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This book provides a comprehensive guide to the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC) using a minimally invasive technique: radiofrequency ablation (RFA). RFA has emerged as a new treatment modality and become the main modality of locoregional therapy. Extensive clinical research indicates that RFA is as effective as surgical resection for sHCC, and it has the advantage of being less invasive. However, the outcomes after RFA are largely dependent on the operators' experience- known as the "learning curve". This book presents the characteristics of sHCC and discusses why sHCC is the best candidate for RFA. Then it introduces all the commercially available RFA systems, and their working principles, advantages, disadvantages and so on. It goes on to demonstrate how to perform RFA under the guidance of ultrasound, CT, laparoscopy, or during open operation. Finally, it discusses the radiologic assessment and followup after RFA, as well as adjuvant therapies and clinical trials on RFA. The authors are experts from the fields of pathology, radiology, surgery, and gastroenterology, as well as manufacturers. With this book, readers gain have a clear idea of when and how to do RFA. It aims to standardize and generalize the procedure of RFA, which will be very helpful in improving the outcome of RFA for sHCC.
This book provides an important compilation and synthesis of current work in transition to school research. The book focuses strongly on the theoretical underpinnings of research in transition to school. It outlines key theoretical positions and connects those to the implications for policy and practice, thereby challenging readers to re-conceptualize their understandings, expectations and perceptions of transition to school. The exploration of this range of theoretical perspectives and the application of these to a wide range of research and research contexts makes this book an important and innovative contribution to the scholarship of transition to school research. A substantial part of the book is devoted to detailed examples of transition to school practice. These chapters provide innovative examples of evidence-based practice and contribute in turn, to practice-based evidence. The book is also devoted to considering policy issues and implications related to the transition to school. It records a genuine, collaborative effort to bring together a range of perspectives into a Transition to School Position Statement that will inform ongoing research, practice and policy. The collaborative, research, policy and practice based development of this position statement represents a world-first.
Commissioned by the Intergovernmental Meeting (IGM) of the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research (APN), this book offers a detailed survey of the current status of climate change and climate variability in the Asia-Pacific region, a thorough and thoughtful assessment of climate and security and clear recommendations on the best paths of climate research in the future.
Globalized Water presents a compilation of voices that forms a unique scientific exploration of contemporary water management models and governance issues. The book describes the water paradox--how a local resource has become a global product--and the implications of this in how we identify challenges and make policy in the water sector. Over the last 20 years, the foundations of local and national water systems have been rocked by a wave of changes. The authors in this book, experts in a wide range of disciplines, address the resulting debates and issues: water as a commodity and patrimony, technological rent, liberalization and privatization, the continuing evolution of water management and policy at the European level, decision making and stakeholder participation, conflict and consensus, and the inevitable growth of counterpowers at the local and international levels, promoted by the advocates of sustainable development. The selected case studies are from Europe (primarily France but also Spain, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Portugal), Latin America (Argentina, Bolivia), the United States, Lebanon, and India. From this diverse collection of comparative perspectives and research methods, Globalized Water seeks to advance interdisciplinary research, contributing to a new and dynamic role for social sciences and governance on water.
This book describes a pathway for sustainable phosphorus management via the Global Transdisciplinary Processes for Sustainable Phosphorus Management project (Global TraPs). Global TraPs is a multi-stakeholder forum in which scientists from a variety of disciplines join with key actors in practice to jointly identify critical questions and to articulate what new knowledge, technologies and policy processes are needed to ensure that future phosphorus use is sustainable, improves food security and environmental quality and provides benefits for the poor. The book offers insight into economic scarcity and identifies options to improve efficiency and reduce environmental impacts of anthropogenic phosphorus flows at all stages of the supply and use chain.
Environmental sustainability issues in a fragile, semi-arid region and its coastal area, which experience climate changes from extreme drought conditions to the effects of hurricanes over a period of weeks to years, provide specific challenges for the ecosystems and the populations existing within the region. The research presented focuses on the problems and some solutions specific to the South Texas-Mexico border region, on both sides of the Rio Grande, focusing on water and air pollution.
This volume offers a unique commentary on the diverse ways that educational inquiry is conceived, designed and critiqued. An international team of scholars examines cross-cutting themes of how research in education is conceptualised, characterised, contextualised, legitimated and represented. Contributions include specially commissioned essays, critical commentaries, vignettes, dialogues and cases. Each section discusses the significance of a complex terrain of ideas and critiques that can inform thinking and practice in educational research. The result is a thorough and accessible volume that offers fresh insights into the perspectives and challenges that shape diverse genres of research in education.
Modern industrial agriculture is not sustainable because of its heavy reliance on petroleum, a non-renewable source of the energy used in farming, and because of pollution caused by petroleum products such as fertilizers and pesticides. A systems analysis of farming suggests that agriculture will be more sustainable when services of nature, such as nutrient recycling by soil micro-organisms and natural controls of insects, replace the services now provided by energy from petroleum. Examples are drawn from the Southeastern USA, but lessons learned can be applied worldwide.
"Cereal Genomics" published in 2004 served the purpose of collecting all information on cereal genomics at one place and was well received by the cereal workers through-out the world. The last eight years have witnessed significant advancement in the field of cereal genomics. For instance, high-density genetic maps, physical maps, QTL maps and even draft genome sequence have become available for several cereal species. Furthermore, the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have revolutionized genomics research, so that it is possible now to sequence genomes of hundreds or thousands of accessions of an individual cereal crop. Significant amounts of data generated using these NGS technologies created a demand for computational tools to analyse this massive data. In view of these developments, the Editors realised that there was a need to have an updated volume on the present status and future prospects of cereal genomics. These developments related to technology and the tools have been documented in this volume, thus supplementing our earlier edited volume "Cereal Genomics". "Cereal Genomics II" discusses advances in cereal genomics research made during the last eight years, and presents state-of-art cereal genomics and its utilization involving both basic research such as comparative genomics and functional genomics, and applied research like QTL mapping and molecular breeding.
Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materials science, finally finding a need to be summarized with several chapters in a short book. Device physics and instrumentations of PECCS are well addressed respectively, in the first and second chapters, for the next chapters addressing real applications to organic, oxide, and nanostructured FETs. This book would provide benefits since its contents are not only educational and basic principle-supportive but also applicable and in-house operational.
"Diagnostics in Plant Breeding" is systematically organizing cutting-edge research reviews on the development and application of molecular tools for the prediction of plant performance. Given its significance for mankind and the available research resources, medical sciences are leading the area of molecular diagnostics, where DNA-based risk assessments for various diseases and biomarkers to determine their onset become increasingly available. So far, most research in plant genomics has been directed towards understanding the molecular basis of biological processes or phenotypic traits. From a plant breeding perspective, however, the main interest is in predicting optimal genotypes based on molecular information for more time- and cost-efficient breeding schemes. It is anticipated that progress in plant genomics and in particular sequence technology made recently will shift the focus from "explanatory" to "predictive" in crop science. This book assembles chapters on all areas relevant to development and application of predictive molecular tools in plant breeding by leading authorties in the respective areas.
This book investigates sociological, demographic and geographic aspects of aging in rural and nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. Population aging is one of the most important trends of the 20th and 21st centuries, and it is occurring worldwide, especially in more developed countries such as the United States. Population aging is more rapid in rural than urban areas of the U.S. In 2010, 15 percent of the nonmetropolitan compared to 12 percent of the metropolitan population were 65 years of age and older. By definition rural communities have smaller sized populations, and more limited healthcare, transportation and other aging-relevant services than do urban areas. It is thus especially important to study and understand aging in rural environments. Rural Aging in 21st Century America contributes evidence-based, policy-relevant information on rural aging in the U.S. A primary objective of the book is to improve understanding of what makes the experience of rural aging different from aging in urban areas and to increase understanding of the aged change the nature of rural places. The book addresses unique features of rural aging across economic, racial/ethnic, migration and other structures and patterns, all with a focus on debunking myths about rural aging and to emphasize opportunities and challenges that rural places and older people experience.
The IPCC (2007) warned that the Ganges Brahmaputra Meghna (GBM) basin will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding, and that the region's poverty would reduce its adaptation capacity. This book investigates autonomous adaptation using a multi-method technique comprising PRA and a questionnaire survey applied in the case study area 'Islampur' Upazila in Bangladesh. The study has four key approaches. First, it reviews the flood literature for Bangladesh from 1980 to 2014. Second, it examines farmers' crop adaptation processes in a case study area at Islampur, Bangladesh. Third, it assesses the vulnerability and adaptation (V & A) in response to three extreme flood events (EFEs). Fourth, the book assesses the economic consequences of failure effects of autonomous crop adaptation in response to EFEs. The results show that Bangladeshi farmers are highly resilient to EFEs, but the economic consequences of failure effects of autonomous crop adaptation (FEACA) on marginal farmers are large. The book contributes to current knowledge by filling three important research gaps as follows, 1) farmers' autonomous crop adaptation processes in response to various types of extreme floods; 2) methodological contribution for assessing vulnerability and adaptation through PRA; and 3) the economic consequences of the failure effects of autonomous crop adaptations. "This book provides a good account of 'autonomous adaptation' and its impact on fl ood vulnerable communities in Bangladesh. Anyone wishing to fully understand the impact of climate change should read the book. " Professor Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Laureate, Yunus Centre, Bangladesh
The scope of the book is to give an overview of the history of astroparticle physics, starting with the discovery of cosmic rays (Victor Hess, 1912) and its background (X-ray, radioactivity). The book focusses on the ways in which physics changes in the course of this history. The following changes run parallel, overlap, and/or interact: - Discovery of effects like X-rays, radioactivity, cosmic rays, new particles but also progress through non-discoveries (monopoles) etc. - The change of the description of nature in physics, as consequence of new theoretical questions at the beginning of the 20th century, giving rise to quantum physics, relativity, etc. - The change of experimental methods, cooperations, disciplinary divisions. With regard to the latter change, a main topic of the book is to make the specific multi-diciplinary features of astroparticle physics clear.
NMR spectroscopy has undergone a revolution in recent years with the advent of several new methods overcoming the problems of sensitivity and resolution. Recent developments in biotechnology have made it easier and economical to introduce 13C, 15N and 2H into proteins and nucleic acids. At the same time, there has been an explosion in the number of NMR experiments that utilize such isotope labeled samples. Thus, a combination of isotopic labeling and multidimensional, multinuclear NMR has opened up new avenues for structural studies of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes. This book will focus on recent developments in isotope labeling methods for structural studies of small molecules, peptides, proteins and nucleic acids. The aim of the book is to serve as a compendium of isotope labeling for the biomolecular NMR community providing comprehensive coverage of the existing methods and latest developments along with protocols and practical hints on the various experimental aspects. The book will cover a wide range of topics in isotope labeling under one title including emerging areas of metabolonomics and solid state NMR.
Decision makers in large scale interconnected network systems require simulation models for decision support. The behaviour of these systems is determined by many actors, situated in a dynamic, multi-actor, multi-objective and multi-level environment. How can such systems be modelled and how can the socio-technical complexity be captured? Agent-based modelling is a proven approach to handle this challenge. This book provides a practical introduction to agent-based modelling of socio-technical systems, based on a methodology that has been developed at TU Delft and which has been deployed in a large number of case studies. The book consists of two parts: the first presents the background, theory and methodology as well as practical guidelines and procedures for building models. In the second part this theory is applied to a number of case studies, where for each model the development steps are presented extensively, preparing the reader for creating own models.
The past decade has witnessed an explosion of our knowledge on the structure, coding capacity and evolution of the genomes of the two DNA-containing cell organelles in plants: chloroplasts (plastids) and mitochondria. Comparative genomics analyses have provided new insights into the origin of organelles by endosymbioses and uncovered an enormous evolutionary dynamics of organellar genomes. In addition, they have greatly helped to clarify phylogenetic relationships, especially in algae and early land plants with limited morphological and anatomical diversity. This book, written by leading experts, summarizes our current knowledge about plastid and mitochondrial genomes in all major groups of algae and land plants. It also includes chapters on endosymbioses, plastid and mitochondrial mutants, gene expression profiling and methods for organelle transformation. The book is designed for students and researchers in plant molecular biology, taxonomy, biotechnology and evolutionary biology.
Data-Based Controller Design presents a comprehensive analysis of data-based control design. It brings together the different data-based design methods that have been presented in the literature since the late 1990's. To the best knowledge of the author, these data-based design methods have never been collected in a single text, analyzed in depth or compared to each other, and this severely limits their widespread application. In this book these methods will be presented under a common theoretical framework, which fits also a large family of adaptive control methods: the MRAC (Model Reference Adaptive Control) methods. This common theoretical framework has been developed and presented very recently. The book is primarily intended for PhD students and researchers - senior or junior - in control systems. It should serve as teaching material for data-based and adaptive control courses at the graduate level, as well as for reference material for PhD theses. It should also be useful for advanced engineers willing to apply data-based design. As a matter of fact, the concepts in this book are being used, under the author's supervision, for developing new software products in a automation company. The book will present simulation examples along the text. Practical applications of the concepts and methodologies will be presented in a specific chapter.
The Exploration of Supramolecular Systems and Nanostructures by Photochemical Techniques provides a comprehensive view of the most commonly used photochemical and photophysical techniques and their applications to the study of supramolecular systems. Optical inputs are extremely powerful in the study of nanostructures since they can be used both to "read" the state of the system and to provide it energy to work. After a brief introduction to the realm of photochemistry, electronically excited state formation and the different pathways of excited state deactivation, the book focuses on the theoretical basis and the practical aspects related to the most widely used photophysical and photochemical techniques, from absorption to time-resolved emission techniques with polarized light. Each chapter illustrates an example of the application of that particular technique to the study of a supramolecular system. The Exploration of Supramolecular Systems and Nanostructures by Photochemical Techniques not only discusses the latest advances of the field of supramolecular photochemistry but it also offers technical and operative details useful in the laboratory. It is therefore suitable for both the novice and the expert.
Terahertz (THz) and Mid-Infrared (MIR) radiation (TERA-MIR) can be transmitted through nearly any material without causing biological harm. Novel and rapid methods of detection can be created with devices operation in these spectral ranges allowing scanning for weapons, detecting hidden explosives (including plastic landmines), controlling the quality of food and a host of other exciting applications. This book focuses on mathematical and physical aspects of the field, on unifying these two spectral domains (THz and MIR) with regard to common sources, detectors, materials and applications, and on key interdisciplinary topics. The main THz and MIR source is the quantum cascade laser (QCL). Thus significant attention is paid to the challenge of turning this advanced technology into affordable commercial devices so as to exploit its enormous potential. However other alternatives to THz QCLs are also presented, e.g. sub-terahertz imaging from avalanching GaAs bipolar transistors, Josephson junctions as THz sources, semiconductor materials for pulsed THz sources, superconducting THz electronics with Josephson vortices. In summary this book delivers a global picture of the state of the art in TERA-MIR generation, detection and applications.
This is the second edition of the book "Thermodynamics of Fluids under Flow," which was published in 2000 and has now been corrected, expanded and updated. This is a companion book to our other title Extended irreversible thermodynamics (D. Jou, J. Casas-Vázquez and G. Lebon, Springer, 4th edition 2010), and of the textbook Understanding non-equilibrium thermodynamics (G. Lebon, D. Jou and J. Casas-Vázquez, Springer, 2008. The present book is more specialized than its counterpart, as it focuses its attention on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics of flowing fluids, incorporating non-trivial thermodynamic contributions of the flow, going beyond local equilibrium theories, i.e., including the effects of internal variables and of external forcing due to the flow. Whereas the book's first edition was much more focused on polymer solutions, with brief glimpses into ideal and real gases, the present edition covers a much wider variety of systems, such as: diluted and concentrated polymer solutions, polymer blends, laminar and turbulent superfluids, phonon hydrodynamics and heat transport in nanosystems, nuclear collisions, far-from-equilibrium ideal gases, and molecular solutions. It also deals with a variety of situations, emphasizing the non-equilibrium flow contribution: temperature and entropy in flowing ideal gases, shear-induced effects on phase transitions in real gases and on polymer solutions, stress-induced migration and its application to flow chromatography, Taylor dispersion, anomalous diffusion in flowing systems, the influence of the flow on chemical reactions, and polymer degradation. The new edition is not only broader in scope, but more educational in character, and with more emphasis on applications, in keeping with our times. It provides many examples of how a deeper theoretical understanding may bring new and more efficient applications, forging links between theoretical progress and practical aims. This updated version expands on the trusted content of its predecessor, making it more interesting and useful for a larger audience.
Soil is the Earth's living skin. It provides anchorage for roots, holds water long enough for plants to make use of it and the nutrients that sustain life - otherwise the Earth would be as barren as Mars. It is home to myriad micro-organisms and armies of microscopic animals as well as the familiar earthworm that accomplish biochemical transformations from fixing atmospheric nitrogen to recycling wastes; it receives and process all fresh water, provides the foundations for our built environment; and comprises the biggest global carbon store that we know how to manage. This book is about the best soil in the world - the black earth or chernozem: how it is being degraded by farming and how it may be farmed sustainably. Industrialisation of farming has laid bare contradictions between the unforgiving laws of ecology and economics. Soil organic matter is the fuel that powers soil systems and the cement that holds the soil together - and in place - but agriculture is burning it up faster than it is being formed: even the chernozem cannot long survive this treatment. Here is the evidence for this trend and, based on long-term field experiments, ecological principles for sustainable agriculture that can reverse the trend and, at the same time, feed the world. Unlike other volumes in the series, this is not an edited collection of scientific papers. The authors have chosen the classical monograph to be near to the reader from beginning to end - to convey their anxiety about the state of the land and their optimism about the possibility of retrieving the situation by changing the social and political approach to the land so as to provide the necessary incentives for sustainable land use and management.
We are all consumers. What we consume, how, and how much, has consequences of great moral importance for humans, animals, and the environment. Great challenges lie ahead as we are facing population growth and climate change and reduced availability of fossil fuels. It is often argued that key to meeting those challenges is changing consumption patterns among individual as well as institutions, for instance through reducing meat consumption, switching to organic or fair trade products, boycotting or 'buycotting' certain products, or consuming less overall. There is considerable disagreement regarding how to bring this about, whose responsibility it is, and even whether it is desirable. Is it a question of political initiatives, producer responsibility, the virtues and vices of individual consumers in the developed world, or something else? Many of these issues pose profound intellectual challenges at the intersection of ethics, political philosophy, economics, and several other fields. This publication brings together contributions from scholars in numerous disciplines, including philosophy, law, economics, sociology and animal welfare, who explore the theme of 'the ethics of consumption' from different angles.
Livestock production systems are the result of an interaction between domestic animals and the environment, modulated by man, that dates back to Neolithic times. As a consequence of this interaction among the wide diversity of animal resources, natural habitats and population needs, very different farming systems have developed across the Mediterranean Basin. Understanding the mechanisms and effects of these relationships is key to design the farming systems best adapted to each condition, guaranteeing an adequate balance between target animal production and environmental outcomes provided by these systems. This is indeed a multidimensional topic, influenced by animal genetics, feeding resources, flock management, and economic and social aspects inside and outside the household. Therefore, this book focuses on the basis of the animal-environment interactions and the impact of human activities on the type and magnitude of these interactions. In this context, the issue of sustainability of livestock production is evaluated considering economic, social and environmental aspects. This book contributes to upgrade the state of the art in Mediterranean conditions, providing indicators and procedures of application across a wide range of systems, and hence of interest for researchers, students and professionals concerned with livestock production and the environment.
More than ever, FDL is the place for researchers, developers, industry designers, academia, and EDA tool companies to present and to learn about the latest scientific achievements, practical applications and users experiences in the domain of specification and design languages. FDL covers the modeling and design methods, and their latest supporting tools, for complex embedded systems, systems on chip, and heterogeneous systems. FDL 2009 is the twelfth in a series of events that were held all over Europe, in selected locations renowned for their Universities and Reseach Institutions as well as the importance of their industrial environment in Computer Science and Micro-electronics. In 2009, FDL was organized in the attractive south of France area of Sophia Antipolis. together with the DASIP (Design and Architectures for Signal and Image Processing) Conference and the SAME (Sophia Antipolis MicroElectronics ) Forum. All submitted papers were carefully reviewed to build a program with 27 full and 10 short contributions. From these, the Program Committee selected a shorter list, based on the evaluations of the reviewers, and the originality and relevance of the work that was presented at the Forum. The revised, and sometimes extended versions of these contributions constitute the chapters of this volume. Advances in Design Methods from Modeling Languages for Embedded Systems and SoC's presents extensions to standard specification and description languages, as well as new language-based design techniques and methodologies to solve the challenges raised by mixed signal and multi-processor systems on a chip. It is intended as a reference for researchers and lecturers, as well as a state of the art milestone for designers and CAD developers.
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