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This book mainly focuses on reducing the high parasitic resistance in the source/drain of germanium nMOSFET. With adopting of the Implantation After Germanide (IAG) technique, P and Sb co-implantation technique and Multiple Implantation and Multiple Annealing (MIMA) technique, the electron Schottky barrier height of NiGe/Ge contact is modulated to 0. 1eV, the thermal stability of NiGe is improved to 600â,,f and the contact resistivity of metal/n-Ge contact is drastically reduced to 3. 8×10--7Ω*cm2, respectively. Besides, a reduced source/drain parasitic resistance is demonstrated in the fabricated Ge nMOSFET. Readers will find useful information about the source/drain engineering technique for high-performance CMOS devices at future technology node.
This book examines in detail the correlation, more precisely the weighted correlation and applications involving rankings. A general application is the evaluation of methods to predict rankings. Others involve rankings representing human preferences to infer user preferences; the use of weighted correlation with microarray data and those in the domain of time series. In this book we present new weighted correlation coefficients and new methods of weighted principal component analysis. We also introduce new methods of dimension reduction and clustering for time series data and describe some theoretical results on the weighted correlation coefficients in separate sections.
This book discusses both the beneficial and harmful aspects of NO in biology and medicine, and also introduces the emerging discovery of artemisinin in antitumor, antibacterial infection, anti-inflammation, and antiaging contexts. In 1992 nitric oxide (NO) was voted "Molecule of the Year" by Science magazine, and the discovery of its physiological roles has led to Nobel Prize-winning work in neuroscience, physiology and immunology. The book explains why we should maintain a steady-state NO level that is derived from neuronal or epithelial NO synthase, and avoid the extremely high NO level resulting from inducible NO synthase. The book offers a valuable resource for medical chemists, clinicians, biologists and all those interested in health and disease.
Stress is such an over-used word that it is at time difficult to define its core features. When is an environment stressful? What does a stressful environment do to the brain and to the body? What are the biological mechanisms by which a stressor affects us? How does stress contributes to the onset and the progression of mental disorders? How do the effects of stress change over the life-time of an individual? These are just some of the overarching questions addressed by this book, thanks to the contribution of some of the world leading experts on the neurobiology of stress at the pre-clinical and clinical levels. Topics include current advances on the neurobiology of stress on various neurobiological systems such as immune, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity, neurotransmitter (glutamate, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and endocannabinoid), neuropeptides, cognition and emotional processing as well as in utero and early postnatal effects. The clinical chapters deal with the relationship of stress and mental disorders such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and addiction, dementia and age-related cognitive decline as well as resilience to stress. Thus, this book brings together some of the most updated and authoritative views on the effects of stress of brain and behavior.
This book reviews the state-of-the-art in combinatorial testing, with particular emphasis on the automatic generation of test data. It describes the most commonly used approaches in this area - including algebraic construction, greedy methods, evolutionary computation, constraint solving and optimization - and explains major algorithms with examples. In addition, the book lists a number of test generation tools, as well as benchmarks and applications. Addressing a multidisciplinary topic, it will be of particular interest to researchers and professionals in the areas of software testing, combinatorics, constraint solving and evolutionary computation.
In recent years, the human values at the heart of the nursing profession seem to have become side-lined by an increased focus on managerialist approaches to health care provision. Nursing's values are in danger of becoming marginalised further precisely because that which nursing does best - providing care and helping individuals through the human trauma of illness - is difficult to measure, and therefore plays little, if any, part in official accounts of outcome measures. Derek Sellman sets out the case for re-establishing the primacy of the virtues that underpin the practice of nursing in order to address the question: what makes a good nurse? He provides those in the caring professions with both a rationale and a practical understanding of the importance that particular character traits, including justice, courage, honesty, trustworthiness and open-mindedness, play in the practice of nursing, and explains why and how nurses should strive to cultivate these virtues, as well as the implications of this for practice. This original and thought-provoking book will be essential reading for nurses and nursing students, care workers, care commissioners, and many others who work in the caring professions.
A collaborative therapeutic approach often proves the best way to assess and meet the needs of children experiencing barriers to learning. This book gives a concise overview of drama and family therapy and describes how both therapies can work together to provide essential pieces of the jigsaw of emotional support for troubled children within an educational setting. Drawing on their own extensive experience, the authors give explanations of the models and techniques of their own specialist therapy, before exploring their joint work and innovative inclusion in a cooperative team of multi-disciplinary professionals. The book discusses the principles and protocols of a Multi Agency Support Team and looks at how the pieces come together in practice. Case studies are provided to illustrate the successful outcomes of this way of working, as well as the challenges it can present. This book will be vital reading for all professionals working alongside children, families and schools, who are interested in addressing the needs of the child on a deeper and more sustainable level.
The decision whether or not to reunify a child in care with their birth family is one of the most serious taken by children's services, and often involves considerable risk. This book examines the long-term consequences of this decision for children who entered public care for abuse or neglect. It compares the experiences and progress of children who remained in care or returned to their birth families up to four years after the decision was taken. It covers how the decision is made, the factors taken into account when making it and provides important suggestions for effective decision-making. It compares the progress made by the children in relation to their safety, stability and emotional well-being. The book demonstrates that, contrary to common belief, long-term care can be a positive option for maltreated children. This book provides important messages for reunification policy and practice in relation to maltreated children. It will be essential reading for social work practitioners, researchers and policy makers.
Fragile X syndrome is one of the main causes of child developmental delay and autism spectrum disorders. A premutated form of the same gene is also the basis for neurological disabilities in adults. This book breaks down the complex science of this genetic disorder and provides the facts and advice that every bewildered parent or professional needs to support individuals with Fragile X syndrome. This handbook offers a straightforward introduction that clearly explains the condition on both a scientific and practical level. With sections on diagnosis, symptoms and treatment, as well as discussions of various emotional and behavioral considerations, the book covers all aspects Fragile X syndrome, its implications, and the possibilities open to families affected by it. The book demonstrates how with the right therapies progress can be made and emphasizes how music can be used effectively to promote communication, interaction, fine motor skills and responsiveness in children with the condition. This is an essential reference tool for families of individuals with Fragile X syndrome, as well as therapists and healthcare professionals who are unfamiliar with the condition and looking to find out more.
In the current times of more frequent crises and ever shortening innovation cycles, the management of change has become a crucial task of survival. While it is not a new topic in business research, the developments of the last decade have posed many new challenges for the change management of firms and organizations and have thus also raised many new questions for academic research in business administration, which the present book turns to deepen. Its particular focus is on disruptive change including its driving forces as well as effective and sustainable management. This publication constitutes a collection of articles that discuss change and innovation processes across different sectors of the economy (industry, banking, and retail), the role of leadership and corporate governance for the effectiveness and sustainability of organizational change.
Growth Mechanisms and Novel Properties of Silicon Nanostructures from Quantum-Mechanical Calculationsby Rui-Qin Zhang
In this volume, Prof. Zhang reviews the systematic theoretical studies in his group on the growth mechanisms and properties of silicon quantum dots, nanotubes and nanowires, including: mechanisms of oxide-assisted growth of silicon nanowires, energetic stability of pristine silicon nanowires and nanotubes, thermal stability of hydrogen terminated silicon nanostructures, size-dependent oxidation of hydrogen terminated silicon nanostructures, excited-state relaxation of hydrogen terminated silicon nanodots, and direct-indirect energy band transitions of silicon nanowires and sheets by surface engineering and straining. He also discusses the potential applications of these findings. This book will mainly benefit those members of the scientific and research community working in nanoscience, surface science, nanomaterials and related fields.
This book presents novel techniques to evaluate electrodialysis processes, to synthesize ionic membranes and to characterize their properties. It shows the potential use of membrane process to the treatment of effluents generated in many industrial sectors such as refineries, leather industries, mining and electroplating processes. The book is based on the results obtained by the author's research group during the past decade. It is useful for students, researchers and engineers interested in membrane technologies for water reuse.
As awareness and diagnosis of Asperger Syndrome (AS) increases across the globe, it is essential that every teacher in every classroom has a familiarity with the condition and understands how best to support AS students at their school. This fully revised and expanded second edition is the ideal resource to point teachers in the right direction. Concise and instantly accessible, this book gives a clear summary of up-to-date information on Asperger Syndrome, describing the common characteristics to look out for, and offering simple strategies for adapting to the educational needs of students with AS. Packed with useful tips and practical advice, this guide answers key questions such as 'Am I qualified to teach this child?' and 'How can I help the pupil with AS to learn?' New material includes information for teaching older children and adolescents with AS, tips on what to do when problems arise, as well as suggestions for a whole-school approach to helping students with AS. This book is the perfect go-to guide for teachers, teaching assistants and those in school management who want to know more about Asperger Syndrome in the mainstream inclusive classroom.
Systemic Constellation Work is a rapidly growing experiential healing process that is being embraced by a variety of helping professionals, both traditional and alternative, worldwide. This book explores the history, principles and methodology of this approach, and offers a detailed comparison with psychodrama - the original mind-body therapy - explaining how each method can enhance the other. Constellation work is based on the notion that people are connected by unseen energetic forces and suggests that the psychological, traumatic and survival experiences of our ancestors are genetically passed forward to the next generation and may live within us. Using insightful case studies from a variety of client groups, this book shows how Systemic Constellation Work can expand the possibilities of psychodrama techniques, and can be successfully integrated with psychodramatic enactment, guided imagery, ritual, concretization and other methods of healing and personal growth. This book will be essential reading for students and practitioners of psychodrama and Constellation work, as well as counselors, mental health professionals, experiential therapists, creative and expressive arts therapists and alternative practitioners looking to widen their knowledge of mind-body therapies.
Speech and language impairments are one of the most challenging features of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Children with ASD are also known to be particularly responsive to music. This book makes a valuable connection between the two traits to showcase music as an effective way of enhancing the speech and language skills of children with ASD. This is a comprehensive guide to Dr. Hayoung Lim's highly effective approach of using music in speech-language training for children ASD. Part I provides a sound theoretical foundation and employs the most up-to-date research, including the author's own extensive study, to validate the use of music in speech and language training for children with ASD. Part II analyzes the clinical implications of "Developmental Speech- Language Training through Music" (DSLM) protocols and explains in detail specific interventions that can be used with the approach. The practical application of DSLM to Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Verbal Behavior (VB) approaches is also explored. This is essential reading for music therapists, speech and language pathologists and other professionals working with children with autism, as well as researchers and academics in the field.
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate significant deficiencies in social interaction and social communication skills, so it is critical to understand and develop interventions which directly address these needs. This book explores the core areas of ASD development and related deficits, and introduces a practical program to assess and remediate these social competency issues. This book addresses the primary issues of social development in children with ASD by emphasizing the underlying theoretical and pragmatic considerations. Dr. Cotugno employs concepts and theories of group therapy and cognitive-development and integrates them with skill-based instructional approaches to develop the comprehensive Social Competence Enhancement Program (SCEP). This peer-based, group-focused program is explained in detail, including a step-by-step guide to its implementation and a full range of tasks and activities that can be used by practitioners at each stage of the process. This book will be a valuable resource for teachers, clinicians and all other professionals working with children with ASD who are interested in using group interventions as a means to improve social competency and treat social skills deficits.
Fostering is vitally important: the majority of looked after children are fostered, yet these children are often left out of the agenda and their voices are not heard. This book sets out a child-centred approach to foster care which argues against thinking about children purely from a psychological perspective and instead places children's views, rights and needs at the centre of care. It sets out the theory behind working in partnership with children who are fostered, and discusses children's views about fostering systems and living with foster carers. The book then outlines how to put the theory into practice, offering models, processes and best practice examples. Practical advice is given on establishing effective communication and good working relationships between practitioners, carers and foster children. This insightful book aims to promote better services and outcomes for fostered children, and will be essential reading for social work practitioners and students.