allocation of values to variables) the early chapters of the book do not assume any familiarity with object orientation nor functional programming. These chapters also step through other concepts with which the reader may not be familiar (such as list processing). From this background, John Hunt provides a practical introduction to object and functional technology using Scala, one of the newest and most interesting programming languages available. A variety of concepts are introduced through practical experience taking the reader beyond the level of the language syntax to the philosophy and practice of object-oriented development and functional programming. Students, and those actively involved in the software industry will find this comprehensive introduction to Scala and to object orientation and functional programming, invaluable.
The purpose of this book is to provide an integrated course in real and complex analysis for those who have already taken a preliminary course in real analysis. It particularly emphasises the interplay between analysis and topology. Beginning with the theory of the Riemann integral (and its improper extension) on the real line, the fundamentals of metric spaces are then developed, with special attention being paid to connectedness, simple connectedness and various forms of homotopy. The final chapter develops the theory of complex analysis, in which emphasis is placed on the argument, the winding number, and a general (homology) version of Cauchy's theorem which is proved using the approach due to Dixon. Special features are the inclusion of proofs of Montel's theorem, the Riemann mapping theorem and the Jordan curve theorem that arise naturally from the earlier development. Extensive exercises are included in each of the chapters, detailed solutions of the majority of which are given at the end. From Real to Complex Analysis is aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in mathematics. It offers a sound grounding in analysis; in particular, it gives a solid base in complex analysis from which progress to more advanced topics may be made.
It is a comprehensive and well illustrated textbook on all aspects of tsunami. I don't think there is any other book on the topic published. As one bookseller said after the Indian Ocean tsunami event, "I would have just filled my front window with copies and they would have walked out the store. " This statement was just as relevant after the Japanese tsunami of 2011 and will be as relevant when the next large tsunami event happens, sooner rather than later. The book can be used by a student or layperson to gain encyclopedic knowledge about tsunami.
This book introduces the basic concepts of real and functional analysis. It presents the fundamentals of the calculus of variations, convex analysis, duality, and optimization that are necessary to develop applications to physics and engineering problems. The book includes introductory and advanced concepts in measure and integration, as well as an introduction to Sobolev spaces. The problems presented are nonlinear, with non-convex variational formulation. Notably, the primal global minima may not be attained in some situations, in which cases the solution of the dual problem corresponds to an appropriate weak cluster point of minimizing sequences for the primal one. Indeed, the dual approach more readily facilitates numerical computations for some of the selected models. While intended primarily for applied mathematicians, the text will also be of interest to engineers, physicists, and other researchers in related fields.
This volume explores the use of mass spectrometry for biomedical applications. Chapters focus on specific therapeutic areas such as oncology, infectious disease and psychiatry. Additional chapters focus on methodology as well as new technologies and instrumentation. This volume provides readers with a comprehensive and informative manual that will allow them to appreciate mass spectrometry and proteomic research but also to initiate and improve their own work. Thus the book acts as a technical guide but also a conceptual guide to the newest information in this exciting field. Mass spectrometry is the central tool used in proteomic research today and is rapidly becoming indispensable to the biomedical scientist. With the completion of the human genome project and the genomic revolution, the proteomic revolution has followed closely behind. Understanding the human proteome has become critical to basic and clinical biomedical research and holds the promise of providing comprehensive understanding of human physiological processes. In addition, proteomics and mass spectrometry are bringing unprecedented biomarker discovery and are helping to personalize medicine.
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