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The Physics of Stocks and Flows of Energy Systems

by Hassan Qudrat-Ullah

Using a system dynamics approach, this book illustrates the physics of fundamental accumulation processes (stocks and flows) across the demand and supply sectors of energy systems. Examples of system dynamics simulation models are presented where these accumulation processes are driving the behavior of the system. Based on these modeling efforts, two cases (the socio-economic and environmental implications of the energy policy of Pakistan and the dynamics of green power in Ontario, Canada) are analyzed and discussed. By studying the dynamics of the fundamental structures of an energy system, the reader gains an enhanced understanding of the stocks and flows of complex systems as well as their role in energy policy. This book is of use to managers and practitioners, teachers, researchers, and students of design and assessment of policy making for complex, dynamic energy systems.

Online Brand Communities

by Francisco J. Martínez-López Rafael Anaya-Sánchez Rocio Aguilar-Illescas Sebastián Molinillo

This book presents and analyzes the concept of online brand communities, an emerging and exciting topic in marketing and eCommerce. First, it lays out the foundations like the evolution of the Web and the so-called Social Web, its utility for users and businesses, and the evolution of the marketing mind-set to adapt the Social Web. On this basis, the book then presents a detailed analysis of online brand communities, examining the concept of virtual community with a specific focus on virtual brand communities. In this context the book also explores recent trends related to branding and brand management. Next, it proposes a classification system for online brand communities, taking into account questions like the motivating factors for consumers to join, participate and stay in a community. The process of value creation in communities is examined from both business and consumer perspectives. The book draws to a close with a brief presentation of the process broadly accepted for the successful development of online brand communities.

Point-of-Care Tests for Severe Hemorrhage

by Marco Ranucci Paolo Simioni

This book is a rich source of information on point-of-care (POC) tests for the diagnosis and treatment of severe hemorrhage, including thromboelastography, thromboelastometry, heparin monitoring systems, and platelet function analyzers (Multiplate, PFA-100, VerifyNow, etc. ). The opening chapters focus on the pathophysiology of coagulation and the general characteristics of POC devices. The relevance of POC tests in specific scenarios is then carefully explained, with guidance on their use in contexts including trauma, cardiovascular surgery, ECMO, liver surgery, postpartum hemorrhage, and disorders of hemostasis in the critically ill. An individual chapter is devoted to practical issues when applying POC tests, and the book closes by presenting a set of informative clinical cases. As POC devices gain increasing popularity as bedside diagnostic tools in different clinical settings, it is important for practitioners to understand their role and value. Point-of-Care Tests for Severe Hemorrhage will be a useful and reliable source of information for anesthesiologists, intensivists, cardiologists, and hematologists.

Regulation of Ca2+-ATPases,V-ATPases and F-ATPases

by Sajal Chakraborti Naranjan S. Dhalla

The biological membranes of cellular organization enfold an important group of membrane proteins called the ATPases, which are not only versatile in maintaining chemical gradient and electrical potential across the membrane but also bring metabolites necessary for cell metabolism and drive out toxins, waste products and solutes that otherwise can curb cell functions. ATPases are distributed virtually in all live forms starting from unicellular to multicellular and also in viruses. There are different types of ATPases, which differ in function and structure and in the type of ions they transport. The three main types of the ion pump ATPase family are: (i) P-type ATPases that transport different ions across membranes and Ca2+ATPases belongs to this catagory (ii) F-type ATPase in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes produce ATP using the proton gradient; and (iii) V-type ATPase catalyzes ATP hydrolysis to transport solutes and maintains acidic pH in organelles like lysosomes. Genetic defects in either of the ATPases cause several diseases and a number of researches have demonstrated the involvement of the members of ATPases in the cell pathology and diseases, thereby penetrating exciting new areas of our understanding. In this book, the authors summarize recent knowledge about the molecular mechanisms associated with Ca2+-ATPase, V-ATPase and F-ATPase in intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ transport, mitochondrial ATP synthase, vesicular H+ transport, and lysosomal pH regulation. This book thereby bridges the gap between fundamental research and biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. The book provides an informative resource to improve ATPase research and modern therapeutic approaches toward different life threatening diseases that are associated with dysregulation of the ATPases.

Smart Helicopter Rotors

by Ranjan Ganguli Dipali Thakkar Sathyamangalam Ramanarayanan Viswamurthy

Exploiting the properties of piezoelectric materials to minimize vibration in rotor-blade actuators, this book demonstrates the potential of smart helicopter rotors to achieve the smoothness of ride associated with jet-engined, fixed-wing aircraft. Vibration control is effected using the concepts of trailing-edge flaps and active-twist. The authors' optimization-based approach shows the advantage of multiple trailing-edge flaps and algorithms for full-authority control of dual trailing-edge-flap actuators are presented. Hysteresis nonlinearity in piezoelectric stack actuators is highlighted and compensated by use of another algorithm. The idea of response surfaces provides for optimal placement of trailing-edge flaps. The concept of active twist involves the employment of piezoelectrically induced shear actuation in rotating beams. Shear is then demonstrated for a thin-walled aerofoil-section rotor blade under feedback-control vibration minimization. Active twist is shown to be significant in reducing vibration caused by dynamic stall. The exposition of ideas, materials and algorithms in this monograph is supported by extensive reporting of results from numerical simulations of smart helicopter rotors. This monograph will be a valuable source of reference for researchers and engineers with backgrounds in aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering interested in smart materials and vibration control. Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage the transfer of technology in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. The series offers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of new work in all aspects of industrial control.

Medical and Surgical Complications of Sickle Cell Anemia

by Ahmed Al-Salem

This book is a wide-ranging guide to the diagnosis and management of the numerous medical and surgical complications that may arise in patients with sickle cell anemia. After introductory chapters on the genetics, pathophysiology, clinical features, and variants of sickle cell anemia, the complications observed in different parts of the body are addressed in a series of well-illustrated chapters. The coverage includes splenic, hepatobiliary, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmological, cardio- and cerebrovascular, and renal complications, as well as acute chest syndrome, leg ulcers, hand and foot syndrome, acute appendicitis, and priapism. Treatment-oriented chapters consider perioperative management, blood transfusion therapy, hydroxyurea treatment, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and emerging strategies. The book is clearly written in a distinctive bullet point format for ease of reference and emphasizes especially aspects of practical significance. It will be of value for hematologists, general surgeons, internists, pediatricians, pediatric surgeons, fellows, residents, medical students, and nurses.

Persistent Work-related Technology Use, Recovery and Well-being Processes

by Lenka Ďuranová Sandra Ohly

Theaim of this work is to provide insight into the process of employee recoveryand well-being in regard to work-related ICT use during after-hours. Therefore,we discuss (1) theories that help us to understand the determinants andoutcomes of this behavior, (2) our core concepts recovery and well-being, and(3) previous empirical findings on ICT use after hours for work purposes. Onthe basis of literature review, we propose a new conceptual overall frameworkof ICT use after hours for work purposes with the focus on employee recoveryand well-being processes. Thereby, we posit ICT use after hours for workpurposes as potential stressor, resource, or demand (see action theory byHacker, 1998, 2003; Frese and Zapf 1994), depending on many personal and environmentalfactors, but primarily on cognitive appraisals (see transactional model ofstress by Lazarus and Folkman 1984). This three-way division enables us topropose various linear and non-linear associations to focused outcomes. Weconclude with an overall discussion on further research concerning theidentified research gaps.

Regulation of Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase

by Sajal Chakraborti Naranjan S. Dhalla

Na+-K+ ATPase or Na-pump ATPase, a member of "P"-type ATPase superfamily, is characterized by association of multiple isoforms mainly of it's α- and β- subunits. At present four different α- (α-1,α-2,α-3 and α-4) and three β- (β-1, β-2, and β-3) isoforms have been identified in mammalian cells and their differential expressions are tissue specific. Regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity is an important but a complex process, which involves short-term and long-term mechanisms. Short-term regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase is either mediated by changes in intracellular Na+ concentrations that directly affect the Na+-pump activity or by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation-mediated by some stimulants leading to changes in its expression and transport properties. On the other hand, long-term regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase is mediated by hormones, such as mineralocorticoids and thyroid hormones, which cause changes in the transcription of genes of α- and β- subunits leading to an increased expression in the level of Na+-pump. Several studies have revealed a relatively new type of regulation that involves the association of small, single span membrane proteins with this enzyme. These proteins belong to the FXYD family, the members of which share a common signature sequence encompassing the transmembra ne domain adjacent to the isoform(s) of α-β subunits of Na+-K+ ATPase. Considering the extraordinary importance of Na+-K+ ATPase in cellular function, several internationally established investigators have contributed their articles in the monograph entitled "Regulation of Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase" for inspiring young scientists and graduate students to enrich their knowledge on the enzyme, and we are sure that this book will soon be considered as a comprehensive scientific literature in the area of Na+-K+ ATPase regulation in health and disease.

Difference Equations, Discrete Dynamical Systems and Applications

by Martin Bohner Yiming Ding Ondřej Došlý

These proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Difference Equations and Applications cover the areas of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems, fractal geometry, difference equations and biomedical models, and discrete models in the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering. The conference was held at the Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Hubei, China), under the auspices of the International Society of Difference Equations (ISDE) in July 2014. Its purpose was to bring together renowned researchers working actively in the respective fields, to discuss the latest developments, and to promote international cooperation on the theory and applications of difference equations. This book will appeal to researchers and scientists working in the fields of difference equations, discrete dynamical systems and their applications.

Pharmacovigilance in Psychiatry

by Edoardo Spina Gianluca Trifirò

The first authoritative textbook specifically addressing issues of the field, this book delivers a focused discussion on several themes in psychiatry while providing a sound background on pharmacovigilance. Internationally-recognised researchers, clinicians and pharmacovigilance experts contributed to this textbook, giving it the benefit of different perspectives and years of experience. Pharmacovigilance in psychiatry provides a thorough introduction to this field but goes on to explore advanced themes such as methodologies and resources used for pharmacovigilance in psychiatry, challenges as well as most recent developments to this field, making it suitable for under-graduates, graduate and post-doctoral students and persons working pharmacovigilance who seek to broaden their knowledge on this subject.

Cloud Networking for Big Data

by Deze Zeng Lin Gu Song Guo

This book introduces two basic big data processing paradigms for batch data and streaming data. Representative programming frameworks are also presented, as well as software defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV) technologies as key cloud networking technologies. The authors illustrate that SDN and NFV can be applied to benefit the big data processing by proposing a cloud networking framework. Based on the framework, two case studies examine how to improve the cost efficiency of big data processing. Cloud Networking for Big Data targets professionals and researchers working in big data, networks, wireless communications and information technology. Advanced-level students studying computer science and electrical engineering will also find this book valuable as a study guide.

The 2-tuple Linguistic Model

by Luis Martínez Rosa M. Rodriguez Francisco Herrera

This book examines one of the more common and wide-spread methodologies to deal with uncertainty in real-world decision making problems, the computing with words paradigm, and the fuzzy linguistic approach. The 2-tuple linguistic model is the most popular methodology for computing with words (CWW), because it improves the accuracy of the linguistic computations and keeps the interpretability of the results. The authors provide a thorough review of the specialized literature in CWW and highlight the rapid growth and applicability of the 2-tuple linguistic model. They explore the foundations and methodologies for CWW in complex frameworks and extensions. The book introduces the software FLINTSTONES that provides tools for solving linguistic decision problems based on the 2-tuple linguistic model. Professionals and researchers working in the field of classification or fuzzy sets and systems will find The 2-tuple Linguistic Model: Computing with Words in Decision Making a valuable resource. Undergraduate and postdoctoral students studying computer science and statistics will also find this book a useful study guide.

Prospects of Organic Waste Management and the Significance of Earthworms

by Katheem Kiyasudeen S Mahamad Hakimi Ibrahim Shlrene Quaik Sultan Ahmed Ismail

The main aim of this book is to bridge the gap between aerobic and anaerobic waste treatments by concentrating on studies of earthworms. In particular, vermicomposting is being discussed as well as its properties and applications. Other subjects touch on the treatment of palm oil mill effluents, the various importance of earthworms, its scope and future aspects of earthworm research, and the impact of waste management practices on human health.

Reimagining the Purpose of Schools and Educational Organisations

by Anthony Montgomery Ian Kehoe

This book features a diverse set of perspectives all focused towards questioning the role schools actually play in society and, more importantly, the role they could potentially play. Containing papers presented at the 1st International Conference on Reimagining Schooling which took place in Thessaloniki, Greece, June 2013, bringing together international and multi-disciplinary perspectives on the future of education and schools. Combines diverse specialties analyzing schools as organizations and questions the purpose of schools. The book explores the current purpose of schooling and debates what roles and values young people currently learn from schooling. It examines such issues as the impact of Neoliberalism, the pursuit of the socially just school, and imagining contemporary schools beyond their consumerist mentality. Tackling development in the growing economic and social crisis in Europe, and offering transformative analysis of the psychology and decision-making involved for innovating teaching, learning, socio-economic and policy contexts. In addition, the book shows different ways young people can be creatively involved in reimagining schooling. It also details both innovative and radical ideas that currently exist about school transformation such as building learning partnerships for all and creating synergies across formal and informal settings of learning. Raising important questions for the future of the relationship between teacher and pupil and positive and pro-active behavior. There is a growing realization that schools fail to accommodate diverse types of learning and that their purpose is not simply about education. Featuring academics and practitioners from many different disciplines, this book boldly questions the values that currently permeate school walls and suggests ways that schooling itself can be made better.

The Traditional Ecological Knowledge of the Solega

by Aung Si

This book covers the ethnobiology and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of the Solega people of southern India. Solega TEK is shown to be a complex, inter-related network of detailed observations of natural phenomena, well-reasoned and often highly accurate theorizing, as well as a belief system, derived from cultural norms, regarding the relationships between humans and other species on the one hand, and between non-human species on the other. As language-based studies are strongly biased toward investigations of ethno-taxonomy and nomenclature, the importance of studying TEK in its proper context is discussed as making context and encyclopedic knowledge the objects of study are essential for a proper understanding of TEK.

Education Tools for Entrepreneurship

by Marta Peris-Ortiz Jaime Alonso Gómez Francisco Vélez-Torres Carlos Rueda-Armengot

This book examines education in entrepreneurship through an action-learning environment that uses educational innovation tools. It explores various education tools, technology tools and pedagogical methods being implemented into university curriculums around the world. Entrepreneurship in society is rapidly gaining popularity as entrepreneurial activities aimed to create social value are fundamental in the development of an innovative, sustainable economy. This notion has been encouraging universities to incorporate entrepreneurship-related competencies into the curriculums of almost all subjects. Thus, developing an action-learning environment with educational innovation tools, technology tools and pedagogical methods is becoming increasingly important to universities. Students must be fully prepared to face the many challenges in the world and to help develop an innovative and sustainable economy. Universities should therefore promote active learning through innovation so that students can become active participants in their learning. Featuring contributions and case studies from academics, researchers and practitioners from around the world, the is book provides international perspective into entrepreneurship education and innovation.

Neurobrucellosis

by Mehmet Turgut Fuad Sami Haddad Oreste De Divitiis

This book provides an in-depth review of knowledge of neurobrucellosis, which remains common despite significant improvements in preventive measures, neuroradiological techniques, and treatment methods. The chapters are organized into five sections, the first three of which address cranial and intracranial brucellosis, spinal brucellosis, and brucellosis of the peripheral portions of the nervous system. The fourth section focuses on laboratory studies in neurobrucellosis, and the closing section is devoted to therapy, encompassing both medical approaches and the surgical procedures used to treat the complications associated with brucellosis involving the spine, brain, and peripheral nerves. Despite the impressive efforts to eradicate the disease, brucellosis still poses a great threat in the Mediterranean Basin, where it originated, as well as in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and Africa. Written and edited by leading international authorities in the field, this comprehensive book will be an ideal up-to-date reference for neurosurgeons, neurologists, and specialists in infectious disease who are seeking either basic or more advanced information on the disease and its diagnosis and treatment.

Reviews in Fluorescence 2015

by Chris D Geddes

Reviews in Fluorescence 2015, the eighth volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year’s progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence.<P><P> Reviews in Fluorescence offers an essential reference material for any research lab or company working in the fluorescence field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of fluorescence will find it an invaluable resource.

Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions

by Cristian A Linte Ziv Yaniv Pascal Fallavollita

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions, held in conjunction with MICCAI 2015, in Munich, Germany in October 2015. The 15 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 21 submissions. The objective of the AE-CAI workshop was to attract scientific contributions that offer solutions to the technical problems in the area of augmented and virtual environments for computer-assisted interventions, and to provide a venue for dissemination of papers describing both complete systems and clinical applications.

Clinical Management of Overweight and Obesity

by Paolo Sbraccia Enzo Nisoli Roberto Vettor

These guidelines make recommendations regarding the managementof individuals with a body mass index greater than 25. 0 kg/m2and cover all age groups, from children to the elderly, as well as variouspatient subsets. A range of measures to yield health benefits are set out,including healthy eating plans, increased physical activity, and behavioralmodifications to help patients to manage obesity. In addition, recommendationsare made on the use of bariatric surgery and the new antiobesity drugs. Throughout the process of developing the recommendations, every attempt wasmade to ensure use of a rigorous, evidence-based approach. The guidelinesare promoted by the Italian Society of Obesity (SIO) and were formulated incompliance with a prespecified process overseen by a steering committee. Theyare intended for use by a wide range of clinicians, including generalpractitioners, primary health care nurses, and primary health careprofessionals, and will hopefully prove of value in combating the obesityepidemic not only in Italy but across Europe and elsewhere in the world.

Multilevel Network Analysis for the Social Sciences

by Emmanuel Lazega Tom A.B. Snijders

This volume provides new insights into the functioning of organizational, managerial and market societies. Multilevel analysis and social network analysis are described and the authors show how they can be combined in developing the theory, methods and empirical applications of the social sciences. This book maps out the development of multilevel reasoning and shows how it can explain behavior, through two different ways of contextualizing it. First, by identifying levels of influence on behavior and different aggregations of actors and behavior, and complex interactions between context and behavior. Second, by identifying different levels as truly different systems of agency: such levels of agency can be examined separately and jointly since the link between them is affiliation of members of one level to collective actors at the superior level. It is by combining these approaches that this work offers new insights. New case studies and datasets that explore new avenues of theorizing and new applications of methodology are presented. This book will be useful as a reference work for all social scientists, economists and historians who use network analyses and multilevel statistical analyses. Philosophers interested in the philosophy of science or epistemology will also find this book valuable.

Data Science

by Chengqi Zhang Wei Huang Yong Shi Philip S. Yu Yangyong Zhu Yingjie Tian Peng Zhang Jing He

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of theSecond International Conference on Data Science, ICDS 2015, held in Sydney,Australia, during August 8-9, 2015. The 19 revised full papers and 5 short papers presentedwere carefully reviewed and selected from 31 submissions. The papers focus onthe following topics: mathematical issues in data science; big data issues andapplications; data quality and data preparation; data-driven scientificresearch; evaluation and measurement in data service; big data mining andknowledge management; case study of data science; social impacts of datascience.

Multimodal Retrieval in the Medical Domain

by Henning Müller Oscar Alfonso Jimenez del Toro Allan Hanbury Georg Langs Antonio Foncubierta Rodriguez

This book constitutes the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Multimodal Retrieval in the Medical Domain, MRMD 2015, held in Vienna, Austria, on March 29, 2015. The workshop was held in connection with ECIR 2015. The 14 full papers presented, including one invited paper, a workshop overview and five papers on the VISCERAL Retrieval Benchmark, were carefully reviewed and selected from 18 submissions. The papers focus on the following topics: importance of data other than text for information retrieval; semantic data analysis; scalability approaches towards big data sets.

Languages, Design Methods, and Tools for Electronic System Design

by Frank Oppenheimer Julio Luis Medina Pasaje

This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the seventeenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on October 14-16, 2014, in Munich, Germany. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.

Physical Models of Cell Motility

by Igor S. Aranson

This book surveys the most recent advances in physics-inspired cell movement models. This synergetic, cross-disciplinary effort to increase the fidelity of computational algorithms will lead to a better understanding of the complex biomechanics of cell movement, and stimulate progress in research on related active matter systems, from suspensions of bacteria and synthetic swimmers to cell tissues and cytoskeleton. Cell motility and collective motion are among the most important themes in biology and statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems, and crucial for morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response in eukaryotic organisms. It is also relevant for the development of effective treatment strategies for diseases such as cancer, and for the design of bioactive surfaces for cell sorting and manipulation. Substrate-based cell motility is, however, a very complex process as regulatory pathways and physical force generation mechanisms are intertwined. To understand the interplay between adhesion, force generation and motility, an abundance of computational models have been proposed in recent years, from finite element to immerse interface methods and phase field approaches. This book is primarily written for physicists, mathematical biologists and biomedical engineers working in this rapidly expanding field, and ca n serve as supplementary reading for advanced graduate courses in biophysics and mathematical biology. The e-book incorporates experimental and computer animations illustrating various aspects of cell movement.

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