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In recent years, there has been huge interest in developing new methods that offer improved accuracy for the detection of small bowel pathology, and in particular for the assessment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Cross-sectional imaging, such as CT and MR, has advantages over traditional barium fluoroscopic techniques in terms of direct visualization of the bowel wall and improved visualization of extraluminal findings and complications. This means a complete change in the diagnostic approach to the patient with IBD: from analysis of the bowel surface to direct evaluation of parietal alterations and assessment of peri and extraintestinal involvement. The ideal imaging test is reproducible, well tolerated by patients and, above all, free of ionizing radiation. MR enterography, currently performed only in a few reference centers, meets these criteria and offers accurate diagnosis, particularly in respect of the wide spectrum of intra and extraintestinal complications of IBD. This book provides a thorough overview of the indications, techniques, diagnostic advantages and limitations of MR enterography. Particular attention is paid to patient preparation in relation to the particular study type and to the potential advantages of the most up-to-date MR studies in specific cases, e. g. , allergy or renal failure. A separate chapter is devoted to MR of perianal region for the detection and staging of perianal fistula, a common complication in patients with Crohn's disease. Numerous high-quality illustrations are included and help to ensure that the book will be a valuable source of information for every radiologist involved in abdominal MR imaging.
This book brings together recent advances in the area of abiotic stress tolerance in various vegetables, fruit crops, plantation crops and tuber crops. The main challenges to improving the productivity of horticultural crops are the different types of abiotic stresses generally caused by climate change at the regional and global level. Heat, drought, cold and salinity are the major abiotic stresses that adversely affect growth and productivity and can trigger a series of morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes in various horticultural crops. To date, there are no books covering horticultural crop-specific abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms and their management. Addressing that gap, the book is divided into 2 sections, the first of which highlights recent advances in the general aspects of abiotic stress tolerance like the role of hormones, reactive oxygen species, seed treatments, molecular mechanisms of heat tolerance and heavy metal toxicity, while the second focuses on the abiotic stress tolerance mechanisms of various vegetables, fruit crops, plantation crops and tuber crops. It includes comprehensive discussions of fruit crops like mango, grapes, banana, litchi and arid zone fruits; vegetables crops like tomato, capsicum, onion and tuber crops; and plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, oil palm and black pepper. Among the strategies for plant stress survival, examples of both avoidance and tolerance relevant to particular crops are examined in detail, supported by selected comprehensive case studies of progress. As such, the book offers a valuable resource suited for scientists and graduate students working in the fields of crop improvement, genetic engineering, and the abiotic stress tolerance of horticultural crops.
The book introduces the concept of "generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets". It presents the basic properties of these sets and also, investigates an application of generalized interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making with respect to interval of degree of preference. The concept of "interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets" is discussed and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough set based multi criteria group decision making scheme is presented, which refines the primary evaluation of the whole expert group and enables us to select the optimal object in a most reliable manner. The book also details concept of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets of type 2. It presents the basic properties of these sets. The book also introduces the concept of "interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft topological space (IVIFS topological space)" together with intuitionistic fuzzy soft open sets (IVIFS open sets) and intuitionistic fuzzy soft closed sets (IVIFS closed sets).
Japanese Encephalitis (JE), a mosquito borne disease, is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in 14 Asian countries due to its epidemic potential, high case fatality rate and increased possibility of lifelong disability in patients who recover from this dreadful disease. In spite of seriousness of the disease, still only few books are available for ready reference. Hence, this book will be useful for students, entomologists, paramedical staff and vector control managers in public health. The objective of the book is to disseminate the knowledge gained by the author from ecological studies on JE vectors undertaken in 2 endemic and 2 non endemic areas of Northern India over a period of last 15 years (1998-2012) of research in the field of ecology of mosquito vectors of JE virus initially at National Institute of Communicable Diseases (Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India), Delhi and later at Jamia Millia Islamia, a Central University, Delhi, to anyone who wishes to curtail death of children due to this dreaded disease. Of the thousand suspected JE deaths in India annually, more than 75% is contributed by Northern India wherein disease transmission failed to be explained based on entomological evidence due to inadequate mosquito surveillance tool used in determining JE vector density. In order to overcome the above problem, Dr Bina Pani Das, the author of this book, developed "BPD hop cage method", a simple, cost effective, and operationally feasible surveillance tool specially designed to capture predominantly day resting adult Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, the principal JE vector species in the country from land and aquatic vegetation.
This volume comprises eight papers delivered at the RIMS International Conference "Mathematical Challenges in a New Phase of Materials Science", Kyoto, August 4-8, 2014. The contributions address subjects in defect dynamics, negatively curved carbon crystal, topological analysis of di-block copolymers, persistence modules, and fracture dynamics. These papers highlight the strong interaction between mathematics and materials science and also reflect the activity of WPI-AIMR at Tohoku University, in which collaborations between mathematicians and experimentalists are actively ongoing.
This book provides all facets of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) and offers the future targets and directions of AAB research. It summarizes the distinctive physiological properties of AAB and the recent progress on AAB study, especially in the following five areas: 1) Molecular phylogeny and genome study of AAB; 2) Ecological features of AAB: interaction with plants, natural fermentation systems, and insects; 3) Physiological features and living strategies of AAB, including rapid oxidation ability, acid resistance, biofilm formation, and genetic instability; 4) Molecular mechanisms of several oxidative fermentations such as acetate fermentation, sorbose fermentation, and ketogluconate fermentation; 5) Recent biotechnological aspects of AAB: biocatalysts, biosensors, biocellulose, and other useful polysaccharides. AAB research has a long history since the discovery of AAB by Louis Pasteur and the identification of AAB by Martinus Beijerinck in the nineteenth century. In the twentieth century, basic research on the taxonomic study of AAB and on biochemical study for the unique oxidative reactions of AAB had progressed as well as the industrial application of AAB not only in vinegar fermentation but also in the bioconversion process for useful chemical or pharmaceutical products. Entering the twenty-first century, AAB research has expanded more, and further progress is expected to be seen in all fields of AAB: classification and ecology, physiology and biochemistry, genetics, and biotechnology of vinegar fermentation and other oxidative fermentations. Far-reaching development in the last decade makes these bacteria more valuable for various industrial uses. Readers can obtain useful and comprehensive information which is exciting in aspects of basic science and provides hints for the better application of these bacteria to various kinds of practical production scenarios as well.
In this book, recognized anesthesiology experts present the latest findings on anesthesia for electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). With the development of modified electroconvulsive therapy (m-ECT) and devices to provide brief-pulse stimulation, ECT is currently being re-evaluated as an important procedure in psychiatric disorder therapy and is increasingly being used worldwide to treat several psychiatric conditions. This trend is due to the social phenomenon of the growing number of patients for whom ECT is applicable. Since the new approach is more safe and effective than the original method without anesthesia, m-ECT is currently applied under general anesthesia in most advanced countries. This book provides an overview and practice of total anesthesia management in the perioperative period of ECT. It offers an indispensable resource not only for professional anesthesiologists but also healthcare professionals who use this therapy.
In this thesis, the pseudogap and the precursor superconducting state, which are of great importance in clarifying the superconductivity mechanism in high-temperature cuprate superconductors, are investigated with a c-axis optical study in YBa2(Cu1-xZnx)3Oy. Testing was performed over a wide energy range with smaller temperature intervals for several Zn-substituted samples, as well as for several carrier-doping levels. A spectral weight (SW) analysis, in which the pseudogap behavior can be separated from the superconducting condensate with the SW transfer to the high-energy region, revealed that the pseudogap is not the precursor of the superconductivity (carriers moving to the high-energy region with pseudogap opening never contribute to the superconducting condensation). Moreover, the high-energy transfer continues even below Tc for the Zn-substituted samples (in which we weaken the superconductivity), which gives evidence to the coexistence of the pseudogap and the superconducting gap below Tc. On the other hand, the analysis of optical conductivity revealed that a precursor state to superconductivity can be defined at temperatures much higher than Tc. The superconducting carrier density (ns) was calculated for each temperature (above and below Tc) and the results confirmed the existence of ns at temperatures above Tc. The observed real superconducting condensate (ns) above Tc puts a serious constraint on the theory for high- Tc superconductivity. A theory based on an inhomogeneous superconducting state, in which a microscopically phase-separated state in a doped Mott insulator can be observed, is the most plausible candidate. This theory can explain the existence of ns and the observed temperature range for the precursor superconducting state. The results obtained show that the pseudogap coexists with superconductivity below Tc and is not the precursor of superconductivity. On the other hand, it is also possible to define a precursor superconducting state that is different than the pseudogap. The temperature range and the observed superconducting condensate in this state can be explained with the help of the inhomogeneous superconducting state.
This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.
This book presents a broad design purview within the framework of "pre-design, design, and post-design" by focusing on the "motive of design," which implies an underlying reason for the design of a product. The chapters are comprised of papers based on discussions at the "Design Research Leading Workshop" held in Nara, Japan, in 2013. This book encourages readers to enhance and expand their thinking within a widened design perspective.
This book is a rich source of practical guidance on the management of relatively young patients with osteoarthritis of the knee that will assist physicians and allied health professionals in enabling patients to remain active and sustain their quality of life. It provides up-to-date knowledge on the available treatment options, describes the evidence base for each option, and identifies the appropriate timing and indications. The book opens by considering the basic science behind osteoarthritis, which is critical to management. The many nonsurgical treatment modalities are then discussed, with particular focus on the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Subsequent chapters address the role of surgical management, covering both techniques that attempt to preserve and possibly restore the native knee joint, such as meniscal and chondral surgery, arthroscopic debridement, and osteotomy for realignment of the joint, and those that involve joint replacement. The arthroplasty component of the text encompasses all areas of prosthetic resurfacing, including localized resurfacing, unicompartmental replacement, and total knee replacement. The book has been produced in cooperation with ISAKOS and the authors constitute an international faculty who provide a truly global perspective on the subject.
The topics discussed in this book focus on fundamental problems concerning the structural relaxation of amorphous metallic alloys, above all the possibility of studying it on the basis of viscous flow behavior and its relation to rheological anomalies, such as bend stress relaxation, thermal expansion, specific heat, density changes, and crystallization. Most relaxation studies deal with the relaxation changes of a single definite material property, and not with a wider spectrum of physical properties integrated into a common framework. This book shows that it is possible to describe these property changes on the basis of a more comprehensive theoretical understanding of their mechanism.
The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.
This book addresses main issues concerned with the future learning, learning and academic analytics, virtual world and smart user interface, and mobile learning. This book gathers the newest research results of smart learning environments from the aspects of learning, pedagogies, and technologies in learning. It examines the advances in technology development and changes in the field of education that has been affecting and reshaping the learning environment. Then, it proposes that under the changed technological situations, smart learning systems, no matter what platforms (i. e. , personal computers, smart phones, and tablets) they are running at, should be aware of the preferences and needs that their users (i. e. , the learners and teachers) have, be capable of providing their users with the most appropriate services, helps to enhance the users' learning experiences, and to make the learning efficient.
This book aims to capture the current innovation and emerging trends of digital technologies for learning and education in k-12 sector through a number of invited chapters in key research areas. Emerging Patterns of innovative instruction in different context, Learning design for digital natives, Digital learning resources for personalized learning in both formal and informal educational settings, e-leadership and teacher's digital capacity will be covered in the book. This book intends to provide reference for the innovation in K-12 schools. Researchers, policy makers, school administrators and also teachers could benefit from this book on researchers and methods for innovation in K-12 schools all over the world.
The riverfront always drew people to Stillwater. The Ojibwe and Dakota first settled here, later striking a treaty with Europeans, who quickly realized the St. Croix River's potential as an ideal way to move lumber. One of the first to float logs down the river was Captain Stephen Hanks, cousin to Abraham Lincoln. The lumber business gave birth to Minnesota's first millionaire as the city grew, and Stillwater received one of the state's first Carnegie grants for a free public library. Meanwhile, the state prison saw notorious gangster Cole Younger found the Prison Mirror in 1887, now the nation's oldest continuously operated offender newspaper. Authors Holly Day and Sherman Wick celebrate the history and charm of one of Minnesota's finest cities, from the frontier to today.
Founded amidst the bloodshed of the French and Indian War, Pittsburgh is haunted by the ghosts of its gritty and sometimes violent past. Many believe American industrialist Henry Clay Frick still inhabits Clayton, one of the last surviving homes on Millionaires' Row. The spirit of Kate Soffel lingers at the Allegheny County Jail, where she helped plot the escape of the Biddle brothers and fell in love in the process. The Duquesne Incline in 1877 employed teens disguised as ghosts to boost business. However, an authentic sinister entity is said to haunt the nearby Monongahela Incline without compensation. Join the Haunted Pittsburgh team as it explores ghostly encounters in the Steel City.
Dinkytown belies its name with a big history and outsized influence on the culture of Minneapolis. It began as a business district serving the University of Minnesota and became a creative center between the flour milling district and a massive railroad yard. By 1875, Dinkytown was a terminus on the horse-drawn streetcar system. The area transformed into a nexus of culture and counterculture with the growth and expansion of the university. Its burgeoning arts scene launched Bob Dylan and The Fiddler on the Roof, and its student activism spawned the Red Barn protests of 1970. Dr. Bill Huntzicker narrates the enthralling history of one of Minneapolis's most influential neighborhoods.
Marauders like Jesse James and the Younger gang earned Missouri the title of "Outlaw State," but the male desperadoes had nothing on their female counterparts. Belle "Queen of the Bandits" Starr and Cora Hubbard kept Missouri's sensationalist newspapers and dime novelists in business with exploits ranging from horse thefts to bank heists. Missouri native Ma Barker and her murderous sons rose to infamy during the gangster era of the 1930s while Bonnie Parker crisscrossed the state with Clyde Barrow. From savvy burlesque dancers to deadly gold diggers, historian Larry Wood chronicles the titillating stories of ten of the Show-Me State's shadiest ladies.
This book examines the delimited maritime boundaries of Indonesia with its neighbours. It features carefully drawn maps based on the geographical coordinates of the defined maritime boundaries; the reproduction of a complete set of the primary documents with direct relation to the boundaries; and a comprehensive narrative on the geography and the historical development of the archipelagic State. Indonesia has an immense maritime domain that encompasses much of the sea between Australia and the Asian mainland. In addition, Indonesia is itself made up largely of water: in excess of 17,000 islands, Indonesia's archipelagic and territorial waters together form about three-fifths of the country's sovereign territory. This book offers readers clear, accessible information on the maritime boundaries of the world's largest archipelagic state.
Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Technology at Tsinghua University in China; Dr. Xiren Wang is a R&D Engineer at Cadence Design Systems in the USA.
This book examines the concepts of open innovation, crowdsourcing and co-creation from a holistic point of view and analyzes them considering their suitability to the tourism industry. Methods, theories and models are discussed and examined regarding their practical applicability in tourism. The book illustrates the theoretical mechanisms and principles of Open Innovation, Crowdsourcing and Co-creation with case studies and best practices examples. In addition to the scientific target group, the book is a useful resource for managers of the entire tourism industry. First, the book presents the theoretical fundamentals and concepts in 11 specific chapters. This basis is then enriched by three parts with case studies, focusing on information, creation and provision respectively. Finally in a concluding part the editors sum up the book and give an outlook on the implications, learnings and future perspectives of open innovation, crowdsourcing and collaborative consumption in the tourism industry.
Palliative surgery can greatly contribute to improving symptom control and quality of life for terminal cancer patients. Owing to the advanced stage of the disease, however, this type of surgery is also associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important for surgeons to have a sound understanding of the medical and scientific background underlying treatment decisions in palliative surgery, a foundation that this book provides. The opening chapters examine the relationship between palliative medicine and palliative surgery and address general issues including pain management and anesthesiological considerations. The role of palliative surgery in a wide range of disease settings is then thoroughly explored, including detailed information on surgical techniques and their indications and outcomes. This book will be an invaluable resource for all who wish to learn more about the emerging role of palliative surgery.
Research in Natural Language Processing (NLP) has rapidly advanced in recent years, resulting in exciting algorithms for sophisticated processing of text and speech in various languages. Much of this work focuses on English; in this book we address another group of interesting and challenging languages for NLP research: the Semitic languages. The Semitic group of languages includes Arabic (206 million native speakers), Amharic (27 million), Hebrew (7 million), Tigrinya (6. 7 million), Syriac (1 million) and Maltese (419 thousand). Semitic languages exhibit unique morphological processes, challenging syntactic constructions and various other phenomena that are less prevalent in other natural languages. These challenges call for unique solutions, many of which are described in this book. The 13 chapters presented in this book bring together leading scientists from several universities and research institutes worldwide. While this book devotes some attention to cutting-edge algorithms and techniques, its primary purpose is a thorough explication of best practices in the field. Furthermore, every chapter describes how the techniques discussed apply to Semitic languages. The book covers both statistical approaches to NLP, which are dominant across various applications nowadays and the more traditional, rule-based approaches, that were proven useful for several other application domains. We hope that this book will provide a "one-stop-shop'' for all the requisite background and practical advice when building NLP applications for Semitic languages.
Fountas and Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention Green System -- 1st Grade
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