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In the heart of Africa, a unique lake attracts the attention of scientists since the beginning of the 20th century. At the foot of the Virunga volcano chain, Lake Kivu harbors a vast amount of dissolved carbon dioxide and methane, making this lake the most dangerous lake on Earth. But the lake furnishes also many goods and services for surrounding populations and may soon become the most important energy supplier in the area. At the beginning of gas exploitation, the time has come for gathering the large amount of scientific information acquired during past and present research on Lake Kivu. The eleven chapters cover many aspects of the physics, geochemistry and biology of the lake, with a particular focus on the unique physical and geochemical features of the water column and on the ecological functioning of the surface waters. The impacts of the introduced fish species and the potential impacts of methane exploitation are also summarized. This multi-disciplinary book may also be used as an introduction to the limnology and biogeochemistry of large tropical lakes, as it covers various aspects of the physics, geochemistry, biology and ecology of the African Great Rift lakes.
The book contains chapters written by leaders in the research on the structure and function of respiratory complex I. It will provide a concise and authoritative summary of the current knowledge on complex I of respiratory chains. This enzyme is central to energy metabolism and is implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in aging. Until recently it was poorly understood on a structural level, and this book will provide a timely reference resource. Such a book was not published previously. The last time a minireview series on complex I were published was in 2001, and since then complex I field changed quite dramatically.
The book focuses on the use of inelastic analysis methods for the seismic assessment and design of bridges, for which the work carried out so far, albeit interesting and useful, is nevertheless clearly less than that for buildings. Although some valuable literature on the subject is currently available, the most advanced inelastic analysis methods that emerged during the last decade are currently found only in the specialised research-oriented literature, such as technical journals and conference proceedings. Hence the key objective of this book is two-fold, first to present all important methods belonging to the aforementioned category in a uniform and sufficient for their understanding and implementation length, and to provide also a critical perspective on them by including selected case-studies wherein more than one methods are applied to a specific bridge and by offering some critical comments on the limitations of the individual methods and on their relative efficiency. The book should be a valuable tool for both researchers and practicing engineers dealing with seismic design and assessment of bridges, by both making the methods and the analytical tools available for their implementation, and by assisting them to select the method that best suits the individual bridge projects that each engineer and/or researcher faces.
Molecular epidemiology has recently broaden its focuses due to the development of molecular tools but also by incorporating advances of other fields such as mathematical epidemiology, molecular ecology, population genetics and evolution. Facing new risks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that are threats for humans and their livestock, the objectives of molecular epidemiology include: - the development of molecular tools, genotyping and gene expression - the incorporation of concepts and results of population genetics of infectious diseases - the integration of recent advances in theoretical epidemiology and evolutionary ecology of diseases - a better understanding of transmission for the development of risk factors analyses. This book will demonstrate how the latest developments in molecular tools and in epidemiology can be integrated with studies of host-pathogen interactions. Besides a strong theoretical component, there will also be an emphasis on applications in the fields of epidemiology, public health, veterinary medicine, and health ecology. Students and researchers in the fields of epidemiology, animal and human health, evolutionary ecology, parasitology are the main potential readers of the book, as well as a broader audience from veterinary medicine and conservation.
This volume - like the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on which it is based - addresses the fundamental science that contributes to our understanding of the potential risks from ecological terrorism, i.e. dirty bombs, atomic explosions, intentional release of radionuclides into water or air. Both effects on human health (DNA and systemic effects) and on ecosystems are detailed, with particular focus on environmentally relevant low-dose ranges. The state-of-the-art contributions to the book are authored by leading experts; they tackle the relevant questions from the perspectives of radiation genetics, radiobiology, radioecology, radiation epidemiology and risk assessment.
Sustainable technologies for water supply are urgently needed if water has to be supplied to billions of less fortunate people with inadequate access to water. These technologies must be simple, less expensive, less energy intensive, and easy to maintain for their adaptation among the poor masses. Four appropriate technologies are discussed here: solar pasteurization, membrane desalination, natural filtration (riverbank filtration), and solar distillation. Solar pasteurization can be a useful means of producing water at remote, but sunny locations where fuel may not be easily available for boiling water. Membrane desalination will remain as a viable means of drinking water production for individual households to large communities. Various membrane filtration techniques as well as the means to "democratize" membrane filtration have been presented. Riverbank filtration is a "natural" filtration technique where drinking water is produced by placing wells on the banks of rivers. The riverbed/bank material and the underlying aquifer act as natural filters to remove pollutants from river water. Solar distillation can be a viable method of drinking water production for individual households to small communities without the input of external energy. Sustainability framework and technology transfer are discussed through transdisciplinary analysis.
Some of the most serious consequences of aging are its effects on skeletal muscle. 'Sarcopenia', the progressive age-related loss of muscle mass and associated muscle weakness, renders frail elders susceptible to serious injury from sudden falls and fractures and at risk for losing their functional independence. Not surprisingly, sarcopenia is a significant public health problem throughout the developed world. There is an urgent need to better understand the neuromuscular mechanisms underlying age-related muscle wasting and to develop therapeutic strategies that can attenuate, prevent, or ultimately reverse sarcopenia. Significant research and development in academic and research institutions and in pharmaceutical companies is being directed to sarcopenia and to related health issues in order to develop and evaluate novel therapeutics. This book provides the latest information on sarcopenia from leading international researchers studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in skeletal muscle and identifies strategies to combat sarcopenia and related muscle wasting conditions and neuromuscular disorders. The book provides a vital resource for researchers and practitioners alike, with information relevant to gerontologists, geriatricians, sports medicine physicians, physiologists, neuroscientists, cell biologists, endocrinologists, physical therapists, allied health and musculoskeletal practitioners, strength and conditioning specialists, athletic trainers, and students of the medical and biomedical sciences.
The human body is exposed to pollution on a daily basis via dermal exposure and inhalation. This book reviews the information necessary to address the steps in exposure assessment relevant to air pollution. The aim is to identify available information including data sources and models, and show that an integrated multi-route exposure model can be built, validated and used as part of an air quality management process. Many epidemiological studies have focused on inhalation exposure. Whilst this is appropriate for many substances, failure to consider the importance of exposure and uptake of material deposited on the skin may lead to an over/underestimation of the risk. Hence dermal exposure is also considered. Drinking water contamination by disinfection by-products is also discussed. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides a comprehensive review of ambient particulate matter and will be of interest to students, researchers and policymakers involved in air quality management, environmental health and related disciplines, as well as environmental consultants and ventilation engineers.
As urbanization continues, and even accelerates, scientists estimate that by 2015 the world will have up to 60 'megacities' - urban areas with more than five million inhabitants. With the irresistible economic attractions of urban centers, particularly in developing countries, making the influx of citizens unstoppable, many of humankind's coming social, economic and political dramas will be played out in megacities. This book shows how geographers and Earth scientists are contributing to a better understanding of megacities. The contributors analyze the impact of socio-economic and political activities on environmental change and vice versa, and identify solutions to the worst problems. They propose ways of improving the management of megacities and achieving a greater degree of sustainability in their development. The goals, of wise use of human and natural resources, risk reduction (both social and environmental) and quality of life enhancement, are agreed upon. But, as this text proves, the means of achieving these ends are varied. Hence, chapters cover an array of topics, from health management in Indian megacities, to planning in New York, to transport solutions for the chronically traffic-choked Bangkok. Authors cover the impact of climate change on megacities, as well as less tangible issues such as socio-political fragmentation in the urban areas of Rio de Janeiro. This exploration of some of the most crucial issues that we face as a species sets out research that is of the utmost importance, with the potential to contribute substantially to global justice and peace - and thereby prosperity.
This book is highly suitable for advanced courses asit introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results ondiverse problems in the environmental wind engineering field. The topics includeindoor natural ventilation, pedestrian wind environment, pollutant dispersion,urban heat island phenomena, urban ventilation, indoor/outdoor thermal comfort,and experimental/numerical techniques to analyze those issues. Winds have a great influence on the outdoorenvironment, especially in urban areas. Problems that they cause can beattributed to either strong wind or weak wind issues. Strong winds aroundhigh-rise buildings can bring about unpleasant, and in some cases dangerous,situations for people in the outdoor environment. On the other hand, weak windconditions can also cause problems such as air pollution and heat islandphenomena in urban areas. Winds enhance urban ventilation and reduce thoseproblems. They also enhance natural ventilation in buildings, which can reducethe energy consumption of mechanical ventilation fans and air conditioners forcooling. Moderate winds improve human thermal comfort in both indoor andoutdoor environments in summer. Environmental wind engineering associated withwind tunnel experiments and numerical analysis can contribute to solutions tothese issues.
This volume is motivated by the desire to explain why Neanderthals were replaced by modern humans, in terms of cultural differences between the two (sub-) species. It provides up-to-date coverage on the theory of cultural evolution as is being used by anthropologists, archaeologists, biologists and psychologists to decipher hominin cultural change and diversity during the Palaeolithic. The contributing authors are directly involved in this effort and the material presented includes novel approaches and findings. Chapters explain how learning strategies in combination with social and demographic factors (e. g. , population size and mobility patterns) predict cultural evolution in a world without the printing press, television or the Internet. Also addressed is the inverse problem of how learning strategies may be inferred from actual trajectories of cultural change, for example as seen in the North American Palaeolithic. Mathematics and statistics, a sometimes necessary part of theory, are explained in elementary terms where they appear, with details relegated to appendices. Full citations of the relevant literature will help the reader to further pursue any topic of interest.
This book reviews recent progress in cortical development research, focusing on the mechanisms of neural stem cell regulation, neuronal diversity and connectivity formation, and neocortical organization. Development of the cerebral cortex, the center for higher brain functions such as cognition, memory, and decision making, is one of the major targets of current research. The cerebral cortex is divided into many areas, including motor, sensory, and visual cortices, each of which consists of six layers containing a variety of neurons with different activities and connections. As this book explains, such diversity in neuronal types and connections is generated at various levels. First, neural stem cells change their competency over time, giving sequential rise to distinct types of neurons and glial cells: initially deep layer neurons, then superficial layer neurons, and lastly astrocytes. The activities and connections of neurons are further modulated via interactions with other brain regions, such as the thalamocortical circuit, and via input from the environment. This book on cortical development is essential reading for students, postdocs, and neurobiologists.
This book describes the developmental history of the vacuum system of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) at the Japan Electron Optics Laboratory (JEOL) from its inception to its use in today's high-technology microscopes. The author and his colleagues were engaged in developing vacuum technology for electron microscopes (JEM series) at JEOL for many years. This volume presents a summary and explanation of their work and the technology that makes possible a clean ultrahigh vacuum. The typical users of the TEM are top-level researchers working at the frontiers of new materials or with new biological specimens. They often use the TEM under extremely severe conditions, with problems sometimes occurring in the vacuum system of the microscopes. JEOL engineers then must work as quickly as possible to improve the vacuum evacuation system so as to prevent the recurrence of such problems. Among the wealth of explanatory material in this book are examples of users' reports of problems in the vacuum system of the JEM, such as the occurrence of a micro-discharge and the back-streaming of the diffusion pump (DP) oil vapor. This work is a valuable resource for researchers who use the transmission electron microscope and for engineers and scientists interested in its technology.
#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER * NOW A STARZ ORIGINAL SERIES This eBook includes the full text of the novel plus the following additional content: * An excerpt from Diana Gabaldon's Dragonfly in Amber, the second novel in the Outlander series * An interview with Diana Gabaldon * An Outlander reader's guideUnrivaled storytelling. Unforgettable characters. Rich historical detail. These are the hallmarks of Diana Gabaldon's work. Her New York Times bestselling Outlander novels have earned the praise of critics and captured the hearts of millions of fans. Here is the story that started it all, introducing two remarkable characters, Claire Beauchamp Randall and Jamie Fraser, in a spellbinding novel of passion and history that combines exhilarating adventure with a love story for the ages. OUTLANDER Scottish Highlands, 1945. Claire Randall, a former British combat nurse, is just back from the war and reunited with her husband on a second honeymoon when she walks through a standing stone in one of the ancient circles that dot the British Isles. Suddenly she is a Sassenach--an "outlander"--in a Scotland torn by war and raiding clans in the year of Our Lord . . . 1743. Claire is catapulted into the intrigues of a world that threatens her life, and may shatter her heart. Marooned amid danger, passion, and violence, Claire learns her only chance of safety lies in Jamie Fraser, a gallant young Scots warrior. What begins in compulsion becomes urgent need, and Claire finds herself torn between two very different men, in two irreconcilable lives. Praise for Diana Gabaldon's Outlander novels "Marvelous and fantastic adventures, romance, sex . . . perfect escape reading."--San Francisco Chronicle, on Outlander "History comes deliciously alive on the page."--New York Daily News, on Outlander "Gabaldon is a born storyteller. . . . The pages practically turn themselves."--The Arizona Republic, on Dragonfly in Amber "Triumphant . . . Her use of historical detail and a truly adult love story confirm Gabaldon as a superior writer."--Publishers Weekly, on Voyager "Unforgettable characters . . . richly embroidered with historical detail."--The Cincinnati Post, on Drums of Autumn "A grand adventure written on a canvas that probes the heart, weighs the soul and measures the human spirit across [centuries]."--CNN, on The Fiery Cross "The large scope of the novel allows Gabaldon to do what she does best, paint in exquisite detail the lives of her characters."--Booklist, on A Breath of Snow and Ashes "Features all the passion and swashbuckling that fans of this historical fantasy series have come to expect."--People, on Written in My Own Heart's Blood
With a Plan for Reducing U.S. Oil DependencyIt's never too late to top your personal best.Now eighty years old, T. Boone Pickens is a legendary figure in the business world. Known as the "Oracle of Oil" because of his uncanny ability to predict the direction of fuel prices, he built Mesa Petroleum, one of the largest independent oil companies in the United States, from a $2,500 investment. In the 1980s, Pickens became a household name when he executed a series of unsolicited buyout bids for undervalued oil companies, in the process reinventing the notion of shareholders' rights. Even his failures were successful in that they forced risk-averse managers to reconsider the way they did business.When Pickens left Mesa at age sixty-eight after a spectacular downward spiral in the company's profits, many counted him out. Indeed, what followed for him was a painful divorce, clinical depression, a temporary inability to predict the movement of energy prices, and the loss of 90 percent of his investing capital. But Pickens was far from out.From that personal and professional nadir, Pickens staged one of the most impressive comebacks in the industry, turning his investment fund's remaining $3 million into $8 billion in profit in just a few years. That made him, at age seventy-seven, the world's second-highest-paid hedge fund manager. But he wasn't done yet. Today, Pickens is making some of the world's most colossal energy bets. If he has his way, most of America's cars will eventually run on natural gas, and vast swaths of the nation's prairie land will become places where wind can be harnessed for power generation. Currently no less bold than he was decades ago when he single-handedly transformed America's oil industry, Pickens is staking billions on the conviction that he knows what's coming. In this book, he spells out that future in detail, not only presenting a comprehensive plan for American energy independence but also providing a fascinating glimpse into key resources such as water--yet another area where he is putting billions on the line.From a businessman who is extraordinarily humble yet is considered one of the world's most visionary, The First Billion Is the Hardest is both a riveting account of a life spent pulling off improbable triumphs and a report back from the front of the global energy and natural-resource wars--of vital interest to anyone who has a stake in America's future.From the Hardcover edition.
Books can be a dangerous business . . . Angel Robinson loves books, loves reading, loves anything to do with the written word. But when Blue Moon Books, the Bay Area bookstore where she has worked since college, is squeezed out of business, Angel is forced to find a new job. She lucks into a position as the assistant to the world-renowned literary agent Lucy Fiamma.Angel soon learns that working for Lucy is no picnic. The agent has a blockbuster ego to match her blockbuster success and Angel must juggle both her boss's prima donna demands and the strange quirks of her authors. But Angel soon becomes indispensible to the agency and develops a keen understanding of big projects and the writers who create them.What she doesn't realize is just how far one of them will go to get published.One day, a chapter from a mysterious manuscript by an anonymous author arrives at the office. Set in a New York literary agency, the novel, titled Blind Submission, centers on the ambitious assistant to a successful literary agent. Angel is pulled in by the plot--but her initial curiosity soon turns to panic. As the story unfolds--with chapters e-mailed in one by one--it becomes clear that the mystery author is writing the story of Angel's own life, including secrets she thought were deeply hidden. Someone is watching her, even plotting against her. Could it be her backstabbing coworker, her jealous boyfriend, or her seductive new client? When the novel's plot turns to murder, Angel knows that if she doesn't discover the author's identity before the final chapter is written, more than just her career will be cut short.From the Hardcover edition.
This thesis presents a systematic study of the orbital evolution, gravitational wave radiation, and merger remnant of the black hole-neutron star binary merger in full general relativity for the first time. Numerical-relativity simulations are performed using an adaptive mesh refinement code, SimulAtor for Compact objects in Relativistic Astrophysics (SACRA), which adopts a wide variety of zero-temperature equations of state for the neutron star matter. Gravitational waves provide us with quantitative information on the neutron star compactness and equation of state via the cutoff frequency in the spectra, if tidal disruption of the neutron star occurs before the binary merges. The cutoff frequency will be observed by next-generation laser interferometric ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO, Advanced VIRGO, and KAGRA. The author has also determined that the mass of remnant disks are sufficient for the remnant black hole accretion disk to become a progenitor of short-hard gamma ray bursts accompanied by tidal disruptions and suggests that overspinning black holes may not be formed after the merger of even an extremely spinning black hole and an irrotational neutron star.
The behavior of chimpanzees is complex and challenging: they can be cheerful, curious, and tolerant while also being capable of cunning, greed, and violence. Until now, there has been no comprehensive glossary with illustrations upon which systematic behavioral comparisons could be based. Combining recent video footage with decades' worth of documented across- and within-population variations in behavior, this volume is the first to compile an extensive ethogram of a single species of mammal. The wild chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains and Gombe National Park, Tanzania, have been observed in particular, as well as those at other long-term fields in equatorial Africa. The book describes all aspects of chimpanzee behavior patterns, from locomotion and posture to feeding, facial expression, gestures, grooming, and vocal communication.
Supply Chain and Logistics in National, International and Governmental Environment: Concepts and Modelsby Hoda Davarzani Reza Zanjirani Farahani Nasrin Asgari
The main concern of this book are national and governmental supply chains, which have rarely been considered by regular publications in related disciplines. Not only are readers provided with useful information about the latest topics in supply chains; the book also helps them to track the history and related cases of each topic. This manuscript has been organized in twelve chapters, so that readers can study each chapter not only dependently but also independently. If someone wants to study the book more in-depth, the suggested sequencing in the preface can be helpful. Generally, the readers of this book can be divided into at least two groups: 1) students studying for a master degree, who can use this book in their courses as a whole, 2) experts who want to learn more about a new topic in logistics and supply chain management; this group may want to read a short chapter about a specific topic in this book.
This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.
This book is a guide to asset and risk management from a practical point of view. It is centered around two questions triggered by the global events on the stock markets since the middle of the last decade: - Why do crashes happen when in theory they should not? - How do investors deal with such crises in terms of their risk measurement and management and as a consequence, what are the implications for the chosen investment strategies? The book presents and discusses two different approaches to finance and investing, i. e. , modern portfolio theory and behavioral finance, and provides an overview of stock market anomalies and historical crashes. It is intended to serve as a comprehensive introduction to asset and risk management for bachelor's and master's students in this field as well as for young professionals in the asset management industry. A key part of this book is the exercises to further demonstrate the concepts presented with examples and a step-by-step business case. An Excel file with the calculations and solutions for all 17 examples as well as all business case calculations can be downloaded at extras. springer. com.
This book provides an introduction to vector optimization with variable ordering structures, i. e. , to optimization problems with a vector-valued objective function where the elements in the objective space are compared based on a variable ordering structure: instead of a partial ordering defined by a convex cone, we see a whole family of convex cones, one attached to each element of the objective space. The book starts by presenting several applications that have recently sparked new interest in these optimization problems, and goes on to discuss fundamentals and important results on a wide range of topics. The theory developed includes various optimality notions, linear and nonlinear scalarization functionals, optimality conditions of Fermat and Lagrange type, existence and duality results. The book closes with a collection of numerical approaches for solving these problems in practice.
The first of a 2-volume feast of children's stories, nursery rhymes and poems. A big, generous collection of the best reading for all ages, full of whole stories (not chopped-up versions).
This volume addresses the similarities and also the differences in the genomes of soil saprophytes, symbionts, and plant pathogens by using examples of fungal species to illustrate particular principles. It analyzes how the specific interactions with the hosts and the influence of the environment may have shaped genome evolution. The relevance of fungal genetic research and biotechnological applications is shown for areas such as plant pathogenesis, biomass degradation, litter decomposition, nitrogen assimilation, antibiotic production, mycoparasitism, energy, ecology, and also for soil fungi turning to human pathogens. In addition to the model organisms Neurospora and Aspergillus, the following species are covered providing a view of pathogens and mutualists: Trichoderma, Fusarium oxysporum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus oryzae, Podospora anserina, Agaricomycetes, Archaeorhizomycetes and Magnaporthaceae. Ecology and potential applications have guided the choice of fungal genes to be studied and it will be fascinating to follow the trends of future sequencing projects.
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